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Adv U.S. History Unit 5 Vocab
Terms in this set (48)
Student Non-Violent Coordinating (SNCC)
A U.S. civil-rights organization formed by students and active especially during the 1960s, whose aim was to achieve political and economic equality for blacks through local and regional action groups.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Set out to eliminate segregation from American society and to encourage African Americans to register to vote.
Protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
Bus rides in which integrated groups of whites and blacks would ride interstate busses to test Supreme Court decisions requiring interstate busses to be desegregated.
National Organization of Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Anti-Vietnam War Movement
Social & political movement of the 1960s & early 1970s that consisted largely of college students & was aimed at ending the war in Vietnam.
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions.
United Farm Workers' Movement
Founded by Caesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta, new union which boycotted until their demands for better working conditions, better wages and civil rights were met
Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson. The book was published on 27 September 1962 and it documented the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides.
A day of discussion and awareness about the environment proposed by Senator Gaylord Nelson in 1969, who wanted to increase awareness and respect for the environment through a national day.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Was established in December 1970 under United States President Richard Nixon. The EPA is an agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human and environmental health.
Barry Goldwater (1964)
Senator Barry Goldwater ran against Lyndon B Johnson in the 1964 election. Goldwater wanted to abolish social welfare programs from the 1930s and Johnson advocated more of these welfare programs.
Richard M. Nixon (1968)
Elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
He succeeded to the presidency upon Nixon's resignation in August 1974 and focused his brief administration on containing inflation and reviving public faith in the presidency. He was defeated narrowly by Jimmy Carter in 1976.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
The Supreme Court case that held that the Constitution protected a woman's right to an abortion prior to the viability of the fetus; thus, government regulation of abortions must meet strict scrutiny in judicial review.
University of California v. Bakke (1978)
It upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of the several factors in college admission policy.
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt issuing from talks at Camp David between Egyptian President Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Begin, and the host, U.S. President Carter: signed in 1979.
1979 Iranian Revolution and Hostage Crisis
1979 overthrow of Iran's monarchy and the establishment of an Islamic Republic. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981 after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
The economic policies of the former US president Ronald Reagan, associated especially with the reduction of taxes and the promotion of unrestricted free-market activity.
A scandal in the administration of President Ronald Reagan, which came to light when it was revealed that in the mid-1980s the United States secretly arranged arms sales to Iran in return for promises of Iranian assistance in securing the release of Americans held hostage in Lebanon.
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; the second president to be impeached; scandal with White House intern Monica Lewinsky and Whitewater business faults.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
An agreement among the United States, Canada, and Mexico designed to remove tariff barriers between the three countries.
The bringing of formal charges against a public official.
A judgment that a person is not guilty of the crime with which the person has been charged.
Bush/Gore Election of 2000
The United States Supreme Court decision that resolved the dispute surrounding the 2000 presidential election. The ruling was issued on December 12, 2000. On December 9, the Court had preliminarily halted the Florida recount that was occurring.
A certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state's population. each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency's choice. The candidate who receives a higher proportion of electoral votes within a state receives all the electoral votes for that state.
-War on Terror
-Operation Enduring Freedom
-Operation Iraqi Freedom
-The ongoing campaign by the United States and some of its allies to counter international terrorism; also called the war on terrorism. Homeland Security is the department created to fight the war on terror.
- Refers to the U.S. led combat operation which supports the Global War on Terror (GWOT) active in Afghanistan, the Philippines, and parts of Africa. The operation was intended to bring stability to Afghanistan and to prevent the emergence of terrorist cells in the region.
-A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. US combat troops were withdrawn in 2010.
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
One of the earliest mass produced suburbs.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
Interstate Highway Act
Legislation passed by Congress in 1956 resulted in the Interstate Highway Act. This consisted of multilane expressways that would connect the nation's major cities. Biggest public works expenditure in history even bigger than any New Deal program. The new highways eased commuters from suburbs to cities, boosted travel and vacation industries.
The first general election presidential debate was held on September 26, 1960, between U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy, the Democratic nominee, and Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican nominee, in Chicago at the studios of CBS's WBBM-TV.
-A system for transmitting visual images and sound that are reproduced on screens, chiefly used to broadcast programs for entertainment, information, and education.
-A system for controlling the humidity, ventilation, and temperature in a building or vehicle, typically to maintain a cool atmosphere in warm conditions.
-A computer designed for use by one person at a time.
Launched by Soviet Union in 1957. Followed two spectacular failures of U.S. satellite launches. Launched "Space Race". U.S. would go on to create NASA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and increase U.S. government spending on scientific research and education.
-Elected vice president under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and became president when Roosevelt died. He led the nation in the final months of World War II and made the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
-An executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
-Martin Luther King Jr.
-Letter from a Birmingham Jail
-I Have a Dream Speech
-An American civil rights activist and Baptist minister who first rose to prominence as a leader of the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott challenging segregated public transportation.
-A letter that Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed to his fellow clergymen while he was in jail in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, after a nonviolent protest against racial segregation. King defended the apparent impatience of people in the civil rights movement, maintaining that without forceful actions like his, equal rights for black people would never be gained. King upheld the general use of nonviolent civil disobedience against unjust laws, saying that human rights must take precedence over such laws.
-A public speech delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he calls for an end to racism in the United States and called for civil and economic rights.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
Court created when Eisenhower appointed the previously conservative Earl Warren as chief justice over William J. Brennan Jr. The court became a vehicle for social change and advocate for individual rights.
A decision by the United States Supreme Court concerning the rights of persons in police custody. In the case of Miranda versus Arizona, in 1966, the Court ruled that, before questioning by the police, suspects must be informed that they have the right to remain silent and the right to consult an attorney, and that anything they say may be used against them in court. The Miranda ruling protects a suspectâ€™s Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. The Miranda warning, a written statement of these rights, is normally recited by a police officer before interrogating the suspect in police custody.
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States 35th President of the United States; only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize; events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War; assassinated in Dallas, TX in 1963.
President Lyndon B. Johnson, Set of domestic programs proposed by Johnson, spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation.
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older.
Martin Luther King Jr. Assassanation
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964).
Robert F. Kennedy Assasassanation
The murder of Robert F. Kennedy in a Southern California hotel after giving a speech following a victory in CA's presidential primary. He had been a prominent frontrunner in the elections, with support and sympathy for many hated and discriminated groups who were angry at their treatment. His major belief was that the Vietnam War was unneeded and hurt, rather than bolstered, the country, and that money could be better spent helping the poor and neglected Americans in their own country.
Democratic National Convention
In Chicago in 1968; where Democratic delegates gathered to nominate Vice-president Hubert Humphrey. The hall was protected with barbed wire and police officers to keep the protesters away.
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