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HUS 101 Unit 3 Study Guide ( Mary Jo Jakab)
Terms in this set (79)
1. Describe "the whole person" in the context of generalist human service practice.
As a human service professional, the critical point to remember is that the client is an individual comprised of psychological, social, economic, educational, vocational, and spiritual dimensions
2. Define the concept of problems in the context of generalist human service practice
"Problems usually indicate something exists that is causing the client to experience trouble or discomfort. Usually the act of problem solving is an associated action, indicating that the problems, whether short- or long-term, have solutions or that there are possible ways of addressing them.
3. Identify the 2 components of problems-in-living from a human service perspective.
Problems in living, from the human service perspective, can have two components: a description of the problem and a course of action leading to its resolution. First, the problem is described as a situation, event, or condition that is troublesome for the client. The second component occurs in several stages: The problem is identified and discussed, solutions are formulated and implemented, and the results are evaluated..
4. Explain the difference between developmental and situational problems.
Developmental problems are defined as problems related to mental illness, criminal behavior, or a problem with living that is a departure from the expected (Erickson's developmental stages model).
Situational problems are problems that result from accidents, violent crimes, natural disasters, major life changes- such as loss of housing, a move, job change, unemployment, divorce, death of a loved one, etc.
5. Describe Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and how it relates to problems in human service practice.
According to Maslow, these needs exist in a hierarchy, which means that individuals cannot address higher-order needs until their most basic needs have been met. If an individual is hungry, cold, scared, or in a life-threatening situation, this person will have difficulty concentrating on love and belonging needs. Likewise, people who get little acceptance or respect from others will have difficulty involving themselves in activities that will lead to self-actualization.
Physiological needs - food, water, shelter, rest
safety needs - protection, security
Social needs - acceptance, love
esteem needs - recognition, independence
6. Describe the concept of wellness.
The concept of wellness, according to Myers, Sweeney, and Witmer (1995) is: A way of life oriented toward optimal health and well-being, in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated by the individual to live life more fully within the human and natural community. Ideally, it is the optimum state of health and well-being that each individual is capable of achieving. (p. 252)
The Creative Self - This aspect of wellness represents the interrelationship between emotions, physical health, and cognition. In addition, a sense of control over one's life; humor; emotional, cognitive, and physical expression allowing us to retain a positive orientation under adversity; and work provide meaning to individual lives.
The Coping Self - Leisure, stress management, self-worth, and realistic beliefs comprise the coping self. The primary focus of the coping self is to help individuals survive, and in fact thrive, during and through life's challenges. . Finally stress management, or handling of life's problems, provides the foundation for positive growth and development.
The Social Self - relationships and connections with friends and family.
The Essential Self - search for meaning(s) for individual lives . It encompasses meaning. Factors associated are spirituality, gender identity, cultural identity, and self-care.
The Physical Self - For individuals to reach wellness, the physical aspects of the human body need good nutrition and exercise.
7. Define client strengths and how strengths of clients are related to human service practice.
client strengths refer to the positive characteristics, abilities, and experiences of the client...paired with an identification of problems they are experiencing, provides the helper with information that can help the client grow and change. The concept of building on strengths can help clients approach their problem areas by using their past successes.
8. List examples of clients as individuals, small and larger groups.
Individual- on their own
Small groups- guidance, support and psycho-educational groups, adult offenders
larger groups- AA as a whole
9. Define involuntary clients
Involuntary clients—referred by schools, prisons, courts, marriage counselors, protective services, and the juvenile justice system. Their cooperation and participation in that service is often monitored, and decisions about subsequent treatment (including release from treatment) are partially based on their observed attitudes and progress. This creates some pressure on the clients to treat the referral seriously.
10. Define inadvertent services.
INADVERTENT SERVICES receipt of services does not depend on the individual's need or ability to qualify for the services, and the client does not have to ask for them. Services that clients receive include the redevelopment of low-cost housing; neighborhood crime-watch programs; shelters for the homeless, AIDS victims, or the elderly; and emergency help for disaster areas.
11. Identify 5 barriers to seeking help.
•Client's perspective of the situation •Embarrassment •Reluctance to admit to having a problem •Perceptions of the helper •Cultural factors •Cost of services •Transportation •Time •Fear
12. Define reluctant clients.
This reluctance stems from their own fears and fear of the reactions of others.
