Lit Crit: Philosophy/Doctrines
Terms in this set (42)
Doctrine derived from or to reflect the qualities of ancient Greek and Roman culture, emphasizing reason, a sense of form unity, simplicity, balance, self-control, intellectualism, decorum, maturity, and good sense.
The idealistic doctrines of Plato, concerned with aspirations of the human spirit and tendency to exalt mind over matter.
A philosophical system that originated in Alexandria in the third century, with elements of Platonism mixed with Oriental beliefs and with some aspects of Christianity; it's leading representative was Plotinus.
A doctrine that pleasure is the chief good of human beings.
Philosophy similar to that of Greek Epicurus, who saw philosophy as the art of making life happy, with pain and emotional disturbance as the greatest enemy and pleasure as the highest goal (an Epicurean seeks not wine, women, and song but serenity of spirit).
Group of Greek philosophers founded by Zeno late in the fourth century B.C.
Philosophy of the stoics which exalts endurance and self-sufficiency as well as conformity to the laws of nature.
The spirit prevailing in the literary and scientific work of Hellenistic writers flourishing in Alexandria for about three centuries after 325 B.C.
The Greek spirit which manifests itself in the celebration of the intellect and beauty.
A philosophy of love and a code of lovemaking that flourished in chivalric times.
A doctrine of the 12th and 14th centuries that concepts, general terms, and universals have no objective referents but exist only as names.
Any attitude that tends to exalt the human elements, as opposed to the supernatural, divine elements-- or as opposed to the grosser, animal elements.
A devotion to those studies was supposed to promote human culture most effectively, especially those dealing with life, thought, language, and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. It is the term used to designate the revival of classical culture that accompanied the Renaissance.
Between 1910 and 1930 this was a protest against the philosophies and psychologies of "our professedly scientific time."
The study or philosophy of the beautiful in nature, art, and literature.
A 19th-century literary movement that rested on the credo of "ART FOR ART'S SAKE".
Oscar Wilde was a proponent who insisted on separation of art and morality.
Art For Art's Sake
The doctrine that art is its own excuse for being, that its values are aesthetic and not normal, political, or social.
Embraces related systems of though that rely on reason rather than sense-perception, revelation, tradition, or authority.
Sometimes called "Benthamism" for Jeremy Benthan, who believed that the test of ethical concerns was their usefulness to society and who defined utility as "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."
Same as Utilitarianism.
The 19th-century belief that society has an innate tendency toward improvement and that that tendency can be furthered by conscious human effort.
Reliance on tuition and the conscience, a form of idealism.
In the mid 1800s it dominated New England philosophy of authors who met to discuss the "new thought." They agreed that within the nature of human beings there was something that transcended human experience-- an intuitive and personal revelation. The movement informally sponsored two important activities: The publication of "The Dial" (1840-1844) and Brook Farm.
The denial of the validity of principles that are everlasting, ubiquitous, changeless, and absolute so any artifact or convention has meaning only in a way relative to its immediate cultural context.
A philosophical doctrine that questions or denies the ability of the intellect to comprehend the true nature of things.
Pragmatism and Positivism are systems that represent a basic anti-intellectualism.
A doctrine that determines value through the test of consequences or utility. The pragmatist insists that no questions are significant unless the results of answering them have practical consequences.
A philosophy that denies validity to speculation or metaphysical questions, maintaining that the proper goal of knowledge is the description and not the explanation of phenomena.
A philosophical movement that primarily emphasizes empirical sensory observation as the means of evaluating claims about matter of fact.
A comprehensive notion that includes generalities pertaining to formal and informal thought, philosophy, cultural presuppositions, and the realms studied by social science.
The American Dream
A fixture of American life and thought for many decades , the sort of success made possible in the U.S., including freedom, success, wealth, and fulfillment.
Emphasizes existence rather than essence; sees the inadequacy of human reason to explain the enigma of the universe.
Existence precedes essence; the significant fact is that we and things in general exist, but these things have no meaning for us except as we can create meaning through acting upon them. "I'll think; therefore, I exist."
Stresses the reality or value of the object world, the need for some sort of objectivity, or the importance of the status of an artwork as a physical object.
Something expressive in a personal manner of inward convictions, beliefs, dreams, or ideals.
The drawing of rules of practice not from theory but from experience.
Recognizes the possibility of the coexistence of antithetical or complementary principles. In monistic schemes, mind is reducible to matter, or matter is reducible to mind; in dualism, mind and matter both exist.
The doctrine that primitive people peoples, because they had remained closer to nature and had been less subject to the influences of society, were nobler than civilized peoples.
The idea that primitive human beings are naturally good and that whatever evil they develop is the product of the corrupting action of civilization.
The attitude that subordinates all other ideals to those of obedient conduct and ethical purpose; opposed to the Hellenistic conception of life that subordinates everything to the intellect.
The belief that all ostensible acts of the will are actually the result of causes that determine them.
Analogism vs Anomalism
A philosophical debate, that has to do with the question of the genesis and operation of language.
Contemporary criticism which finds reality in the physical realm of awareness, to which it applies exhaustive analysis and description.
An adjective applied to one whose attitude is controlled by preconception and who disregards other points view as well as practical considerations; usually theoretical, dogmatic, narrow, and one-sided.
In a state of nature, humankind survives by directly struggling with the environment; in time, the elements of that struggle- practices, habits, customs, beliefs, tradition- become institutions, the body of which is known as ----.
The phenomenon of what people really but unofficially do and say; also academic study thereof.
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