Archaeologists link the emergence of image making to the arrival of __________.
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
Representational images began appearing in Australia, Africa, and Europe beginning approximately __________ years ago.
The Woman from Brassempouy captures the true essence of a head, also called the __________ __________.
The earliest known prehistoric cave painting site was discovered in 1994 and is called __________.
Small-scale female sculptures from the Upper Paleolithic period were once called __________figures, which implied a religious association, although this has not yet been proven.
Walls of woven branches that were covered with mud or clay, or ______ and______ was a common building technique used in central Europe during the Neolithic period.
Stonehenge was created in __________ phases of construction and activity, starting in 3000 BCE during the Neolithic Period and stretching over a millennium and a half into the Bronze Age.
The term ______________includes all of human existence prior to the emergence of writing.
Handprints at the cave at Pech-Merle were probably created using what technique?
Spraying paint onto the cave wall.
Sumerians used the hard, rock __________ for identifying documents and establishing property ownership.
The image of Gudea, the ruler of Lagash, is well-known to students of Near Eastern art because of the twenty surviving ____________________that he commissioned.
Mesopotamian sculptors told stories clearly and economically by organizing visual narratives in horizontal bands called________________.
In the many votive statues commissioned by Gudea, he is represented as ____________________.
A strong and peaceful ruler
Known for his persecution of Jews, as recorded in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Daniel, Nebuchadnezzar II was responsible for transforming ______________into one of the most splendid cities of its day.
The Neo-Babylonians used turquoise, blue, and gold __________to form the symbolic images covering the Ishtar Gate.
In the Stele of Naram-Sin (Fig. 2-1), what artistic device is used to signal Naram-Sin's importance and reinforce his divine right to rule?
From the ninth to seventh century BCE, the __________ culture controlled most of Mesopotamia.
The Stele of Hammurabi is significant as both a work of ancient Mesopotamian art and as __________.
An historical document recording a written code of law
The narrative relief panels lining the courtyard at Sargon's palace complex functioned primarily to __________.
Intimidate visitors to the king
The Mesopotamian's desire to represent ______________forced sculptors to use symbols and condense stories to their most essential elements.
Complex visual narrative
King Tutankhamen's mummified body was enclosed in three nested coffins with the innermost made of __________.
The Great Hall at Karnak has massive __________capitals on the columns supporting the raised, center part of the roof.
Which object commemorates the unification of Egypt and signals the beginning of the dynastic period?
The Palette of Narmer
According to legend, the early Egyptian kings were gods who ruled on earth. The conventions governing ancient Egyptian art changed _____________ over its three-thousand year history.
Scholars determined the name of the figures depicted on the Palette of Narmer from ___________.
An Egyptian convention used for representing the human figure was to show eyes and torsos ___________.
Egyptian sculptors relied on ____________to guide them in proportioning the human figures when carving reliefs
A squared Grid
The hypostyle hall at Karnak was filled with ____________decorated with painted pictorial reliefs and inscriptions.
Sculptures portraying Hatshepsut as a __________reflect the power of tradition and artistic convention in Egypt.
About 3,500 years ago, the city of __________, now called Santorini, was destroyed by a volcanic eruption.
The wall painting Girl Gathering Saffron Crocus Flowers (Fig. 4-1) demonstrates Aegean cultural practices related to ____________.
a woman's entry into adolescence
In about 1450 BCE, people called the __________, from mainland Greece, arrived in Crete and overtook the Minoans.
Minoan cities were generally unfortified; on the other hand, the Mycenaeans constructed strongholds of megaliths called __________ to protect their palaces.
The large above-ground burial places of Mycenae are called tholos tombs or __________.
Wall paintings found at Akrotiri reveal the bright colors, natural forms and sophisticated decorative sense characteristic of _________ art
Cycladic sculptors created marble statues of nude women that ALL ______________
Conform to the same design system
The term "Labyrinth" applied to the "palace" at Knossos originally referred to the building's____________.
Double-axe decorative motif
Archeologists studying Mycenaean culture rely on the ___________of the citadel site for their information.
Mycenaean tholos tombs are popularly called ______tombs because of their rounded, conical shape.
he sculpted animals on the Mycenaean Lion Gate occupy the triangular space formed by what architectural component?
The corbelled arch
The earliest tomb structures on mainland Greece are _________, deep vertical pits where ruling families laid out their dead.
What building method was used to create the conical roof structure that characterizes tholos tombs?
The sculptor Polykleitos wrote a treatise called __________ that specified a set of rules for constructing what he considered to be the ideal human figure.
The Propylaia was a monumental entrance to the Athenian acropolis, which also housed one of the earliest known _______.
The __________ period is named for the influence of Egypt, the Near East, and Asia Minor on Greek art.
The Classical period is subdivided into three phases: the __________, __________, and __________ Classical period.
Early, High, Late
The three orders of Greek architecture are the __________, __________, and __________ order
Doric; Ionic; Corinthian
The beautiful black-figure vase of Dionysos with Maenads ( Fig. 5-21) by the Amasis Painter exemplifies a vase shape called a(n) __________.
______________refers to presenting standing figures with opposing alternations of tension and relaxation around a central axis, a convention that dominates Greek Classical art.
Although caryatids appear in the place of columns at the Treasury of the Siphnians in Delphi ( Fig. 5-7), the structure's continuous frieze indicates use of the ________order.
In both red- and black- figure vase painting techniques, the areas that were painted with slip would be ________after firing.
______________was used to create more realistic facial details of the Riace Warriors ( Fig. 5-26).
Inlaid glass and metal
In contrast to Greek art of the High Classical period, ________________became popular subject matter in the late 4th century.
What feature(s) do Greek kouroi and standing figures in Egyptian art have in common?
A rigid, upright stance
Which feature of Etruscan temples most resembled temples built in Greece?
the columns and entablature
Changes in Roman burial practice in the second and third centuries led to commissions of elaborately decorated _______.
What was the function of the colossal statue of Constantine the Great (Fig. 6-66)?
It served as a permanent stand-in for the emperor.
The Roman home generally consisted of small rooms arranged around one or two open courts called the __________ and the __________.
The Flavian Amphitheater (Fig. 6-41) is also known as the "Colosseum" because of __________.
the statue of Nero that stood next to it
Roman artists created beautiful mosaic panels called __________ in their workshops and then installed them in the desired location.
The decoration of Etruscan tombs suggests a _________ attitude towards death and the afterlife.
The Etruscan's production of large-scale sculpture using ________ demonstrates exceptional technical skills.
An artistic ideal emerged in Roman portraiture during the Republican period that emphasized_____________.
distinguishing features and the effects of aging
The dramatic action of the Gemma Augustea (Fig. 6-19) reflects the influence of ___________art.
The paintings in House of the Vetii (Fig. 6-25) ________________.
resemble framed pictures hung on the wall
Artists decorating the Villa at Boscoreale used ___________to create the illusion of cityscapes seen off in the distance.
What distinctly Roman structure served as both commemorative sculpture and an architectural gateway for parades?
the triumphal arch
What technological innovation allowed the Romans to create the curved walls of the Pantheon?
Which of the following materials was NOT used in the Great Lyre with Bull's Head (pages 34-35)?
The desire of Greek artists to _________existing artistic trends resulted in dramatic stylistic changes over the course of a few centuries.
The Porta Augusta (Fig. 6-2) is architecturally significant for its use of ___________, which anticipates Roman building practices.
a barrel vault