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390 terms

Praxis II

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Layers of the Earth
crust, mantle, core
Igneous Rocks
formed from cooling of molten rock, called lava.
Metamorphic Rocks
formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface. egin to form at 12-16 kilometers beneath the earth's surface. They begin changing at temperatures of 100 degrees Celsius to 800 degrees Celsius.
Sedimentary Rocks
formed in layers contain plant and animal remains,
minerals found in saltwater
salt (sodium chloride), iron, phosphates, nitrates, magnesium
Freshwater bodies
lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, marshes.
shore
shoreline, Beaches, Sandbar, Spit, Bay, Lagoon, Barrier islands, Arches and stacks
shoreline
the boundary where the land meets the sea
Beaches
deposits of sand and other fragments of rock left along the shoreline boundary
Sandbar
water currents deposit sand and debris in deeper water, parallel to the shore, and build up
Spit
a narrow piece of land which forms along a curved shoreline
Bay
part of the coastline where the rock has been gradually eroded by a large body of water
Lagoon
a body of water cut off from the sea by a sandbar or reef.
Barrier islands
islands made from sand and debris deposited parallel to the shore
Arches and stacks
formations of resistant rock left standing after softer rock had been worn away (eroded)
Continental shelf
underwater land at the edges of the continents
Continental slope
a steep slope running from the edge of the continental shelf down to the ocean floor; connects the continental shelf and the oceanic crust
Abyssal plain
wide, flat area that makes up most of the ocean floor
Mid-oceanic ridges
mountain ranges on the ocean floor
Weathering
the breakdown of rock to form sediment.
Erosion
weathered particles are moved from one location to another.
Stratus
smooth layers of low clouds; a low cloud form extending over a large area at altitudes of usually 2000 to 7000 feet (600 to 2100 meters)
Cumulus
dense puffy cloud having turret-shaped tops (rounded outlines), flat bottoms
Cirrus
feather-like; : a high wispy white cloud usually of minute ice crystals formed at altitudes between about 20,000 and 40,000 feet (6,000 and 12,000 meters)
6 major biomes on land:
rainforest, desert, grassland,deciduous forest, boreal forest, tundra
"Big Bang" Theory
named in 1950 by British scientist, Fred Hoyle
Paleontology
the science studying former life through fossils
Geologic time scale
sequence of events in the Earth's history
Paleozoic Era
543 -248 million years ago
Mesozoic era
248 - 65 million years ago
Cenozoic era
65 million years ago to present
Galaxy
a system of stars, gases, and dust all held together as a group by gravity
Milky Way
Earth's galaxy
Solar system
consists of a star, a group of planets and their satellites
Comets
large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits. Grows a tail when approaching the sun
Meteoroids
Rarely larger than a grain of sand.a meteor in outerspace, Does not orbit the sun
Meteors
"shooting stars" or "falling stars".must strike the first layers of the Earth's atmosphere.
Cells
: a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently
Nucleus
the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located; a cellular organelle of eukaryotes that is essential to cell functions (as reproduction and protein synthesis), is composed of nucleoplasm and a nucleoprotein-rich network from which chromosomes and nucleoli arise, and is enclosed in a definite membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a system of interconnected vesicular and lamellar cytoplasmic membranes that functions especially in the transport of materials within the cell and that is studded with ribosomes in some places
Chromosomes
rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are usually ring-shaped in prokaryotes (as bacteria), and contain all or most of the genes of the organism
Cell Membrane
controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; outer "wall." a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm
Nuclear membrane
controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus; inner "wall." a double membrane enclosing a cell nucleus and having its outer part continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi bodies
a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells; receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell
Ribosomes
make proteins
Cytoplasm
substance which holds all other parts in suspension within the cell
Mitochondria
the "powerhouse" of the cell; the site of energy production and release
Lysosomes
Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
Vacuoles
may be used by plants to store water
Plant Cell wall
made of cellulose ; gives shape and support to plant cells; tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer
Chloroplasts
organelles that contain chlorophyll which traps sunlight to help make food via photosynthesis
Taxonomy
the science of classifying living things
Phototropism
directional growth in which the direction of growth is determined by the direction of the light source.
Geotropism
is the growth of roots downwards, towards gravity
Roots
rincipal water-absorbing organs of a plant; must have vascular tissues, arranged in a particular way, Anchors plant, absorbs water and minderals, and stores food reserves
Stems
major aerial support system in most plants. Sometimes called a stalk or trunk, it holds up the plant into the air and provides a pathway for fluid transport between the shoot and the root
Leaves
part of the plant where most of the food is made
Diffusion
the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration.
