Chapter 7: Meteorology


Terms in this set (...)

microscale winds
smallest scale of air motion
mesoscale winds
middle-sized phenomena are usually less than 100km (60 miles) across and include strong updrafts and downdrafts, tornadoes, as well as a number of unique wind systems known as local winds
generally lasts for several minutes and occasionally exist for hours
macroscale winds
largest wind patterns; divided into 2 categories: planetary-scale and synoptic-scale
planetary-scale winds
exemplified by the westerlies and trade winds that carried sailing vessels back and forth across the Atlantic during the opening of the New World
synoptic-scale winds
somewhat smaller macroscale circulation called ______, also referred to as a weather-map scale, are about 1000km (600 miles) in diameter and are easily identified in weather maps
develops as cooler air over the water moves landward toward the area of lower pressure
land breeze
at night, the land cools more rapidly than the sea, and a ___ may develop, with airflow off the land
valley breeze
this warmer air glides up the mountain slope and generates a ____. Can often be identified by the cumulus clouds that develop over adjacent mountain peaks and may account for late afternoon thundershowers that occur on warm summer days.
mountain breeze
rapid heat loss along the mountain slopes cool the air, which drains into the valley and causes a ____.
warm, dry winds called ____ sometimes move down the slopes of mountains in the US
similar winds (chinooks) in the alps are called ____
Santa Ana
another chinook-like wind that occurs in the US is the ______. Increase the threat of fire in dry areas like CA
katabatic wind or fall wind
local winds originate when cold, dense air situated over a highland area such as the ice sheets of Greenlands and Antarctica, begins to move
karabatic winds which blows from the French Alps toward the Mediterranen Sea
karabatic winds which originates in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula and blows to the Adriatic Sea
country breeze
mesoscale wind is associated with large urban areas
hadley cell
In the zones between the equator and roughly 30 degrees latitude north and south, the circulation closely resembles the convection model proposed by Hadley
horse latitudes
Because surface winds are sometimes weak between 20 degrees and 35 degree latitude, this belt was named the _____ because early Spanish sailing ships crossing the Atlantic were sometimes becalmed and stalled for long periods of time in these waters.
trade winds
The equatorward flow is deflected by the Coriolis force to form the reliable ____, so called because they enabled early sailing ships to move goods between Europe and N America
The trade winds from both hemispheres meet near the equator, in a region that has a weak pressure gradient. This zone is called the ____. Here light winds and humid conditions provide the monotonous weather
ferrel cell
In the three-cell model, the circulation between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude called the ____ was proposed by William Ferrel to account for the westerly surface winds in the middle latitudes
prevailing westerlies
known to Ben Franklin, who noted the storms migrated from west to east across the colonies
polar cell
circulation in a ____ is driven by subsidence near the poles that produces a surface flow that moves equatorward
polar easterlies
circulation in a polar cell is driven by subsidence near the poles that produces a surface flow that moves equatorward; this is called the _____ in both heispheres
polar front
the region where the flow of cold air clashes with warm air has been named the _____.
equatorial low
Near the equator, the warm rising branch of the Hadley cells is associated with the low-pressure zone known as the _____.
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
visible as a band of clouds near the equator, region of low pressure where the trade winds converge
subtropical highs
About 20 degrees to 35 degrees on either side of the equator, where the westerlies and trade winds originate and go their separate ways, are the high-pressure zones known as the _____.
subpolar low
Here the polar easterlies and the westerlies clash in the low-pressure convergence zone known as the ____.
polar highs
near Earth's [poles are the _____, from which the polar easterlies originatew
siberian high
a very strong high-pressure center positioned over the frozen landscape of northern Asia, is the most prominent feature on the January pressure map
Bermuda/Azores high
Pressure system located near the island of Bermuda in July and migrates eastward toward the Azores, a group of volcanic islands about 130km (850 miles) west of Portugal, as winter approaches
Aleutian Low and the Icelandic low
cyclinic cells situated over the N Pacific and N Atlantic, respectively.
refers to a particular wind system that reverses its direction twice each year
rossby waves
longest wave patterns usually consist of 4 to 6 meanders that encircle the globe
jet streams
fast streams of air, once considered analogous to jets of water
polar jet stream
most prevalent jet stream occurs along a major frontal zone called the polar front and is appropriately named the _____.
subtropical jet stream
a semipermanent jet over the subtropics is called the _____ and is mainly a wintertime phenomenon
nearly circular ocean currents centered over the 5 major subtropical high-pressure systems-- located in both the southern and northern Atlantic and pacific oceans and i the indian ocean
the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water, is a common wind-induced vertical movement
el nino
a gradual warming of waters in the eastern pacific in December or January
la nina
colder than normal sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern pacific
southern oscillation
seesaw pattern of atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western Pacific is called the ______.
the link between the weather occurring in widely separated regions of the globe is called a _____.