AP Lang Rhetorical Terms
Terms in this set (49)
A story in which characters and settings stand for abstract ideas or moral qualities
ex. tortoise and the hare
a series of words with the same letters
ex. sarah sells seashells on the seashore
a reference to a well known thing with out explicitly saying it
ex. your backyard is the Garden of Eden
comparison between two things, similar to simile/metaphor but more elaborate
ex.Structure of an atom is like a solar system. Nucleus is the sun and electrons are the planets revolving around their sun.
Repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more successive verses, clauses, or sentences
ex. I have a dream speech
A short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person
speaking to non living things
ex. calling out to a spirit
A construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions
ex. I came. I conquered.
A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed
ex. ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country
a word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation
ex. penny pincher
Arguments against the speaker's own position
ex. I like steak and although they kill cows for steak, the cows fulfill their purpose
Deduction v. Induction
starts with a set of possibilities then narrows it down vs. starting a small amount of info then increasing
ex. murder mystery and "everyone is so nice in a small town" based off of meeting 2 people
A writer's or speaker's choice of words
ex. house v. home
A descriptive name or phrase used to characterize someone or something
the repetition of a word at the end of successive clauses or sentences
ex. ... I will. ... I will
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
ex. dying and going to a better place
support for claims and stances
ex. quotes and other stories
To make an overstatement or to stretch the truth
ex. I ran a million miles
a fallacy to make a broad statement over little info
ex. all boys are dumb
a sentence that calls to action
ex. You must save the polar bears
extreme exaggeration, usually in satire
ex. it was so cold I saw polar bears wearing jackets
Language that appeals to the senses, "paints" a picture
ex. the ocean was crashing against the sand and I could smell the salt
A contrast between expectation and reality, 3 types: situational, dramatic and verbal
ex. an accountant going bankrupt
Placement of two things closely together to emphasize comparisons or contrasts
ex. light and dark
A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite
ex. the cake is not bad
comparison not using like or as
ex. you are a flower
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it
ex. pen is mightier than the sword
A method of informing that explains something by recounting events
Ex. first this then that...
A word that imitates the sound it represents.
ex. boom pow
ex. my day was the best day ever
A figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms
ex. civil war, jumbo shrimp
A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
ex. you can save money by spending it
the use of successive verbal constructions in poetry or prose that correspond in grammatical structure, sound, meter, meaning, etc
ex. I am ... I am... I am
A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.
ex. Saturday Night Live, Spaceballs (starwars)
Deliberate use of many conjunctions
ex. I like dogs, but you like cats, and she likes cows, but that doesn't matter.
play on words
ex. you've got to be kitten me
a word or phrase that clarifies, modifies, or limits the meaning of another word or phrase
ex. I will go to dinner if there is free bread
to give human characteristics to non-human things
ex. the sun smiled
The part of an argument wherein a speaker or writer anticipates and counters opposing points of view
ex. Although researchers say chocolate causes an increase of fat, it increases endorphins.
Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis
ex. Let us... Let us
Any question asked for a purpose other than to obtain the information the question asks.
ex. why me?
the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.
ex. south park
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
ex. all men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefor Socrates is a mortal
A thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract.
ex. american flag symbolizes freedom
A figure of speech in which a part is substituted for the whole
ex. calling a car, "wheels"
ex. I feel better by petting dogs/ By petting dogs, I feel better
Attitudes and presuppositions of the author that are revealed by their linguistic choices (diction, syntax, rhetorical devices)
ex. bitter, happy, critical etc.
the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
ex. I only lost $100
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