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ZOOL 2200 Exam 3
Terms in this set (49)
The ________ is an intracellular storage site for calcium in muscle fibers.
When a sarcomere shortens:
the H band shortens & the I band shortens.
Thick filaments in skeletal muscles contain the protein:
Which of the following parts of muscle contraction and relaxation require ATP?
all of the above require ATP
Calcium regulates muscle contraction:
by binding to troponin, which moves tropomyosin off the binding sites for myosin on actin, allowing cross bridges to form.
Excitation contraction coupling occurs because:
T-tubules propagate action potentials to the interior of the muscle fibers causing the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
The slowest but most efficient way muscle fibers have for regenerating ATP is through _________________.
If you are bench pressing some weights your biceps are undergoing _______ contractions, where they are generating force and causing movement.
Which of the following would increase the strength of a muscle's contraction?
Recruit more motor units.
If you are looking at a muscle fiber under the microscope and it has a small diameter, is dark red in appearance and has many mitochondria, you are looking at what type of muscle fiber?
slow twitch oxidative
You decide to run the Antelope Island Buffalo run, an ultra marathon where you have to run 100 miles. At mile 85 you can not run any further due to fatigue. Which of the following might be causing your muscle fatigue?
all of the above
Which of the following plasma proteins produced by the liver plays a role in blood clotting?
How does the biconcave shape of red blood cells INCREASE the diffusion rate of oxygen?
It increases the diffusion area for oxygen.
The hormone __________that causes increased red blood cell production is released by the ________, in response to a reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
has a higher affinity for carbon monoxide than oxygen.
A stabbing victim that comes into the emergency room with extensive blood loss, will likely be diagnosed with ___________.
________ are the least abundant leukocytes in the blood and their numbers increase during allergies or parasite infections.
B-cells that produce antibodies are a type of ______.
When a tissue becomes infected the number of ____________ in the blood increases so that they can migrate to the infected tissue and become macrophages.
Which of the following statements concerning platelets is CORRECT?
all the above
The second step in hemostasis is:
platelet plug formation
The clotting cascade:
is a series of reactions that culminates with fibrinogen being converted to fibrin, which forms the mesh network that blood cells get trapped on.
The myocardium is thickest in the _________ since it pumps blood to the ________ circuit that requires higher pressure than the ________ circuit.
left ventricle : systemic : pulmonary
The depolarization or rising phase of the action potential that occurs in the hearts autorhythmic cells is due to:
opening of L-type calcium channels allowing calcium to enter the cells.
Autorhythmic cells in the ________ have the fastest intrinsic firing rate of action potentials and therefore serve as the pacemaker for the heart.
Which of the following is a DIFFERENCE between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?
Presence of gap junctions.
At the peak of depolarization ________ channels open in contractile cardiac cells leading to a ___________ that prevents summation and tetanus.
calcium : plateau phase
Which of the following components of an ECG represents atrial systole?
During which phase of the cardiac cycle is ventricular pressure greater than arterial pressure?
During which phase of the cardiac cycle are the AV valves open?
During _________ the ventricles are starting to contract but ventricular pressure is still less than arterial pressure.
isovolumetric ventricular contraction
****The sympathetic nervous system innervates the SA node. When the sympathetic postganglionic neurons fire action potentials:
T-type calcium channel opening is enhanced.
******The parasympathetic nervous system also innervates the SA node. When the parasympathetic postganglionic neurons fire action potentials:
all the above occur
is end diastolic volume minus end systolic volume.
is heart rate times stroke volume
Resistance to blood flow increases when:
radius of a blood vessel decreases
Flow rates are highest in the _______ due to high pressure and lowest in the _______ due to high resistance.
arteries : capillaries
The _____ are the thickest of the blood vessels and function as pressure reservoirs.
all of the above
Which of the following factors is most important in matching the blood flow to a specific tissue with the metabolic needs of that tissue?
Local changes within a tissue, resulting from increased metabolic activity, can produce local arteriolar vasodilation, to allow more blood to flow to the tissue.
Capillaries have slow ______ due to having high _______.
flow rates : resistance
What is the primary method by which hydrophobic materials such as oxygen, and carbon dioxide, are exchanged between the blood in the capillaries and surrounding tissues?
Passive diffusion across the capillary endothelial cells down their concentration gradients.
At the beginning of a capillary bed the ____________ of the blood __________ fluid and solutes _________ the capillaries.
hydrostatic pressure : pushes : out of
The lymphatic system:
returns excess fluid filtered at the capillaries to the circulatory system.
Because veins are _______ and easily stretch, they act as a blood reservoir with 60% of our blood residing in them.
Venous return to the heart is increased by:
all of the above increase venous return
When measuring blood pressure, the pressure reading on the sphygmomanometer the 1st time you hear a sound is the ______ pressure while the pressure reading on the sphygmomanometer when you no longer hear any sounds is the ______ pressure.
systolic : diastolic
If baroreceptors in your carotid sinuses detect an DECREASE in blood pressure and decrease the frequency of action potentials to the cardiovascular control center in your oblongata, your cardiovascular control center will do which of the following in order to INCREASE your blood pressure?
all of the above
Hypertension is diagnosed:
when diastolic pressure is greater than 90mmHg & when systolic pressure is less than 140mmHg.
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