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27 terms

Basic Brain Vocabulary

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Medulla Oblongota
The part of the brain that regulates basic functions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, sneezing. Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Autonomic reflex center for maintaining body homeostatis; adjusts force and rate of heart contraction, adjusts blood vessel diameter for bp, generate respiratory rhythm, rate and depth of breathing (w/pons), regulate vomiting, hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing.
Optic Chiasm
The part of the brain where the optic nerves cross., the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
Frontal Lobe
The lobe of the cortex that allows us to plan, create abstract thought, and contains much of our personality. Controls most voluntary movement and contains the Precentral gyrus., associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving, part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences
Brainstem
Structure that controls basic life functions and includes the medulla, pons, and midbrain., The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Postcentral gyrus
The part of the brain that processes touch sensation and is part of the parietal lobe. Also called the somatosensory cortex.
Cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
Coordinates eye movements and balance.
Helps us to perform and modulate voluntary motor skills., part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes,
Hypothalamus
Part of the brain involved with regulating many aspects of our emotional lives such as anger, sex, thirst, hunger, regulates body temperature, a homeostatic control center, it controls the pituitary gland and serves as a biological clock.
Parietal lobe
This lobe is important for integrating senses, processing visual-spatial information and for speech and number recognition.
Contains the post-central gyrus which detects and locates all touch sensations on our body.
Precentral gyrus
Portion of the frontal lobe that is the starting point for all voluntary movements.
Occipital lobe
The lobe at the back of the brain and contains the major processing and interpreting areas for our vision.
Pons
Helps to maintain posture and is also involved in sensory analysis of hearing input.
It is also important for sleep patterns and levels of consciousness.
Connects the cerebellum to the cerbral cortex.
Temporal lobe
The lobe responsible for processing hearing information.
Wernicke's area, a location in this lobe, is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.
Thalamus
The primarily a sensory integration center.
All the senses, except smell send connections through this structure before they reach the cortex to be analyzed.
The anterior portion of the thalamus is involved with memory, motivation, and sleeping cycles.
Broca's area
An important area for the formation of speech in the Frontal lobe.
Cerebral Cortex
Convoluted portion of the brain that is divided into four lobes.
Hippocampus
It is strongly involved with memory, particularly changing short-term to long-term memory and memories for places.
Amygdala
This structure of the brain is associated strongly with fear responses and emotions.
When removed, things that would normally create fearful responses in organisms no longer create the same effect.
Wernike's Area
An area in the Temporal lobe that is crucial to our ability to interpret both written and spoken language.
Cingulate gyrus
A portion of the cortex that helps associate memories with "triggers" such as smells or pain.
Also seems to help focus attention on emotionally charged events.
Basal Ganglia
From an emotional standpoint are very important for the "reward" system of the brain that gives a sense of pleasure.
Forebrain
Consists of the diencephalon, including the thalmus, optic chiasm, and hypothalmus., Top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
Dura mater
The outermost meninges covering the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue; its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull.
Pia mater
The innermost meninges covering the brain; delicate and highly vascular.
Choroid plexus
Structure that forms the cerebrospinal fluid.
Gyrus
Folds or bumps on the surface of the cerebrum
Sulci
Shallow fissures (grooves) that divide the brain and increase surface area
Limbic system
Associated with emotions (fear and aggression) and drives (hunger, thirst, and sex) and includes the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Cingulate Gyrus.