THE RELUCTANT CLIENT Reluctance, in its many forms, may have its positive characteristics. Client reluctance is to be respected. Reluctance is often self-protective, designed to maintain personal integrity. Part of the helping process requires clients to admit there is a problem, to share information about themselves and their environment, and to engage with the helper to change their behaviors and then evaluate the change.
13. List 3 reasons for client dissatisfaction with services provided.
DISSATISFACTION 1. when clients want material assistance from the helper, but the helper wants to focus on personal and interpersonal problems. 2. Receiving unwanted help and advice may lead to dissatisfaction. 3. lack of clarity about the problem and what the intervention or plan will be to resolve it.
14. Describe motivations for choosing a helping profession.
There are several reasons why people choose the helping professions.each may have positive and negative aspects. r the clients'needs.
TABLE 6.1 SUMMARY POINTS: WHY INDIVIDUALS CHOOSE TO WORK IN HELPING PROFESSIONS
HELP OTHERS -Contribute to another's growth - To feel worthwhile as a result of contributing to another's growth is exciting; however, helpers must also ask themselves the following questions: To what extent am I meeting my own needs? Even more important, do my needs to feel worthwhile and to be a caring person take precedence over the client's needs
SELF - EXPLORATION - Discover more about self - The wish to find out more about themselves as thinking, feeling individuals leads some people to major in psychology, sociology, or human services. This is a positive factor, because these people will most likely be concerned with gaining insights into their own behaviors and improving their knowledge and skills.
EXERT CONTROL - Good in administration and organization
POSITIVE ROLE MODELS - Inspired by help from others
15. Define values.
As we grow and learn through our different experiences, general guides to behavior emerge. These guides are values, and they give direction to our behavior. individuals do not have the same value systems. Values are statements of what is desirable— of the way we would like the world to be. They are not statements of fact.
16. Describe the following values in the context of human services:
Acceptance is the ability of the helper to be receptive to another person regardless of dress or behavior.
tolerance: the helper's ability to be patient and fair toward each client rather than judging, blaming, or punishing the client for prior behavior.
Individuality is expressed in the qualities or characteristics that make each person unique, distinctive from all other people. Recognizing and treating each person individually rather than stereotypically is how helpers put this value into practice.
self-determination. The helper allows clients to make up their own minds regarding a decision to be made or an action to be taken. The helper facilitates this action by objectively assisting clients to investigate alternatives and by remembering that the decision is theirs.
confidentiality. This is the helper's assurance to clients that the helper will not discuss their cases with other people—that what they discuss between them will not be the subject of conversation with the helper's friends, family, or other clients.
17. List and describe 5 characteristics of effective helpers.
We identified the following qualities as important: self-awareness, the ability to communicate, empathy, professional commitment, and flexibility.
SELF-AWARENESS - Most authorities in the helping professions agree that helpers must know who they are because this self-knowledge affects what they do. Developing self-awareness is a lifelong process of learning about oneself by continually examining one's beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors. Recognizing stereotypes, biases, and cultural and gender differences are part of the self-awareness process.
ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE - Helpers'effectiveness depends in part on their ability to communicate to the client an understanding of the client's feelings and behaviors (Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008). Listening, a critical helping skill, is the beginning of helping and is necessary for establishing trust, building rapport, and identifying the problem.
EMPATHY - is acceptance of another person. This quality allows the helper to see a situation or experience a feeling from the client's perspective. This may be easier for helpers who have had experiences similar to those of their clients.
RESPONSIBILITY AND COMMITMENT - Feeling a responsibility or commitment to improve the well-being of others is an important attribute of human service professionals. This includes attending to the needs of clients first and foremost. It also means a commitment to delivering high-quality services that reflect evidence-based practice.
FLEXIBILITY - human service professionals to shift their perspectives on the nature of helping, their view of the client and the client's problems, and their preferred interventions. Professionals are willing to reconsider, modify, or abandon their approaches to helping when they encounter difficult or unusual situations.
18. Give examples of the following nonprofessional helpers and describe how they differ from human service professionals: community caretakers, natural helpers, self-help groups, volunteers.
COMMUNITY CARETAKERS, police and clergy, provide essential community service. Professionals in their own fields, they are involved in some aspects of human service work.
NATURAL HELPERS - Hairdressers and bartenders are examples of natural helpers. , they find themselves listening, responding, and discussing alternatives to problem situations in which their customers may find themselves.
