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Period 3 Key Concept 3.2 Continuity & Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions

Terms in this set (6)

• In some places, new forms of governance emerged, including those developed in various Islamic states such as the Abbasids and Delhi sultanates. - During the reign of the Abbasids, Caliph ruled with absolute authority, presided over a centralized bureaucratic state and supported by military force. While the Delhi sultanates had a centralized form of government
• New methods were also used in the Mongol Khanates, the city-states in the Italian peninsula
o The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of nomadic tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan
o The very first Italian city-state can be considered the Republic of Venice, which broke apart from Byzantine Empire Independent, self-governing cities emerged first in Italy and Flanders
o They relied on manufacturing and trade for their income, and they had legal independence so that their laws could favor manufacturing and trade.
o In Italy, Venice emerged as a dominant sea power, trading in Muslim ports for spices and other goods
• Not all the new political developments of this era produced centralized states. On the eastern coast of Africa, trade and Islam gave rise to powerful but independent city-states like the Swahili city-states that thrived on Indian Ocean commerce. Despite the strong Islamic character of the Swahili city-states, they were highly tolerant and cosmopolitan. Because it was a trading center for merchants of various faith.
• Another example of political decentralization in this time period is the rise of feudalism in Western Europe and Japan.
o The need for security from invaders such as the Vikings forced people looked to local landowners to provide them with protection and they in turn gave their labor to the landlord. These reciprocal bonds of obligation were the core of feudalism. In Europe these bonds were sealed by legal contracts between vassals and those above them.
o When Japan was not able to maintain a centralized rule, they too fell into feudalism with samurai warriors comprising the military caste. One important difference, however, was the absence of negotiated contracts between vassals and their superiors
Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.
• The conflict between Tang China and the Abbasids at the Battle of Talas led to technology transfers of such as paper and gunpowder
The unification of Eurasia under the Mongols led further to technological and cultural transfers.
• Through the Mongols, Islamic mathematics and astronomy spread from the Dar la Islam into China
o Other areas of exchange were knowledge of geography and cartography. Most instrumental in this exchange was Rashid al-Din, the scholarly connection between the great Mongol courts in Iran and China. Transfer of geographic information from China to the Middle East resulted into the most accurate maps in the world at that time
o In the world of food and agriculture, the Pax Mongolia allowed for the transfer of grapes and fruit trees to China. In return, luxury items of Chinese cuisine, such as pepper, cinnamon and tea, were introduced into the Muslim world. Perhaps the most important technological transfers during the Pax Mongolia were block printing and gunpowder.
o Through the Mongols, block printing, which had developed during China's Song Dynasty, was transferred to the Muslim world. Copying the Song Dynasty, the Mongol Ilkhanate in Persia even issued paper money for a brief time. The best known technological exchange facilitated by the Mongols was gunpowder
The arrival of the crusaders did intensify the technological and cultural transfers.
• Europeans borrowed the practice of making damascene swords from the Muslims
• An important cultural transfers were Arabic numerals and the decimal system, the game of chess as well as foods such as yogurt, coffee, sugar and dates, and luxury items like Persian carpets, silk, and cotton textiles were introduced in Europe because of the Crusades.
• Europeans were also introduced to their own cultural and intellectual past that were lost to Europeans during the invasions after the fall of Rome, had been preserved in Muslim schools. Contacts with Muslims through the Crusades and in Spain, reintroduced Europe to its own intellectual and cultural heritage.