NUTR 251 Exam 2 Protein

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Terms in this set (43)
Consequence of lacking an essential amino acidProtein synthesis is reduced when ____The body will / will not substitute another amino acid in place of anotherWill notWhat happens when an excess of an amino acid is consumed?The amino acid is deaminated and used for glucose, energy, or energy storageThe building blocks of proteinsAmino acidsEvery amino acid contains three things:An amino group, an acid group, H atomAmino acids differ by theirUnique side group ( R Group )R GroupUnique side group of AAsDenaturationWhen a protein undergoes a change in its shape and consequent loss of its function when exposed to heat, acid, base, or agitationPolypeptideDietary proteinFunction of a proteinWhat is determined by the sequence of amino acidscollagena fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissueEndocrine systemA collection of glands that secrete hormonesHormonesChemical messengers passed through the blood to arrive at a target organ, which has cells processing the appropriate receptorGrowth hormonehormone that promotes growthinsulin and glucagonregulate blood glucosethyroxinhormone that regulates the body's metabolic ratecalcitoninhormone that regulates blood calciumparathyroid hormonehormone that regulates blood calciumantidiuretic hormoneregulates fluid and electrolyte balanceEdemaSwelling due to an excess of fluid in tissuesMaintain acid-base balance within the bodyProteins help maintain ___ / ___ balance within the bodyAmino Acids with buffering capacityR GroupsTransporterProteins that move about in the body fluids, carrying nutrients and other molecules. Examples of this are Lipoproteins and HemoglobinNutrient PumpProteins that reside in cell membranes that act as "____", picking up compounds on one side of the membrane and releasing them on the other.AntibodiesLarge proteins in the blood / body fluids produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules / antigensgluconeogenesisMaking glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as Amino AcidsProtein TurnoverThe cytosol inside the cells has a pool of amino acids where _____ occursDeamination____ of amino acids produces ammonia and a keto acid.Zero Nitrogen BalanceProtein Synthesis is balanced with Protein Degradation. Lean body mass does not change.High Quality ProteinType of protein that is 97% digestible. Examples include meat, eggs, milk, fish, poultry.Low Quality ProteinType of protein that is 65-80% digestible. Examples include Legumes, nuts, grains, vegetablesProtein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acids Score (PDCAAS)Measure of the protein quality.Health risks of too much protein intakeHeart disease, kidney stones, osteoporosis, cancer (maybe)