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Terms in this set (15)
What does current policy for those with a learning disability focus on?
Aims to empower people with learning disabilities, promote their rights and dignity. Aims to improve independence, social inclusion and improve access to heath and other public services
What three factors define a learning disability?
Impairment of intellectual functioning (deficits in comprehension, learning, planning, reasoning, judgement), impairment of adaptive functioning (limitations in communication, practical skills needed for independent living, social skills, school/work functioning) Arising during the development period (before age 18)
What is the difference between learning disability and learning difficulty?
Learning difficulties are conditions which effect specific forms of learning but are not associated with general impairment of intelligence as in the case of learning disabilities
How might a diagnosis of a learning disability be made by observing a persons schooling?
People with learning disabilities often attend special school, receive extended schooling, drop out of mainstream education early without taking exams
What behaviour characterises a learning disability?
Difficulty telling the time, travelling independently, reading the newspaper, looking after money, gaining and sustaining employment
Name one method of categorising learning disabilities
Based upon IQ
A person has an IQ of 50-70 struggles academically, can read, can live independently what type of learning disability do they have?
Describe profound learning disability based on IQ
IQ less than 20, full time support needed often co-morbidity e.g. epilepsy
What is the most common aetiology attributed to a learning disability?
Idiopathic - 60% of cases, but may be undiscovered genetic
What other aetiologies are known to cause learning disability?
Genetics, problems during childhood, perinatal problems
Give 2 examples of genetic learning disabilities
down's syndrome - trisomy 21 meiotic disjunction, fragile X chromosome, trinucleotide expansion disorder X linked dominant disease
Name the two categories of problem during childhood which can lead to a learning disability and give 3 examples of each
Biological - encephalopathies, traumatic brain injury, poisoning, infection and Psychosocial - malnutrition, abuse and neglect, lack of stimulation
At which perinatal stages can problems occur? Give 3 examples of each
Antenatal (maternal infection, maternal substance misuse, iodine deficiency), intra-partum (prolonged labour, trauma, asphyxia), neonatal (hypoglycaemia, meningitis, severe jaundice, intraventricular haemorrhage)
Explain the relationship between an intellectual disability and complex co-morbitities.
Some morbidity is associated with the disability e.g.. CHD and Down's, some is as a result of lifestyle <10% balanced diet, <20% exercise, some as a result of barriers to healthcare
What are some of the difficulties are person with a learning disability may experience accessing healthcare?
Diagnostic overshadowing, physical barriers, communication barriers, staff attitudes, poor understanding of health/disease, reluctance to attend appointment
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