Period 3 Key Concept 3.1 Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks

Terms in this set (30)

Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly-active trade networks.

Trade was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization (Caravanserai, Camel saddles);
o 1) The period witnessed technological advances like invention of saddles for camels and new breeding techniques of animals greatly increased trade across Eurasia. Saddles allowed the animal to be loaded with much cargo. Caravan routes crossing central Asia underwent significant changes during this era due to the invention of camel saddles. Both the Arabs and the Berber tribes of North Africa who used camels for transportation across Eurasia and Trans- Shaharan. As the caravan routes became standardized, these nomadic people settled at frequent stopping points at the oasis to offer services to merchants. For a fee, they served as local guides or provided food, water and rest. This practice led to the development of fortified inns for weary travelers called caravanserai.
As trade connected Eurasia interbreed of animals particularly camels - the llama and alpaca (a relative of camels) and the Dromedary camel that emerged in North Africa and Arabia, led to the hybrid with more stamina, a longer life animals. Thus a complex practice of animal husbandry had to be maintained to meet the needs of increased land trade
Invention of saddles for camels and new breeding techniques of animals
o interbreed of animals particularly camels - the llama and alpaca (a relative of camels) and the Dromedary camel that emerged in North Africa and Arabia, led to the hybrid with more stamina, a longer life animals.
o Both the Arabs and the Berber tribes of North Africa who used camels for transportation.
o Practice led to the development of fortified inns for weary travelers called caravanserai.

o 2) On maritime travel, the development of the compass and astrolabe (an instrument used to calculating latitude) gave travelers better sailing abilities and confidence to make longer routes. Naval technologies- multiple masts, larger sails, better rudders, and thicker hulls all gave the ships more sailing power and greater storage. For example Chinese junks were among the best ships in the world and allowed the Chinese to be the dominant force in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula. All of these advancements increased participation, facilitated navigation, and removed some of the risks of maritime trade.
o the development of the compass and astrolabe
o Naval technologies- multiple masts, larger sails, better rudders, thicker hulls, Chinese junk

Governmental policies also played a major role in the expansion of the trade networks.
1) The rise of the Islamic Empire revitalize trade along the Silk Roads, Trans Saharan networks, and Indian Ocean trade
• Sharia law, which gave protection to merchants, was established across the Dar al-Islam.
• Courts and Islamic jurists called qadis presided over legal and trade disputes.

2) The emergence of the Mongols and the Pax Mongolica promoted the peak of the of Silk Road trade.
• The Mongol code of law, known as the Yassa, imposed strict punishments on those disturbing trade
• Merchants were more likely to experience safe travel

3) Chinese Emperors undertook on massive engineering projects to increase trade. One of the most important examples of this was the Grand Canal built during the Sui Dynasty. Overall, the Grand Canal allowed for the economic unification of China. Other initiatives of the Chinese Emperors to promote trade of luxury goods

• During China's Tang Dynasty the government standardized the production of porcelain which led to higher quality work and increased quantities.

• During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the state directly oversaw the production of silk


4) After western Europeans got a taste of Asian luxury goods during the Crusades, a vibrant Mediterranean trade began to flourish again.
• Individual Italian city-states took the initiative managing the Mediterranean routes in the post-classical era. The most important of these city-states was Venice, which came to dominate the trade in luxury goods in the 14th century
• On the northern shore of Western Europe a more organized alliance of commercial cities formed called the Hanseatic League.
o It included cities from London to Novgorod Russia, and many in between along the North and Baltic Seas.
o The League was established to protect trade between member cities.
o It had its own court system to settle disputes and could summon military force to protect any of its members.
o Northern European trade focused on furs from Russia, timbers from Sweden and Norway needed for ship building, and fish pulled from the waters of the North Sea.

5) Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices.
o China devised a relatively safe method to make large payments across a vast distance. Special documents, called "flying money," allowed merchants to pay for goods or taxes without having to transport coins in bulk.
o From Arabs, the practice spread to Western Europe where Italian merchants advanced this method into bills of exchange. Merchants used bills of exchange to purchase imported goods without the hazards of carrying an expensive medium of exchange
o Banking house emerge where merchants would place his wealth in the safe keeping. Banking house would in turn issue a bill of credit that could be used to purchase goods

Merchants exploded in population size and they set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture. Merchants' diasporic communities included-
o (Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region,
o Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia,
o Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia,
o Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean Basin, or along the silk roads)
For Example in Cambodia, Vietnam, the Malay peninsula and Java, Chinese diaspora communities connected Mongol trade routes to foreign trading ports of the Indian Ocean network.
Another Example-. EX-Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region introduced the local with the ideas and rituals of Islam. Trading contacts prepared the way for conversion into Islam.
o Nomadic groups sometimes became merchants themselves, due to their mobile cultural and familiarity with the routes. As the caravan routes became standardized, these nomadic people settled at frequent stopping points at the oasis to offer services to merchants. For a fee, they served as local guides or provided food, water and rest. They also provide services like exchange animals to either obtain fresh, healthy, and rested animals or trade in one type of animal for another more suitable for the next stage of the journey. This practice led to the development of fortified inns for weary travelers called caravanserai. These rest stop soon developed into large thriving business centers. For Example- the Berbers and Arabs organize regular caravan crossings of the Sahara Desert. Using camels and taking advantage of oasis stops, Berbers and Arabs created a systematic network for caravans across the Sahara.

o Pastoral groups, unable to remain isolated, became organized and run by larger trade groups as a part of the empires. One example is the Mongols, as after they unified their tribes in the 1200s and built a vast empire, they facilitated trade along the Silk Road.

o Pastoral and Nomadic groups were important factors in these trade networks because the contributed to the volume of trade and were traders and well as consumers. One example is the Mongols, as after they unified their tribes in the 1200s and built a vast empire, they facilitated trade along the Silk Road. The Arabs also facilitated trade along their major trade networks as well (Silk Road, Indian Ocean)
Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China.
GOVERNMENT introduce new commercial practices to encourage trade
o China devised a relatively safe method to make large payments across a vast distance. Special documents, called "flying money," allowed merchants to pay for goods or taxes without having to transport coins in bulk.
o From Arabs, the practice spread to Western Europe where Italian merchants advanced this method into bills of exchange. Merchants used bills of exchange to purchase imported goods without the hazards of carrying an expensive medium of exchange
o Banking house emerge where merchants would place his wealth in the safe keeping. Banking house would in turn issue a bill of credit that could be used to purchase goods
o Paper currency first developed in the Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century. The usage of paper currency later spread throughout the Mongol Empire. European explorers like Marco Polo introduced the concept in Europe during the 13th century.
TRADING ORGANIZATIONS (Hanseatic League)
• As opposed to eastern Eurasia, where reorganized central states managed trade and commerce, Western Europe a more organized alliance of commercial cities formed called the Hanseatic League.
o It included cities from London to Novgorod Russia, and many in between along the North and Baltic Seas.
o The League was established to protect trade between member cities.
o It had its own court system to settle disputes and could summon military force to protect any of its members.
o Northern European trade focused on furs from Russia, timbers from Sweden and Norway needed for ship building, and fish pulled from the waters of the North
GOVERNMENT COMMERCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
o Chinese Emperors undertook on massive engineering projects to increase trade. One of the most important examples of this was the Grand Canal built during the Sui Dynasty. Overall, the Grand Canal allowed for the economic unification of China
o For Example the expansion of trade in the Grand Canal led to the establishment of the city of Hangzhou. It was a departure point for Chinese goods to Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean trade network
The expansion of existing empires (China, Byzantine Empire, Caliphates) as well as new empires (Mongols) facilitated trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies and trade networks.

The trans-Eurasian trade ran from the Northwest in Germany and Britain to the Southeast and the Mediterranean Sea, where it connect to Africa below, the Silk Road to the East, and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. Smaller roads branched off in all directions.