SELF-HELP GROUPS - Members share a common problem, they consider themselves peers, and they organize separately from human service organizations. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
VOLUNTEERS - people who give their time and talents free of charge, have a sense of social responsibility, and have little concern for monetary gain.
19. List and describe the 6 roles of the generalist human service professional in providing direct services
The generalist knows a wide range of skills, strategies, and client groups and is able to work effectively in a number of different settings.
Many roles, such as behavior changer, caregiver, communicator, crisis intervener, participant empowerer, and teacher or educator, are included in the category of direct services.
BEHAVIOR CHANGER —activities planned primarily to change clients'behavior, ranging from coaching and counseling to casework, psychotherapy, and behavior therapy.
CAREGIVER —services for people who need ongoing support of some kind, such as financial assistance, day care, social support, and 24-hour care.
COMMUNICATOR —is able to express and exchange ideas and establish relationships with a variety of individuals and groups, including clients, families, colleagues, administrators, and the public.
CRISIS INTERVENTION —services for individuals, families, and communities who are experiencing a disruption in their lives with which they cannot cope. This intervention is short term, focused, and concrete.
EMPOWERER—shares with clients the responsibility for the helping relationship and the development and implementation of a
TEACHER/ EDUCATOR —performs a range of instructional activities, from simple coaching to teaching highly technical content, directed at individuals or groups.
20. List and describe the 7 roles of the generalist human service professional in performing administrative work.
BROKER —helps people get to the existing services and helps make the services more accessible to clients.
Data manager—gathers, tabulates, analyzes, and synthesizes data and evaluates programs and plans.
EVALUATOR—assesses client or community needs and problems, whether medical, psychiatric, social, or educational. Assesses standards of care that reflect evidence-based practice.
FACILITATOR OF SERVICES —brokers (links the client to services) and then monitors the progress the client makes.
PLANNER —engages in making plans with both short-term and long-term clients in order to define accurately their problems and needs, develops strategies to meet the needs, and monitors the helping process. Planners also help develop programs and services to meet client needs.
REPORT (documentation) and grant proposal writer—records the activities of the agency work. include intake interview reports, social histories, detailed treatment plans, daily entries into case notes, requests for resources, rationale and justification for treatment for managed care, and periodic reports for managed care.
RESOURCE allocator—makes recommendations on how resources are to be spent to support the needs of the client. These recommendations are made once priorities are set and prices for services are determined.
21. List and describe the 6 roles of the generalist human service professional in working with the community.
ADVOCATE —pleads and fights for services, policies, rules, regulations, and laws on behalf of clients.
COMMUNITY AND SERVICE NETWORKER —works actively to connect with other helpers and agencies to plan for providing better services to the community and to clients, share information, support education and training efforts, and facilitate linking clients to the services they need.
COMMUNITY PLANNER—works with community boards and committees to ensure that community services promote mental health and self-actualization, or at least minimize emotional stress on people.
CONSULTANT —works with other professionals and agencies regarding their handling of problems, needs, and programs.
COMMUNITY ORGANIZER —helps to get new resources for clients and communities.
OUTREACH —reaches out to identify people with problems, refers them to appropriate services, and follows up to make sure they continue to their maximum rehabilitation.
22. Identify the cornerstone of helping or the medium through which help is offered.
The cornerstone of helping is the helping relationship.
23. Describe how the helping relationship is different from other kinds of relationships.
differs from others in that one person sets aside personal needs to focus on the needs of the other (or others), refraining from expressing opinions or giving advice.
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 203). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
24. Identify the stages of the helping process
identifying the problem, setting goals to resolve the problem, and determining and applying strategies designed to help the client reach those goals.
THE CLIENT ARRIVES When the client enters the office, a climate of respect and acceptance is established if the client is greeted with a smile, a handshake, and an introduction.
EXPLORING THE PROBLEM As the helper and the client begin to explore the problem, the helper should keep those perspectives in mind. The human service concepts of the whole person and the multidimensionality of problems will also guide this phase of the helping process (see Box 7.2). Once the problems are identified, it is time to move to the next stage.
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES the helper and the client set goals and determine how those goals will be reached to resolve the problem. This means addressing the current status of the problem, the client's aspirations and desires, and the client's personal and social resources and strengths. Should the helper find that the client's problem calls for expertise or experience that the helper does not have, the helper should refer the client to another professional who has the necessary knowledge and skills.
