Understanding Music Romantic era
Terms in this set (69)
The Romantic Era
stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism. Emotional subjectivity basis of arts
resulted in social and economic changes
greater range of tone color, dynamics, and pitch than classical , expanded harmony and complex chords
style of romantic music
individuality; composers want uniquely identifiable music
music within a national identity (look at notes for more info)
intentionally imply foreign culture frequently in operas with foreign settings
association with a story/poem/ idea/ scene Understanding the music enhanced through reading program or viewing associated work
"singing" tone with more sound and greater blend
What did the piano improve?
same social class
What are composers and audiences?
Who were financially successful?
What led to new musical topics?
new urban classes
Why was there a decline in aristocratic fortune?
golden age of the piano
What was the piano in romantic era?
piano action and soundboards
What was developed in the early 19th century?
old world hand craftsmanship combined with industrial age production techniques
How were pianos constructed
Grotrian-Steinweg Concert Hall 1900
What was the concert hall in Braunschweig Germany called
The art song
composition for solo voice and piano; accompaniment integral part of the song
the art song
What linked to the vast amount of poetry in the romantic period?
poems, translating mood, atmosphere, and imagery into music
What did composers interpret?
summed up at end with piano postlude
group of songs unified in some manner, storyline or musical idea may link the songs
What is the german for the art song
music is repeated for each stanza
new music for repeated for each stanza
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
usually with a written explanation of the piece
How was program music performed?
piano or orchestra
What was program music usually for?
modeled on opera overture
symphonic poem (or tone poem)
1 movement, orchestral, flexible form
for use before or during play
What grew during the Romantic?
citizens, not mercernaries
Who fought wars during the Romantic?
a distinctive national identity
What did composers give their works?
folksongs and folk dances
What did composers use in order to create national identity?
native history, legends, and landscapes
Operas and program music were inspired by what?
countries dominated by music of Germany, Austria, Italy and France
Nationalism had the strongest impact on what countries?
Born in vienna, early romantic composer, child prodigy (died young), all money from composing, love of poetry led to art song, mornings spent composing, afternoons in vienna cafes, evenings at "schubertiads", preferred the company of poets, painters, writer and musicians (NOT ARISTOCRACY), composed music for performances in homes in vienna middle class homes.
Known for long, singing melodies and imaginative harmonies, Wrote over 600 art songs - With great variety of moods & types, Instrumental music as intense
and powerful as Beethoven - Symphonies, string quartets, chamber music, sonatas, masses, operas, & piano works
German, early to mid-Romantic (1810-1856), Problem with hand ended his ambition, Decided to become be piano virtuoso, Temperamentally unsuited for some other
musical positions he attempted, Committed to asylum where he died, Treatments & gadgets made problem worse, Gifted writer & critic - founded New Journal of Music, Well known as a performer, writer & composer, For years, dealt with mental & physic,great musical love story & marriage productive Romantic partnership, famously devoted couple, Wife: Clara Wieck-virtuoso pianist & composer, eight children, "marriage diary", musical & literary collaboration. bitter court battles with her father (Robert's piano teacher)
in order to marry
gift for melody, used dance rhythms with syncopations & dotted rhythms, wrote piano pieces, art songs, and later symphonies, piano pieces and art songs frequently in cycles
disregarding of strict tempo; expressive quickening or slackening of pace; hallmark of romantic interpretation;
"the art of interpretation"
German composer (1809-1847); Early to mid-Romantic period; Wrote symphonies, concertos, sonatas, and other works before being teenager; Developed early;Responsible for revival of Bach's music; Died of a stroke while touring
Somewhat more conservative; avoids emotional extremes; Projects both elegance and balance
French composer (1803-1869); Mid-Romantic Period; Passionate & unpredictable; Won Prix de Rome for Symphonie fantastique; One of the first of the great conductors; Wrote unconventional music; Worked as music critic for support; Wrote guide to orchestration
