magnetic compass, water-powered mills water-powered clocks, gunpoweder, cannons, Neo-Confucianism, Urbanization, printing press with movable type, landscape painting, paper money, Letters of Credit/flying case, looms, porcelain, cotton sails Islam spread through two main avenues: (______) conquest and (_________). The (_________) were the most active missionaries after 900 CE, spreading Islam to Southern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, India, and Southeast Asia. In sub-Saharan Africa, merchants introduced Islam to the ruling class through trade. In East Africa, Islam arrived via the (______) Ocean, where it mixed with languages to create Swahili. In 11th century India, the Turks brought in Islam when they formed the (_________), attracting warriors but also low-caste (_______) (religious group). By the 1400s, the regional feudal states in Europe were developing into nation-states led by strong, powerful
(_______) (type of ruler). Leaders were now in a position to tax citizens directly and maintained large standing, professional (________). Italy, Milan, (_______) (city), and Florence benefited greatly from the increased trade. Kings in France and England began to successfully assert their authority over their feudal lords. In (______) (country), Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile married and went on to unite the country by reconquering the land formerly controlled by (________) (religious groups) during the Reconquista. The competition among these states led to a refinement and improvement in weapons, ships, and technology, setting up these regional states for a more dominant position in the world.