TERMINATION - The final stage of the helping process is termination. The relationship between the helper and the client may end in several ways. The most positive conclusion is when the needed services are provided and both participants are satisfied that the objectives have been reached. Unfortunately, not all terminations are so positive; services may be interrupted by either the helper or the client before the objectives have been reached.
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 206). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
25. Identify the foundation for all interpersonal relationships.
Communication is the foundation for all interpersonal relationships. Exchanging messages to understand another's perceptions, ideas, and experiences is especially important in helping relationships. Helping others will be difficult if we do not understand their problems or concerns.
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 209). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
26. Define effective communication.
Communication involves sending a message to another person with the conscious intent of affecting the receiver's behavior. When the receiver interprets the message the way the sender intended, effective communication has taken place. When one person interprets the message differently from the way it was intended, the result is communication failure, the most common source of misunderstandings in interpersonal relationships.
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 209). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
27. Explain the importance of understanding non-verbal communication.
In a normal two-person conversation, more than 65% of the meaning is carried nonverbally. T. Frequently, you may find that a client's nonverbal message will provide you with valuable clues about what the client is thinking or feeling— important ideas that the client is unable to verbalize.
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 210). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
28. Describe the cognitive and affective components of verbal messages.
The cognitive component consists of the facts of a message and reflects the person's thinking processes. This is the realm in which we are most comfortable. A cognitive message addresses such matters as who, what, where, when, and why.
The affective component, the feeling part of the message, may be expressed directly or indirectly. Many clients who are unsure about what they are feeling, or who are simply uncomfortable talking about feelings, may choose to express their feelings indirectly. This means that the individual may not name the feeling at all ("Stop driving so fast!"), or may describe it by telling what he or she feels like doing ("I feel like punching him in the nose").
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 210). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
29. Describe Egan's five behavioral guidelines for helpers to let their clients know that they are physically attending and actively involved (SOLER).
1. S Squarely face the client . This is a posture of involvement. To face away from the client or even at an angle lessens the degree of involvement.
2. O Open posture. This is usually perceived as nondefensive. Crossing arms or legs may not communicate openness or availability.
3. L Lean toward the other person. A natural sign of involvement, this posture is a slight forward inclination. Moving forward or backward can frighten a client or communicate lessened involvement.
4. E Eye contact. This is normal behavior for two individuals who are involved in conversation. It is different from staring.
5. R Relaxed. This means avoiding nervous habits such as fidgeting or tapping a pencil. Behaviors such as these can distract the client.
30. Describe Ivey, Ivey & Zalaquett's 4 dimensions of attending behavior for helpers.
Attending behavior is another way to let the client know the helper is listening. The goal of attending behavior is to encourage the client to talk about and examine issues, problems, or concerns. Attending behavior has four dimensions: three nonverbal components and one verbal component (Ivey, Ivey, & Zalaquett, 2011).
1. Visual/eye contact. If you are going to talk to people, look at them.
2. Vocal qualities. Your vocal tone and speech rate indicate clearly how you feel about another person. Think of how many ways you can say,"I am really interested in what you say"just by altering your vocal tone and speech rate.
3. Verbal tracking. The client has come to you with a topic of concern. Do not change the subject; stick with the client's subject matter.
4. Body language: attentive. Clients know you are interested if you face them squarely and lean slightly forward, have an expressive face, and use facilitative, encouraging gestures. In short, allow yourself to be yourself—authenticity in attending is essential (p. 65).
Woodside, Marianne R.; McClam, Tricia. An Introduction to the Human Services (Page 213). Brooks Cole. Kindle Edition.
31. Describe the difference between open and closed questions
ClOSED questions are those that elicit facts necessary to facilitate the helping process."How old were you when your father died?"and"How many brothers and sisters do you have?"may provide important information regarding the client's family situation if the client is having difficulties at home. Closed questions that require a"yes"or"no"answer should usually be avoided, because they lead the beginning helper to ask more and more questions.
OPEN questions, on the other hand, are broader, allowing the client to express thoughts, feelings, or ideas. They contribute to building rapport with the client and also assist him or her in exploring a situation, a problem, or an interaction. For example,"How did you feel after talking it over with your parents?"asks for the client's view. On the other hand,"Did you feel better after talking with your parents?"can be answered with a simple"yes"or"no,"which does not enhance the helping process.