Contacts among societies in the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and Asia increased significantly between 600 and 1450 CE, and Africa and Europe became much more important links in the long-distance trade networks

Europeans were first brought into the trade loop through cities like Venice and Genoa on the Mediterranean, and
The Trans-Saharan trade became more vigorous as major civilizations developed south of the Saharan. Two major sea-trading routes - those of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean - linked the newly created Muslim Empire together, and Arabic sailors come to dominate the trade.
Muslims also were active in the Silk Road trade to India and China. Cities along the trade routes became cosmopolitan mixtures of many religions and customs.
The rise of the Islamic Empire revitalize trade along the Silk Roads, Trans Saharan networks, and Indian Ocean trade and also made connection between these networks forming the Trans-Eurasian trade
The rise of the Islamic Abbasid Caliphate would invigorate trade along the Silk Roads in Central Asia.

During the Umayyad Caliphate Islam came to North Africa and reinvigorated trade. Caravan crossings of the Sahara desert increased the trade in gold, salt, ivory and slaves. Along these same routes, Islam spread to sub-Saharan portions of West Africa. Thus bringing the Sub-Saharan region into Afro-Eurasian networks. Seeking furs from northern Europe, Muslim merchants traveled to Russia and Scandinavia with silk and metal wares. The nature of the Indian Ocean trade it perfect for carrying bulk items such as spices, and Islam diffused to the Africa's Swahili Coast. In South East Asia, the port city of Malacca became an Islamic Sultanate around the year 1400
• Sharia law, which gave protection to merchants, was established across the Dar al-Islam.

The emergence of the Mongols and the Pax Mongolica promoted the peak of the of Silk Road trade.
• The Mongol code of law, known as the Yassa, imposed strict punishments on those disturbing trade
• Merchants were more likely to experience safe travel
Like the Silk Road trade, this network declined when Rome weakened. However, the rapid spread of Islam across North Africa and the continuation of Roman civilization in the Byzantine Empire would revive trade in the post-classical age.
o Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, became an important hub of trade owing to its location between Europe and Asia. A major portion of the Silk Roads ended on the Black Sea, where goods would be loaded onto ships and carried through the Bosporus into the Mediterranean.
o Another group of people pulled into the orbit of Byzantine trade was the state of Kievan Rus, or Russia. Kiev was an important mid- point on the north/south trade routes connecting Constantinople to the fur traders of Novgorod and Scandinavia.

The Chinese conquests into central Asia under the Tang Dynasty reopened the silk routes to the west and intensified international contacts with the Buddhist centers in nomadic land in central Asia as well as with the Islamic worlds in the west.

By late Tang and Song times, Chinese merchants and sailors went directly to foreign ports; Chinese junks were among the best ships in the world and allowed the Chinese to be the dominant force in the Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula. Thus further extended the trade route in the Indian Ocean.
Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing or the creation of new networks of trade and communication.
A. Islam from Arabia expands into Afro-Eurasia due to military, merchants & missionaries.
• Islam, based on the revelations of the prophet Muhammad, developed in the Arabian Peninsula. The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples. Muslim rule expanded to Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and later activities of merchants and missionaries.
B. Merchants introduced their culture into indigenous areas.
• Merchants set up diasporic communities in key places where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture. Ex: Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region, Chinese merchant communities in SE Asia, Jewish communities in the Medeterrrian Indian Ocean Basin, or along the silk roads)where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.
C. Extent/limitations of inter-cultural knowledge & understanding reflected in travelers' writings
• The writings of certain interregional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding. Ex: Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Xuanzang
D. Diffusion of literary, artistic, & cultural traditions
• Ex: Neoconfucianism & Buddhism in East Asia, Hinduism & Buddhism in SE Asia, Islam in S-S Africa & SE Asia, Toltec/Mexica & Inca traditions in Mesoamerica & Andes
E. Diffusion of scientific & technological traditions
• Ex: Influence of Greek & Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars; the return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia; Spread of printing & gunpowder technology from East Asia Islamic empires & W. Europe
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