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lymphatic system

a widespread system of tissues and vessels, organs are not in order spread out all over the body

function of the lymphatic system

fluid balance, protection from infection, absorption of fats

lymph pathways

start out as lymph capillaries, they join to form larger vessels, and eventually dump into veins in the thorax

lymph capillaries

closed ended tubes that reach into the tissues between cells, draws fluid in ( osmosis)

simple squamous epithelium

walls of the lymph capillaries


located in the small intestine, absorb lipids

lymph vessels

formed by merging lymph capillaries

walls of lymph vessels

similar to veins, have valves

lymph vessels

travel along superficial veins to lymphatic trunk

lymphatic trunk

drains a fairly large area of your body

lymphatic trunk

join 1 of 2 collecting ducts, along a trunk are lymph nodes

right lymphatic duct

empties into the right subclavian vein

thoracic duct or L. lymphatic duct

has more vessels and empties into the left subclavian vein


excess tissue fluid, contains dissolved substances

where does lymph come from?

blood plasma, fluid leaks out of the capillaries

what is the function of the lymph?

carries various foreign particles such as bacteria and viruses to the lymph nodes

movement of lymph

under low pressure so it moves by skeletal muscle contraction, breathing, valves

what happens if an obstruction occurs?

fluid tissue will accummulate

lymph nodes

found along the lymph pathways, contain a large number of lymphocytes

afferent lymph vessels

bring lymph into the node at several dif. spots

efferent lymph vessels

carry lymph out of the node at the hilum

lymph nodes

usually found in groups or chains, but not in the central nervous system, some are superficial and some are deep

cervical nodes

located in the neck in deep and superficial areas, often become enlarged during respiratory infections

inguinal nodes

located in the groin area, recieve lymph from lower extremities and external genital areas

axillary nodes

located in the armpits, cancer cells from breast often metastasize here

mesenteric nodes

deep, found between the two layers of peritoneum that form the mesentery

all nodes

contain lymphocytes, macrophanges, which destroy foreign substances

thymus gland

located in the mediastinum, between the lungs, above the heart

thymus gland

larger in infancy and early childhood, decreases in size after puberty

T lymphocytes

some cells after they mature in the thymus, leave the gland to function against specific pathogens


produced in the thymus gland, tells the T lymphocytes to mature


filled with blood, reservoir, also contains lymphocytes and macrophanges


lymph nodes that trap bacteria


lie behind the nose (adenoids)

palatine tonsils

oval bodies located at each side of the soft palate, back of the throat

lingual tonsils

little mounds of lymphoid tissue located at the posterior of the tongue

bodies lines of defense

intact skin and mucous membranes, inflamation, immunity


heat, ache, red, pus, swollen (inflamation)


specific, systemic

natural immunity

can be active or passive

active natural immunity

contact with the disease, you make the immune response in the body

passive natural immunity

placenta, gives antibodies to the body, mothers milk

artificial immunity

active and passive also

active artificial immunity

vaccine, artificially inquired, makes your body build up antibodies against the vaccine

passive artificial immunity

immune serum or immunoglobulin, takes care of it right away, your body doesn't have to build up antibodies, short term, it's passive because you get the antibodies from someone else

lymphatic system

helps your body remember

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