32. Describe the need for human service professionals to use a multicultural approach.
As these population shifts occur, it is increasingly likely that human service professionals will encounter clients whose cultural backgrounds differ from their own. In fact, it is important to consider each helping encounter as a multicultural experience.
33. Explain the difference between reluctant and resistant clients.
THE RELUCTANT client is one who does not want to come for help in the first place and is more or less forced to come. Such clients may be found in schools, correctional settings, court-related settings, and employment agencies (Egan, 2010).
THE RESISTANT client may come more or less willingly but fail to carry through or participate actively in the helping process. Some of the causes of clients'reluctance and resistance are having negative attitudes about help, seeing no benefits in changing, feeling that getting help means admitting weakness or failure, and seeing no reason for going for help in the first place.
34. Identify 2 different meanings of silence in the helping process.
Silence can mean that the client is waiting for direction from the helper. A SECOND meaning of silence can be that the client is pondering what has been said. Resistance (discussed previously) may also manifest itself as silence; a change of pace or topic may be necessary until the client is ready to deal with what is happening. Silence may also relate to culture, specifically cultural norms. For example, in some cultures women defer to men in conversation. In other cultures, the family speaks for the individuals in the family. Within cultures where individuals may bring shame to the entire family, a client's silence may be a way of protecting the family.
35. Identify the steps of crisis intervention.
INITIAL ASSESSMENT: The FIRST step in crisis intervention is to assess the nature of the precipitating event and the problem. A key question to ask in this assessment is,"What level of danger does the person pose to himself or herself or to others?"
PLANNING THE INTERVENTION: Once the initial assessment is completed, the second step, planning the intervention, begins. The purpose of this step is to restore the person to a precrisis state. Factors considered during this phase are the amount of disruption the crisis has caused in the person's life, the amount of time that has passed since the event, the individual's strengths and coping skills, and the presence or absence of supports in the person's life.
IMPLEMENTING THE INTERVENTION: During this phase, the helper must focus on reality and identify the clients'positive coping mechanisms and support systems. This may help clients deal with feelings that may have been suppressed (such as anger) or feelings that have been denied (such as grief).
RESOLUTION OF THE CRISIS: the case worker and the client plan for the future, reinforcing the new ways of coping. The case worker also helps the client in planning for the future and preparing for any new crises that may arise.
36. Identify and describe 2 different types of crisis.
SITUATIONAL or accidental crises do not occur with any regularity. The sudden and unpredictable nature of this type of crisis makes any preparation or individual control impossible. Examples are fire or other natural disaster, fatal illness, relocation, unplanned pregnancy, and rape.
A DEVELOPMENTALcrisis is an individual's response to a situation that is reasonably predictable in the life cycle. Chapter 5 explained that as individuals grow and develop, they undergo periods of major transition such as childhood to puberty, puberty to adolescence, and adolescence to adulthood. Crisis development has four identifiable phases.
37. Describe resolution-focused brief therapy.
This brief counseling intervention focuses on reaching specific outcomes in a relatively short time by making an immediate difference in the client's life, targeting behaviors that need to be changed and facilitating that change, and helping clients make new choices about thinking and behaving. Action is central to resolution-focused helping but takes place rather quickly. Resolution-focused brief therapy is based upon client strengths with a focus on the present and the future.
There are several STAGES included in resolution-focused brief therapy
1. . The helper establishes rapport and uses listening skills to focus on a precise description of the problem. The helper also assesses client strengths and examples of past successful problem- solving.
2. The helper continues to identify client strengths by asking the client to talk about a time when she experienced positive outcomes. During this phase the client does not have to describe the problem in detail; in fact, the focus is really on what successes the client has had so far in dealing with the problem. The helper wants clients to be able to relate their own problems to normal "problems in living."During this time the helper and the client continue to look for resources such as client characteristics and skills, support of family
3. The helper and client establish specific goals that the client wants to achieve and that the helper can help the client achieve. It is time to write down these goals in concrete and measurable terms.
4. The helper and the client begin to talk about how to reach the goal and the helper continues to talk about client success. The helper also provides the client with"homework"or a specific intervention that the client can work on after the session. Role playing and other strategies help the client practice new behaviors and try to link these behaviors to past successes that have already been discussed.
38. Describe resources for agencies.
These resources include the obvious ones, such as available funds, buildings, land, staff, and short-term goods like equipment and supplies. the skills and talents of the employees of the organization. The skills and talents of patrons of the organization or individuals who volunteer also count as resources. Finding new resources to support agency work helps expand what the agency can do or balances deficits in funding.
