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Research Methods Exam 2
Harding University Research Methods, taught by Dr. Hobby. Chapter 4: Observation and Chapter 5: Survey Research.
Terms in this set (70)
In psychological research, investigators sample individuals' behavior at different times or in different situations. The goal of sampling behavior is to...
obtain a representative sample of behavior.
Time sampling and situation sampling are used to increase what characteristic of observational findings?
Researchers use time sampling to obtain...
a representative sample of behavior.
In using time sampling to gain a representative sample of behavior, the intervals in which the observations are to be made should be selected...
either randomly or systematically, or both!
Time sampling is not an effective method for sampling behavior that occurs infrequently. To observe behaviors in situations that occur infrequently, researchers choose...
Researchers who studied beer drinking among college students made their observations in five town bars, a student center, and a fraternity party. They were better able to generalize their findings because they used...
A researcher seeks to describe behavior at an airport security screening area during a busy holiday travel time. Because there are far too many people for the researcher to observe effectively, she should use...
What is the most likely reason that researcher studying aggressiveness of children would choose to use naturalistic observation?
Naturalistic observation is the preferred method when moral and ethical limitations apply to the topic under investigation.
What observational method does not use intervention by the researcher?
When a researcher plays an active and significant role in the situation in which behavior is being recorded and when the researcher conceals the fact that observations are being made, the study represents a...
disguised participant observation.
The primary reason when Rosenhan (1973) used participant observation to study psychiatric diagnosis in the context of a mental institution by having "pseudopatients" seek admission was to...
gain access to a situation or event that is generally not open to scientific investigation.
Under what circumstance is a participant observer more likely to have a significant effect on the behavior of the subjects being observed?
When the group under observation is small and the activities of the participant observer are prominent
A researcher interested in "inattentional blindness" has a confederate walk across a stage holding a large sign during the first class of an introductory psychology course. At the end of the class, assistants ask departing students if they know what the sign said. This is an example of...
In order to conduct a structured observation or a field experiment, researchers make use of _____ to create the observation situation.
Clinical psychologists who make behavioral assessments of parent-child interactions are likely making use of an observation technique called...
One main disadvantage of structured observation is...
failure to follow similar procedures each time an observation is made may make it difficult for other observers to obtain similar results.
Researchers conducted a study on invasion of personal space. A confederate of the researcher sat on a public bench and either stared at a person walking by or read a newspaper while a person walked by the bench. An observer recorded whether the person walking looked away from where the confederate was sitting. What type of observational study does this study represent?
In a field experiment, the investigator...
always manipulates an independent variable in a natural setting.
When individuals are not aware of the presence of an observer, as when data from physical traces or archival records are analyzed, the observation is described as...
The problem of reactive measurement is _____ when unobtrusive observation is used.
The remnants/fragments of past behavior the provide unobtrusive measure of behavior are called...
The degree to which a young child's dolls show signs of wear might indicate which dolls the child likes the best. This potential physical trace measure would be described as a...
The distinction between natural-use traces and controlled-use traces is similar to the distinction between...
observations without intervention and observations with intervention.
Research studies have examined evidence of past human behavior, including works of art, television shows, and bumper stickers, to test various hypotheses. This source of unobtrusive evidence is called...
Two types of archival records are...
running records and episodic records.
A researcher uses archival records to investigate whether divorce rates in a city change following major catastrophes (i.e. hurricane, terrorism). This represent the use of...
Newspaper advice columnists print only a fraction of the letters they receive. Analysis of the printed letters is likely limited by the problem of...
A researcher tries to show that the frequency of traffic accidents increases in warmer weather. This researcher need to consider whether there are more cars on the road when it is warmer. This "number of cars" variable must be considered to make sure the relationship between traffic accidents and temperature is not a...
When a more or less faithful reproduction of behavior as it originally occurred is recorded in either written form or through the use of audio or video recording, the resulting description of behavior in an observation study is called a...
For both physical and psychological measurement the lowest scale of measurement involves categorizing the stimulus into one of a number of discrete categories (i.e. male or female). This level of measurement is called a...
A school superintendent has received a report from the state that lists the ranking of schools in terms of the students' performance on the state's achievement test. Which scale of measurement is represented in this report?
When observers are asked to use a rating scale to measure a psychological dimension such as aggressiveness or anxiety, the researchers must decide whether these rating represent a...
ordinal or interval scale.
Frequency of occurrence can represent either of two measurement scales depending upon whether only a single observation of each person is made or several observations of the same individual are made. Frequency of occurrence can represent either...
interval or ratio scales.
