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68 terms

World History: Russia, Industrial Revolution, French Revolution

Why did Russia consider itself the "third Rome?"
-borrowed from Roman and Byzantine empires
+Orthodox Christianity
+tsar: from "caesar"
-wanted to show that it was emerging as influential power
What society had kept Russia isolated from other societies' developments at the beginning of the early modern era?
Mongols (occupied/dominated Russia until partway through era)
How did the French Revolution differ from the American Revolution?
French Revolution: more more violent and more radical (tried to create a new political and social order, etc.)
What document inspired the DoRoMac?
American Declaration of Independence
What was the first change to the government during the French Revolution?
constitutional monarchy
Why does the guillotine have such a negative reputation, when it was intended as a humane form of execution?
because it was used so extensively during the Reign of Terror
What type of government did Napoleon create?
dictatorship (essentially an absolute monarchy)
What was the primary form of execution for common prisoners before the guillotine was introduced?
drawing & quartering
Why did Dr. Guillotine create the guillotine?
He wanted a more humane, egalitarian (equality) form of execution for criminals
How did Napoleon influence neighboring societies?
conquered and/or controlled much of Europe during his rule
What was the order of types of government in France during the revolution?
absolute monarchy: constitutional monarchy, radicals (Reign of Terror), dictator (Napoleon); eventually permanently abolished monarchy
How did the French Revolution ultimately impact the world?
more equal rights, representative governments, inspired other revolutions
put in chronological order: French Revolution, American Revolution, Latin American Revolutions
American Revolution, French Revolution, Latin American Revolutions
What family did Catherine the great marry into?
What form of government did Catherine embrace?
Enlightened despot
What culture did Catherine and Peter share an interest in?
western (Western Europe)
What were the Enlightened Ideas that Catherine embraced?
-wanted to improve the lives of her people
-religious tolerances
-Freedoms of speech
-embraced the ARTS and EDUCATION
What qualified Catherine as an Enlightened despot?
-more trade and growth
-reformed Russia's legal system(equal law system)
-promoted Arts and Science
Why was Catherine opposed to revolutionary ideas created by the French Revolution?
worried that the idea would spread to Russia and jeopardize her power
What is selective westernation?
borrowing ideas from Western Europe
How is St. Basil's an example of selective westernization?
distinct "onion domes" are different from western European architecture
Why did everyone hate Marie Antoinette?
She was out of touch with the people: continued to spend extravagantly, and created a village to "play peasant".
Who was the First Estate?
clergy: they were not taxed, and held 10% of the land (even though they only made up 1% of the population)
Who was the Second Estate?
the nobles: held 25% of the land, though they only made up 1% of the population, and were not taxed
Who belonged to the Third Estate
98% population: paid bulk of the taxes
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
a promise to keep meeting at the tennis court until a Constitution was made.
Who made up the Tennis Court Oath?
Members of the third estate created the Tennis Court Oath.
Why was the storming of the Bastille important for the French Revolution?
It was a point of no return for the revolution.
What was DoRoMaC? What enlightenment ideas were included in DoRoMaC?
The DoRoMaC was the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which was similar to both the US Constitution and the US Declaration of Independence. It stated the human rights required and the style of a new government.
What form of government was introduced along with the DoRoMaC?
Constitutional Monarchy
Who were Sans-culottes? What did they believe?
They were lower class revolutionary extremists that wanted to kill King Louis and Marie Antoinette.
How did Louis and Marie Antoinette die?
They tried to escape France and when they were found they were relieved of their heads (beheaded via guillotine).
Name the two largest natural resources during the Britain industrial revolution.
coal and iron
Where the Britain revolution spread to between 1850-1914?
What are two inventions related to water made life easier in the first phases of the revolution?
Water mill
What are three steam powered technologies that arose during the industrial revolution?
Steam powered tractor
Steam powered ships
Steam powered locomotive (railroad)
How did the railroad impact society at this time?
Could move people, raw materials, and goods more cheaply and in a fraction of the time.
It provided jobs throughout the nation.
How did Russia become one of the great land empires?
-Peter The Great initiated Westernization
-Strong mining industry for munitions and shipbuilding facilities
-The capital became St. Petersburg to provide a "window to the west"
-Peter attempted to replicate many aspects of French absolution
How did Peter try to make Russia respectable in western eyes?
Peter imported European artists, architects and replaced Russian customs with European customs. Also encouraged people to learn French and send kids to school in Europe.
How did the new agriculture influence the industrial revolution?
-Fewer farmers so the unemployed people became the factory workers
-Population increase
What was the cottage industry?
During the winter farmers would use hand looms and cotton to weave cloth, preceded industrialization
What are some of the inventions that helped textiles increase?
-Flying shuttle: weave quicker
-Spinning jenny: multiple threads weaved together
-Water powered loom
During the early modern era, what were the main goals of Russian tsars?
-Territorial expansion
Consolidation or strengthening of power of the tsar-
What did the tsars give to the nobility in exchange for their loyalty?
Land and peasants
What were the peasants reduced to in Russia, and how was this different than the rest of Europe?
-Peasants reduced to serfs
-Unusual for society to enslave its own people
What were boyars, and what happened if they threatened the power?
Russian nobles; they were killed or exiled
How did Ivan the terrible establish a new Russian foundation?
-Reformed army
-Threatened enemies to government
-Put secret police in place
What did the Romanov Dynasty do during their 300 year rule?
-Expanded Russia's borders significantly
-Continued to consolidate power for the tsar
-Sent enemies to Siberia
What was the impact of telegraph lines?
easier communication
What challenges resulted directly from the factory system during the first industrial revolution?
rigid schedule
12-14 hour day
dangerous conditions
no workers rights
Who were Luddites?
Artisans and craftspeople who protested the introduction of job threatening machines
What is one social impact of Industrialization?
Fewer families were working together
What were the new social classes created by the industrial revolution?
-Bourgeoisie (upper class) aka "the haves"
-Proletariat (working class) aka "the have nots"
Why did they use children for labor?
-Children were small enough to fit in tiny places
-Many of them were orphans so no one bothered to help
What were the main impacts of child labor?
Some children were injured from the working conditions and/or died from overworking
First or second industrialization: introduction of child labor
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: steel
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: chemicals
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: electricity
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: canals
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: white-collar jobs for women
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: compulsory education, unions, and workers compensation
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: introduction of textile factories
first industrialization
What caused the bread riots in France?
Poor harvests, increased bread prices - much of people's salaries were going toward bread, feeling that government wasn't effectively addressing situation
First or second industrialization: vacations for the middle class
second industrialization
First or second industrialization: sewage systems in urban areas
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: constuction of first railroads
first industrialization
First or second industrialization: water frame
first industrialization