39. Describe what is contained in an agency's written mission.
This is a statement that communicates the purpose of the agency by summarizing its guiding principles. A mission statement may identify the population served, the broad goals of the agency, sources of funding, the values that influence decision making, the agency structure, and agency priorities (Lewis, Lewis, Packard, & Souflee, 2012).
40. Define revenue in relation to resources for agencies and how it differs for governmental or voluntary (not-for-profit) organizations.
The term revenue refers to the money an agency receives from four primary sources of funding: federal, state, and local governments; grants and contracts; fees; and donations. It is not unusual for an agency to receive money from multiple sources.
41. Describe the referral process and what human service professionals need to know in order to make effective use of community services.
The actual referral involves a two- step process:
(1) assessing the client's problems and needs, and
(2) providing the link between the client and the needed service. To understand the process of referral, the helper must know when to refer, how to refer, where to refer, and how to develop the referral.
To make a successful referral, the helper must have information about a service or agency. Several considerations about the agency need to be considered by the helper.
1•Will this agency be able to provide the service that the client needs?
2•Does this agency accept referrals from us? Do we have a memorandum of agreement or an informal linkage?
3 •Is the client going to be able to travel to the agency's location?
4 •Is the intake process simple or complicated?
5•Are the eligibility standards difficult to meet?
42. Identify 4 functions of paperwork in human services.
establishing a permanent client record, documenting client history, writing important assessments and reports, documenting referrals and billing units, and providing a record for accountability purposes.
43. Describe encapsulation.
reaction to the stresses and strains experienced by helping professionals is encapsulation— retreating from the engagement of helping and becoming rigid, insensitive, uncaring professionals.
They may feel so threatened and frightened by the difficult tasks they are asked to perform that they quit learning, growing, and trying—thus becoming encapsulated. Encapsulated professionals depend only on their own personal experiences and frames of references, which limits their understanding of their clients.
44. Define burnout and vicarious trauma.
burnout. This condition results from negative changes in attitudes and behavior that are precipitated by job strain. There are identifiable pressures that lead to burnout. Loss of idealism and disappointment in client motivations may result in a loss of commitment to both job and clients. Professionals who experience burnout may also be reacting to a less-than-perfect work setting—one that is too demanding, too frustrating, or too boring. Some symptoms of burnout are a change in attitude about work, lower expectations of performance, severe emotional detachment from work, reduced psychological involvement with clients, and an intense concern with self. With burnout, helpers are likely to perceive work more negatively, resulting in sick days, tardiness, and clock watching.
For human service professionals who help individuals with more severe levels of trauma exposure, such as child abuse, violent crime, natural disasters, or torture, vicarious traumatization may result. trauma? Researchers indicate that vicarious trauma may integrate into the helper's worldview; the world no longer seems a safe and secure place (Harrison & Westwood, 2009). As with symptoms of burnout, vicarious trauma may also influence varying aspects of the helper's life such as relationships, physical health, mental health, and faith and hope (Trippany, White Kress, & Wilcoxon, 2004). In addition, similar to burnout, vicarious trauma may affect the helping abilities, resulting in decreased empathic abilities, defensive reactions, and a decreased concern for clients (Trippany et al., 2004).
Burnout and vicarious trauma are not temporary strains but rather patterns of being and thinking that cannot easily be interrupted unless specific efforts are made
45. Identify 4 reasons for professional development.
One approach that counters the devastating effects of encapsulation, burnout, and vicarious trauma is professional development.
1. A commitment to professional development is a means of keeping positively engaged and well supported while delivering services.
2. The ultimate goal is to be a more effective helper and to be able to respond to each helping opportunity in a way that positively supports the client.
3. Commitment to the profession is also a part of professional development. When human service professionals become active in an organization or become active members of the community, they expand their professional associations and their professional awareness.
4. Returning to school for an advanced degree—whether it be an associate's, baccalaureate, master's, doctorate, or specialist degree—is a legitimate way to continue professional education in the human services.
46. Define community organizing.
Community organizing occurs when the development of a coalition of individuals and communities is powerful enough to continue to create and promote change.
1. Individuals and organizations identify a common goal.
2. Like-minded individuals and organizations consolidate themselves to have a more effective voice in the community.
3. All individual members of the community are welcome to participate in the effort, including politicians, business leaders, citizens, and others.