When many observations of the same children in a classroom are made it is possible to determine the frequency of certain behaviors such as how many times children speak in class. Which scale of measurement do these frequency data represent?
The first step in the analysis of narrative records often consists of identifying units of behavior according to specific criteria. This process is called...
When events are classified into mutually exclusive categories on a nominal scale (i.e. brown-eyed or blue-eyed), the most common descriptive measure is...
A researcher studying interpersonal communication measured the time that couples made eye contact during a conversation. Which descriptive statistics will most commonly be used to describe the researcher's duration measurements?
mean and standard deviation
Low interobserver reliability is likely a result because of...
lack of clear definitions of events to be recorded.
What is true about interobserver reliability?
Interobserver reliability is generally increased by clearly defining the events that are to be observed.
Two student researchers wish to determine the degree of observer reliability they achieved in their study. They observed individual students who were approaching another person on a campus path. The two observers both independently recorded whether or not the observed student greeted the other person. What measure should the student researchers use to asses observer reliability?
percentage agreement measure
Although there is no hard-and-fast percentage of agreement that defines low interobserver reliability, the literature of observation studies reveals that researchers generally report interobserver reliabilites that are at least as high as...
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) can be used to measure interobserver reliability when...
the behavioral data have been measured on at least an interval scale.
The two pieces of information obtained from a correlation coefficient are...
the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.
When individuals are aware they are being observed we need to be concerned about problems of...
Students conducted a naturalistic observation to study whether people arriving at the library alone would be more likely to hold the door open for a person coming in immediately after them than would people who arrived in pairs. The students made their observations looking through the window of a classroom building across from the library. They chose this observation sight to avoid the potential problem of...
Some researchers argue that hypnosis is a special state of consciousness; other researchers disagree. They argue that when the hypnosis procedure is used, individuals simply respond to the cues and instructions of the hypnotist in order to know how to respond. These cues are called...
These cues and other information used by participants to guide their behavior in a psychological study are called...
Researchers were doing a long-term study of children's relationships with their parent in the homes of the families. Before beginning to collect data, the observers visited each home a few times and set up their recording equipment and recorded behavior just as they would do in the data collection phase of their study. These early visits to the home were done to reduce reactivity. What technique did the researchers use?
Ethologists such as Diane Fossey (who studied mountain gorillas) use a technique to adapt animal subjects to the presence of an observer by gradually increasing the time they spend in the animals' environment. This technique is called...
Students conducted a research project in which they hypothesized that women, more than men, would stop studying and look at each person who enters a library study room. Results indicated that women did make more head movements than men when people entered the library. To be confident about these results, we would want to make sure their results are not affected by...
Probably the most important control over observer bias is...
the awareness that observer bias might be present.
In order to minimize observer bias, researchers should...
limit the amount of information observers have about the hypothesis.
To avoid observer bias researchers may not tell the observers why observations are being made or the goals of the study. In this situation the observers are said to be...
Surveys play an important role in a type of research that is intended to assess the covariation of naturally occurring variables with the goal of identifying predictive relationships. This general type of research is called...
The quantitative index of the direction and magnitude of a predictive relationship is called a...
Surveys play an important role in the type of research that is intended to assess the covariation between naturally occurring variables. This type of research is called...
A professor wants to determine if students' final exam scores in a course can be predicted based on their scores on the first test. The quantitative index the professor is likely using in this situation is the...
In sampling, the specific list of the elements of the population is called the...
A sampling frame in survey research could be considered a _____ of the population.
The goal of sampling is to identify a _____ that will be representative of the ______.
Survey researchers are most interested in...
generalizing responses from a sample to the population.
The ability to generalize the results from a survey sample to the population of interest depends most critically on the sample's...
When the distribution of characteristics in a sample is systematically different from that of the target population, the sample is called a...
A survey researcher chose to administer a survey using the Internet. This sample likely overrepresents people who own a computer and underrepresents people who don't own a computer. This problem in the researcher's survey is best described as...
A survey using the Internet to ask people about attitudes toward mental health services would most likely be criticized for...
The problem of selection bias in survey research is similar to the problem of _____ in research using archival data.
Suppose a recent issue of the campus newspaper reported a survey about students' attitudes toward proposed changes in the required curriculum. What would you need to focus on most to decide whether the survey results reported in the paper can be generalized to the entire population of students?
representativeness of the sample
A TV reporter interviewed several dozen people at the scene of a political demonstration about their views of the people doing the demonstrating. In the terminology of survey research, the reporter has gathered a...
In as simple random sample, every individual in the population...
has an equal chance of being selected to be in the sample.
The decision of how many people needed in a random sample to represent the population should be based on the...
degree of variability in the population.
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