AP World History Unit 3 (600-1450 CE) Review Packet: Key Vocab & Key Dates
Terms in this set (50)
brought agriculture to the southern half of Africa; led to creation of Zimbabwe and the Zulu Kingdom; evidence in similarity of Central and South African LANGUAGE families
-no explanation of the bodhisattva's mental pathway to Enlightenment
-2 truths: conventional/superficial true phenomena & deepest/ultimate true phenomena
-4 immeasurable attitudes are emphasized as a way to overcome their opposite attitudes (EX: love overcomes hate)
-polytheistic; 1 Supreme Reality (Brahman) manifested through several deities -live according to one's dharma (life role/purpose) -reincarnation based on karma -involved a rigid caste system called varna
Laws of Manu
-one of the 1st Asian moral/religious legal codes -basis for inter-caste relations in the Hindu varna
-bodhisattvas must experience 10 levels of Perfection before reaching Enlightenment
-anyone can become a Buddha
-emphasis on how others experience the 4 immeasurable attitudes, not how oneself does
-holy Mesoamerican city ("birthplace of the gods") -cultural/artistic influence: large temples and pyramids dedicated to the sun, moon, & various deities
a form of Islamic government led by a caliph —a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community; the prophet Muhammad's death resulted in the Sunni Shi'a Muslim split
global community of Christians; roots in Rome/ Byzantine Empire --> Great East-West Schism --> the Crusades --> Reformation
Civil service examination
aspiring government officials studied Neoconfucian principles and tested into higher positions; opportunity for upward mobility in Imperial China
castrated men who were therefore trusted to guard harems in Muslim courts
-ancient Roman Empire--> Byzantine Empire -emphasis on Incarnation -"evil" is the estrangement from God, who is life... thus death is evil -God isn't wrathful
-monotheistic; Allah, the sole creator, revealed truths through the prophet Muhammad -5 pillars (tenets followers should adhere to); Sunnis believe caliphs are Muhammad's rightful successors while Shi'ites believe succession depends on Muhammad's bloodline
Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion meaning the act of "striving, applying oneself, struggling, persevering". A person engaged in this is called a mujahid, the plural of which is mujahideen.
political philosophy holding that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively based on ability and talent. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field
the prophet of Islam. From a secular historical perspective he was a religious, political, and social reformer who founded the religion of Islam. From an Islamic perspective, he was God's Messenger sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all branches of Islam
Muslim holy text
authority of the bishop of Rome, the pope, and is led by him and bishops who are held to be, through ordination, successors of Peter and the apostles
moral and religious law derived from Islamic prophecy
believe Muhammad appointed Ali as his successor
-formal state religion of Japan that was first used in the 6th century C.E., although the roots of the religion go back to at least the 6th century B.C.E. -no founder, no official sacred texts, and no formalized system of doctrine
-belief in kami (sacred or divine beings) found in nature; encouraged coexistence with nature and with other peoples/religions
believe Muhammad did not actually appoint a successor
-combined elements of the Qin/Han blueprint with a model of governance that spread east; equal-field system (efficient taxation)
-patronized Buddhism + chakravartin
a body of Muslim scholars recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology; includes the village mullahs and imams on the lowest rungs of the ladder of Islamic scholarship
Nordic seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central and eastern Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries
temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world; was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, gradually transforming into a Buddhist temple towards the end of the 12th century
-pre-Columbian Native American city
- supported a rich variety of art and cultural activities (EX: game involving sticks/spears and a stone disc)
a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period, especially the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of recovering the Holy Land from Islamic rule
this was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since about 206 BC), and later adopted for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese during the 11th century. The use of a compass is recorded in Western Europe and in Persia around the early 13th century.
various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210-1526). It was founded after Muhammad of Ghor defeated Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192.
"peoples of the Book" in predominantly Muslim societies were safe from persecution but still had to pay a non-Muslim tax
a lateen-rigged ship with one or two masts, used in the Indian Ocean.
combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries; a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labor.
sought to govern rather than to exploit and devastate the vast domains bequeathed to him by two generations of Mongol conquests; made the transition from a nomadic conqueror from the steppes to effective ruler of a sedentary society; consolidated Mongol rule; his reign witnessed the Mongols' most remarkable military success, the subjugation of the Southern Sung dynasty of China, and simultaneously their greatest military fiascos, the failed naval expeditions against Japan and Java
the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into Siberia, eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Indochina, and the Iranian plateau, and westwards as far as the Levant and Arabia.
-monarchs or princely rulers in South and Southeast Asia
inner mystical dimension of Islam;congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a Mawla who maintains a direct chain of teachers back to the Prophet Muhammad
devastating wave of Bubonic Plague that decimated European populations during medieval times, spread by rats on trade ships and Mongolian biological warfare
a line of hereditary rulers of a country;a succession of people from the same family who play a prominent role in business, politics, or another field
English peasant's revolts
took place during the middle of the Hundred Years' war; poor were oppressed by the powerful rich in a feudalist system
a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition
a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church (esp. in Pope Gregory IX's France) whose aim was to combat heresy (Protestantism)
title given to rulers and officials in central Asia, Afghanistan, and certain other Muslim countries
a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one individual reigning until death or abdication
Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages. They were initially of Arab and Berber descent, though the term later covered people of mixed ancestry and Iberian Christian converts to Islam.
. After 1354, they crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. They ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror; dominated Mediterranean trade
Red Turban Movement
an uprising influenced by the peasant White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Yuan dynasty of China, eventually leading to its overthrow
title of the former monarch of Iran
monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of South Asia (subcontinental India) during the 15th century; Hindu influence
large palace in Istanbul, Turkey, that was one of the major residences of the Ottoman sultans for almost 400 years of their 624-year reign.
Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty, working with the Yongle emperor