4. Organizations and agencies are welcome to form a network of the concerned. This network includes schools, financial institutions, social service organizations, political organizations, nonprofit organizations, and others. •The combined effort of many voices has the power to facilitate change.
5. Basic to the work is organizing as a team and gathering information to understand the community and its needs. •Action plans provide the foundation for community change efforts.
47. Define empowerment.
empowerment occurs once the population is identified and a team of professionals and other interested individuals work with that population to build the skills that allow them to advocate for themselves and facilitate their own change.
48. Define the principles of
Autonomy represents the commitment to respect a client's right to define his or her own problems, help choose interventions, and help evaluate successes and satisfactions.
NONMALEFICENCE - essentially means that the professional will not harm the client. This means that human service professionals will not take risks that might, in the short or long run, hurt the client.
BENEFICENCE - defines an act that is in someone's best interest.
FIDELITY - is respecting the trust that clients place in their helpers and guarding against an erosion of that trust. Helpers are careful to fulfill their responsibilities, keep promises, and be honest in their interactions with clients.
VERACITY - means being honest with clients. Human service professionals commit to providing clients with all of the information that they need and to providing fair and honest feedback.
49. Describe the impact of Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California on human service practice
imposed a duty to warn potential victims, are examples of government action that directly affects the ethics of service provision.
50. Describe the purpose and limitations of a code of ethics.
Codes of ethics or ethical standards reflect professional concerns and define the guiding principles of professional activities. As an aid to ethical decision making in dilemmas arising in service delivery, such standards or codes help clarify the professional's responsibilities to clients, to the agency, and to society.
PURPOSES The primary functions of a code of ethics or ethical standards are to establish guidelines for professional behavior and to assist members of the profession in establishing a professional identity.
LLIMITATIONS: Ethical codes do have limitations; they cannot cover every situation. They do, however, present a framework for ethical behavior, although their exact interpretation will depend on the situation to which they are being applied. As a result of this vagueness, codes may have a limited range, and some codes of ethics will likely conflict with others regarding some standard of behavior. Such conflicts pose problems for professionals who are members of more than one professional organization.
51. Identify to whom a particular code of ethics applies.
A code of ethics is binding only on the members of the group or organization that adopts it.
52. Describe the connection between codes of ethics and laws.
The law is generally supportive of, or at least neutral toward, ethical codes and standards. It is supportive in that it enforces minimum standards for practitioners through licensing requirements and generally protects the confidentiality of statements and records provided by clients during service provision. It is neutral in that it allows each profession to police itself and govern the helper's relations with clients and fellow professionals. The law intervenes and overrides professional codes of ethics only when necessary to protect the public's health, safety, and welfare.
53. Describe the ethical implications of increased use of technology in human services.
technology in the human service arena means focusing on several concerns such as a lack of confidentiality, limited training, and at times, unequal access to technology and its accompanying resources.
54. Describe the difference between confidentiality and privileged communication.
There is a basic difference. Confidentiality is a moral obligation grounded in values and ethics (Welfel, 2012); privileged communication is a legal term that allows practitioners to legally refuse to release certain information in response to a subpoena. The term legally is used because privileged communication is a right granted to a group of professionals by state lawmaking bodies. situations in which helpers are ethically or legally obligated to breach confidentiality include: 1. When the client is dangerous to self or others. 2. When there is suspicion of abuse or neglect. 3. When the client brings charges against the counselor. 4. When the client has already introduced privileged material into litigation.
55. Describe relative confidentiality.
the informal sharing of information that occurs in an agency or organizational setting among coworkers or treatment team members and supervisors.
56. Define informed consent.
Informed consent is another example of the rights of clients involved in the helping process. It is the client's right to know about the qualifications of the helper, treatment procedures, costs of services, confidentiality, and access to records. The concept of informed consent extends beyond simply telling the client about such matters. The client must comprehend this information and consent voluntarily.
57. Describe a professional disclosure statement.
This form should include information about the worker and the worker's credentials, which will allow the client to make an informed assessment of the worker's competence. In addition to name, business address, and telephone number, other information may include education and training competency areas, and the name, address, and telephone number of the state government agency that regulates human service delivery.
1. Explain the importance of considering territory in lives and behavior of clients.
It is important to consider territory when considering the behavior of clients because each culture has territorial differences. For example, people from the United States are generally used to having their own living space and yard. While people in the Middle East will live in 1 home with 3 or 4 families, and no yard. People who come from large cities that are overpopulated, will have different territorial instincts than those who come from less populated areas.
