42 terms

Chapter 10 Life Science Vocabulary

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molting
The process of shedding an outgrown exoskeleton.
cartilage
A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together.
joint
A place in the body where two bones come together.
muscle
A tissue that contracts or relaxes to create movement.
nervous system
An organ system that receives information from the environment and coordinates a response.
stimulus
Any change or signal in the environment that can make an organism react in some way.
response
An action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus.
neuron
A cell that carries information through the nervous system.
impulse
An electrical message that carries information in the nervous system.
sensory neuron
A neuron that picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse.
interneuron
A neuron that carries nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
motor neuron
A neuron that sends an impulse to a muscle or gland, causing the muscle or gland to react.
brain
An organized grouping of neurons in the head of an animal with bilateral symmetry.
water vascular system
A system of fluid-filled tubes in an echinoderm's body.
swim bladder
An internal gas-filled organ that helps a bony fish stabilize its body at different water depths.
carnivore
A consumer that obtains energy by eating only animals.
herbivore
A consumer that obtains energy by eating only plants.
omnivore
A consumer that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals.
filter feeder
An animal that strains its food from water.
digestion
The process that breaks down complex molecules of food into smaller nutrient molecules.
digestive system
An organ system that has specialized structures for obtaining and digesting food.
cellular respiration
The process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells, releasing energy.
diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
respiratory system
An organ system that enables organisms to exchange gases with their surroundings.
circulatory system
An organ system that transports needed materials to cells and removes wastes.
larva
The immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult.
polyp
A cnidarian body form characterized by an upright vase shape and usually adapted for a life attached to an underwater surface.
medusa
A cnidarian body form characterized by an open umbrella shape and adapted for a freeswimming life.
external fertilization
When eggs are fertilized outside of a female's body.
internal fertilization
When eggs are fertilized inside a female's body.
gestation period
The length of time between fertilization and birth of a mammal.
amniotic egg
An egg with a shell and internal membranes that keep the embryo moist; a major adaptation to life on land characteristic of reptiles, birds, and egg-laying mammals.
placenta
An organ in most pregnant mammals, including humans, that links the mother and the developing embryo and allows for the passage of materials between them.
metamorphosis
A process in which an animal's body undergoes major changes in shape and form during its life cycle.
complete metamorphosis
A type of metamorphosis with four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
pupa
The third stage of complete metamorphosis, in which a larva develops into an adult insect.
incomplete metamorphosis
A type of metamorphosis with three stages: egg, nymph, and adult.
nymph
A stage of incomplete metamorphosis that usually resembles the adult insect.
tadpole
The larval form of a frog or toad.
vertebrate
An animal with a backbone.
adaptation
An inherited behavior or physical characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment.
endoskeleton
An internal skeleton; structurally support system within the body of an animal.