Imaginative, innovative orchestrations (required huge resources); Pioneered concept of idée fixe
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Russian, late romantic (1840-1893); studied music in Russia (Did not start until age 21, By age 30 had a symphony, opera, tone poem and his 1st great orchestra work);Married, divorced two weeks later; Supported by benefactress (patron) (They corresponded but never met); Traveled Europe and United States
Wrote ballets, symphonies, concerti, overtures, operas, and more; Fused Russian folk music & European style
German composer (1833-1897);Son of a musician (father played bass); At 13, studied music by day/played gigs by night; Became close friends with the Schumanns (Lived with Clara while Robert in asylum, Lifelong friends with Clara, he never married); Studied earlier composers' works in detail
(Especially Bach, Haydn, Mozart & Beethoven)
Considered somewhat conservative due to his use of classical forms; Wrote in all traditional forms except opera
German (1813-1883); Mid to late Romantic composer; Studied in Germany (Later moved to Paris—did not work out, Returned to Germany, got in trouble (dueled, drank & gambled), Finally settled & succeeded in Munich, Bavaria, Rescued" by King Ludwig of Bavaria); Lived large off of others—ran up debts; Wrote in many genres, but famous for opera; Operas & artistic philosophy had major influence on European culture; "Wonderful Art & Terrible Man"
"Radical" chromatic & dissonant harmonies; Worshipped by some, reviled by others; provoked extreme reactions; Admirers: "the most progressive composer"; Detractors: "earsplitting noise"; harmonies led to the breakdown of harmony; His operas were large, full blown affairs; Adapted idèe fixe to leitmotif approach; Huge orchestrations for operas; Requires big voices to be heard; No recitatives & arias—just non-stop music
Through-composed, piano=horse galloping, one singer= several different characters, dramatic ending=romantic era
Concerto for Violin & Orchestra in E Minor, Op. 64 (first movement) (Mendelssohn)
Controlled emotionalism; Simple, singing melodies; Sonata form but solo part different; Cadenza near the end for soloist; Performance perspective
Symphonie fantastique (Berlioz) Fourth Movement: March to the Scaffold
Program material and how composer related it to the music
Symphonie fantastique (Berlioz) Fifth Movement: Dream of the Witches' Sabbath
Program material and how composer related it to the music
Romeo & Juliet Overture-Fantasy (Tchaikovsky) (Concert Overture)
Depicts events & characters but not narrrative; Different musical elements for characters, groups & events; Love theme has become very well-known
Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Op. 90 (Brahms)Third Movement: poco allegretto
Triple meter; Ternary form; Melody was used by Carlos Santana & Dave Mathews Love of My Life
Romantic Traits of Beethoven
-Intense emotions put into his songs
-Very balanced orchestra
Beethoven's Heroic Phase
-Large number of original works composed on a grand scale
-Beethoven was not satisfied with his work at this point, and wanted to take a new path.
Beethoven used a large scale progression from minor to major in his ________ symphony
Beethoven added vocal soloists and chorus to the finale of his
Symphony # 9
A short constantly recurring musical phrase or melody which is associated with a single idea, person or situation. Esp used in wasnerian music drama
Musical form originated in the early 17th century spain, consists of a serious character based on a bass ostinato in triple meter.
A staple in romantic music, is a calque of German charakterstuck- which is a broad range of 19th century piano based on a single idea or program.
Carl Maria Von Weber
Staged Singspiel and french operas in German translations. Big opera composer! Designated his opera not as old fashioned singspiel but as romantic opera. Also uses melodrama in his operas.
Virtuoso pianist at 15 years old from Vienna. Played in the Vienna philharmonic orchestra. Became a conductor because he didn't want to be a teacher so he conducted opera in Vienna and the Met in New York. He specialized in the song and the absolute symphony.
( Italian: "beautiful singing") style of operatic singing that originated in Italian singing of polyphonic (multipart) music and Italian courtly solo singing during the late 16th century and that was developed in Italian opera in the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries.
( French: "fixed idea") in music and literature, a recurring theme or character trait that serves as the structural foundation of a work.