2. Describe the concept of personal space and how it differs at times.
There is a physical space surrounding us that encompasses the area that we feel safe, any threat to that area makes us feel uncomfortable. It differs depending on the people we are around (family, friends, strangers), and it also differs depending on culture. For example, people from the United States are generally comfortable standing arms-length away from people, while people from Europe are generally comfortable standing wrist-length.
3. Describe the concept of crowding in both physical and emotional terms
Crowding occurs when personal space and territoriality mechanisms function ineffectively, resulting in an excess of undesired external social contact. Sociologically, people respond to crowding in different ways depending upon the situation. Sometimes humans tolerate crowding, even though it is unpleasant, because they know it is temporary. Sometimes crowding is considered desirable (concerts, parties), if it is perceived as part of the fun, or the expectation of the social setting. Responses to the environment are best understood in 3 stages; Perception, cognition, and spacial behavior.
Perception of the environment refers to the process of becoming aware of a space through the senses of sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste.
Cognition is the mental processing of this sensory information, and may involve the activities of thinking about, remembering, or evaluating the information.
Spatial behavior refers to the responses and reactions to the environmental information acquired through perception and cognition.
4. Identify and describe the 4 sources of diversity.
A microsystem is the individual's immediate surroundings (family and peers). The idea of the microsystem is part of the ecological systems theory, which says that an individual's development is best understood by examining the context of the individual's environmental influences. In micro social work, the helper engages individuals or families to solve problems, including problems with housing, healthcare, and social services. Family therapy and individual therapy also fall under the auspices of micro practice.
The Mezzo System refers to the neighborhood or community. Mezzo social work practice deals with small to medium sized groups, such as neighborhoods, schools, or other local organizations. Some examples include community organizing, management of a social work organization or focus on institutional or cultural change rather than individual clients.
The macro system is the culture that an individual lives in. Beliefs, customs, government, and society all play a role in the macro system. The practice of macro system social work is the effort to help clients by intervening in large systems. Examples include lobbying to change a health care law, organizing a state-wide activist group or advocating for large-scale social policy change. Marco practice empowers clients by involving them in systemic change.
A holistic view means that we are interested in engaging and developing the whole person, and considering all of the client's needs. You can think of this as different levels, physical, emotional, mental and spiritual. It's the concept that the human being is multi-dimensional. We have conscious and unconscious aspects, rational and irrational aspects.
A holon is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part. Each entity is a symbol of the whole part.
HB (D) = f[(P <---> S) x (S <---> S)]
human behavior (development) = function(person <->systems) x (systems<-> systems) - exosystem
In the ecological perspective of human development, the layer of the environment that does not directly contain the developing person, but that affects the settings in which the person lives.
The focal system is the system chosen to receive primary attention. It identifies the perspective from which the observer views, and analyzes the system and it's environment.
The basic "stuff" of a system is energy. Energy can be in the form of information and resources. Information is ingested as energy to the same extent that food fulfills biological needs. "Transfers of energy/information" take place between social systems, groups, and people.
Energy is defined as: capacity for action, action, power to effect change.
organization of energy
Organization refers to the grouping and arranging of parts to form a whole in order to put a system into "working order"
System organization secures, expends, and conserves energy to maintain the system and further its purposes.
The resources needed to carry out a process or provide a service
through- put (transformation)
Changing the values of a dataset using a mathematical operation. The process by which energy input is transformed into a usable product, or output.
The specific results and tangible products or goals. The end result.
The absence of organization. The lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder.
The interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects.
Boundaries define the expected and accepted psychological and social distance between practitioners and clients. Boundaries are derived from ethical practices in the workplace, which refer to the prescribed standard of conduct that the members of a certain organization and business should apply in their work relationships. Ethics are derived from human values such as respect, responsibility, integrity and the personal behavioral standards a person holds.
linkage of interface
A shared boundary between any two persons and/or systems through which information is shared. The place or area at which different things meet and communicate with or affect each other.
An eco-map (or ecomap) is a graphical representation or diagram that shows all of the systems at play in an individual's life. It depicts the connections between a family and other systems in it's ecological environment, and was originally devised to depict the complexity of the client's story. Eco-maps are used in individual and family counseling within the social work profession.
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