Transpiration
the evaporation of water from plants
Respiration
plants use oxygen to break down sugar to release energy; 2 phase process the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell.
Organ Systems
re composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major ones in the human body
Ligaments
fibrous bands or sheets of connective tissue linking two or more bones, cartilages, or structures together.
Tendons
a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone[1] and is capable of withstanding tension.
Cartilage
a tough, elastic tissue that can withstand pressure
Muscles
cells and tissues that allow movement of an organ or body part
Skeletal muscle
attached to bones and allows voluntary (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs
Smooth muscle
found in internal organs and aids in involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems; are found particularly in blood vessel walls, surrounding the intestine (particularly the gizzard in birds) and in the uterus.
Cardiac muscle
forms powerful walls of the heart; controlled by autonomic nervous system; type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium
Cornea
transparent thin outer covering of the eye that protects the iris and pupil; ogether with the lens, it refracts light, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power
Pupil
small hole in the center of the eye, through which light enters; central transparent area (shows as black)
Iris
the colored muscles in the eye; a ring of muscle fibers located behind the cornea and in front of the lens. It contracts and expands, opening and closing the pupil, in response to the brightness of surrounding light; helps protect the retina
Lens
bends the rays of light to focus them on the retina
Retina
lines the back wall of the eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells; seven layers of alternating cells and processes which convert a light signal into a neural signal ("signal transduction").
Optic nerve
also called cranial nerve II, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Heart
strong muscle which pumps blood to the lungs, organs, tissues and cells
Aorta
central conduit from the heart to the body;largest artery in the body,arises from the left ventricle of the heart, goes up (ascends) a little ways, bends over (arches), then goes down (descends) through the chest and through the abdomen to where ends by dividing into two arteries called the common iliac arteries that go to the legs.
Carotid artery
artery on each side of the neck that supplies blood to the brain and face
Superior vena cava
the largest vein returning deoxygenated blood into the heart
Capillaries
smallest vessels in the body where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged located within the tissues of the body.
Digestion
is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed;is a form of catabolism
Asexual reproduction
s reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization.
Budding
reproduce by growing a new organism out of a bud off a parent. Hydras exhibit this type of reproduction
Fragmentation
animal divides itself and each piece grows the missing parts and becomes a full offspring
Parthenogenesis
production of offspring from eggs which do not require fertilization by a "partner."
Trait
characteristic, such as eye color or height, which is coded for by genes contained on chromosomes
Work
refers to an activity involving a force and movement in the directon of the force.
Genes
the coded instructions in DNA; the "genetic code;" they are the basic units of inheritance
Chromosomes
A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.
Mitosis
2-step process by which all body cells of multi-cellular organisms multiply
Anemia
condition of a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood
Hemophilia
lack of platelets, which help the blood to clot
Goiter
disorder caused by lack of iodine and the over-activity (enlargement) of the thyroid gland
Rickets
a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.
Down's Syndrome
genetic error in which an extra chromosome (#21) is passed on
Homeostasis
tendency of a living organism towards balance and equilibrium
Endocrine system
system of glands which secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
Pituitary gland
small gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth, metabolism, and reproduction
Pancreas
gland behind the stomach that functions in both the endocrine and digestive system
Thyroid gland
large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
Migration
the movement by animals over long distances in order to reproduce, mate, raise young, or find food
Hibernation
a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate.
Instinctive behavior
inborn responses to stimuli; An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli.
Unity
state or quality of being in accord; harmony
Adaptation
The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.
Evolution
1. chemical -organic molecules were first formed. 2. development of single-celled organisms- capable of asexual reproduction. 3. development of complex, multi-cellular organisms - capable of sexual reproduction.
Theory of "Natural Selection."
theory that the earth's species have changed and diversified over time. first described by Charles Darwin. expression "survival of the fittest" was used to describe this process in the 19 century
Community
ecology, a general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem.
Ecosystems
describes a community, its habitat, and all of the relationships within that habitat.
Ecology
the study of the relationships between organisms and their habitat
Green plants
producers because they make their own food
Herbivores
animals that eat green plants, are primary consumers
joule
a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
Decomposers
break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem
Birth
main way new individuals join a population
Death
main way individuals leave a population
Immigration
individuals move into a population from elsewhere, thus increasing its size
Emigration
individuals move out of a population to elsewhere, thus decreasing its size
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
Solids
have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern
Liquids
have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid
Gases
no definite size or shape; will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid
Mass
the amount of matter in an object; its "size";
Weight
the force of the Earth's gravity which pulls down on an object
Density
amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume; is the relative "heaviness" of an object
Viscosity
internal property of a fluid that offers resistance to flow.
Freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid will become a solid.
Boiling point
temperature at which a liquid will become a gas; this is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a given liquid reaches atmospheric pressure
other physical properties of matter
Color, Hardness, Size, Shape and Odor
Sublimation
a change from a solid to a gas without going through a liquid state
Condensation
a change from a gaseous to a liquid state caused by lowering the temperature
Evaporation
a change from a liquid to a gaseous state caused when a liquid is heated to its boiling point
pH scale
a range of numbers that measure of the strength of an acid or base
Catalyst
a substance which hastens a chemical reaction without itself undergoing chemical change
Mixture
contains 2 or more different substances that have not undergone a chemical reaction
Solution
a mixture in which small particles are spread evenly throughout a liquid, resulting in a physical change, but not a chemical change, in the liquid
Atoms
the smallest piece of matter that can exist on its own
Element
substance which contains only one kind of atom Cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means. There are 103 that are named with most of them occurring naturally
Periodic Table
lists the elements in order of their atomic number displays the full name of each element, its symbol, as well as its atomic mass
Molecule
an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bonds.
Compound
substances made up of two or more elements that are combined in a chemical reaction
Motion
a change in position of an object or substance
Force
a push or pull acting on an object. can start a motion, stop a motion
Speed
the rate of motion of a body; expressed in distance per unit of time
Velocity
the rate of change of position. It is a vector physical quantity; both speed and direction are required to define it.
Distance
the extent of space between two objects or places
Acceleration
the rate of change in velocity when the velocity increases
Deceleration
the rate of change in velocity when the velocity decreases
Centripetal force
pulls the object inward; is a force that makes a body follow a curved path; it is always directed orthogonal to the velocity of the body, toward the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.
Centrifugal force
n object traveling in a circle behaves as if it is experiencing an outward force
Newton's law of motion 1
Every object at rest remains at rest, and every object in motion continues moving in a straight line at a steady rate, unless acted upon by an outside force
Inertia
tendency of an object to resist any change in velocity
Newton's law of motion 2
the force of an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration.
Newton's law of motion 3
To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Friction
the resistance of an object to the medium through which, or upon which, it is traveling
Equilibrium
condition in which all forces and influences acting upon an object cancel each other out and equalize
Potential energy
energy stored within a physical system as a result of the position or configuration of the different parts of that system. It has the potential to be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, and to do work in the process; measured in Joules
Kinetic Energy
energy due to the motion of an object
Radiant energy
energy of electromagnetic waves; energy that travels through space in the form of waves
Chemical energy
energy released during a chemical reaction
Solar energy
The energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear energy
energy stored in the nucleus of every atom may be released by a fission reaction or by a fusion reaction
fission
splitting atoms into two smaller parts
fusion
joining the nuclei of atoms
Lever
a bar that pivots about a fixed point and thus reduces the amount of the force required to lift an object
Pulley
one or more wheels connected by a loop of rope which reduces the amount of force
Inclined plane
slanted surface used to raise objects
Wheel and Axle
large wheel attached to a smaller rod; the wheel rotates about the axle
Screw
reduces the amount of force needed to do the work
Wedge
he active twin of the inclined plane. It does useful work by moving, reduces the amount of force needed to do the work; functions by converting a force applied to its blunt end into forces perpendicular (normal) to its inclined surfaces
Waves
rhythmic disturbances that carry energy
Water waves
are oscillating (up and down) movements in which the surface of water rises and falls, the particles travel in clockwise circles.
Sound waves
the action of two objects hitting each other causes the molecules of air to vibrate
Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum
the arrangement of different types of wavelengths and photons
Electromagnetic waves
are transverse waves that travel at the speed of light in a vacuum; are formed when an electric field couples with a magnetic field
Light waves
have medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum.
Infrared waves
the next longest wavelengths after light waves
Microwaves
the next longest wavelengths after infrared rays
Radio waves
have the longest wavelengths and have lowest frequencies
X-rays and gamma rays
have some of the shortest waves in the spectrum
Conduction
the transfer of heat from particle to particle that occurs when two substances of different temperatures come into contact with each other
Convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of matter
Radiation
the transfer of heat that does not require matter (through empty space)
Conductors
substances that conduct heat or electricity
Insulators
substances that slow the movement of heat or electricity
Electricity
the flow of electrons (negatively charged atomic particles) through a conductor to create energy
Voltage
easurement of how much potential energy exists to move electrons from one particular point in that circuit to another particular point
Amperes (Amps)
measure the flow of electrical current (the steady flow of electrons through a conductor)
Ohms
Ω, are a unit of measurement of electrical resistance. Resistance is the opposition of the flow of something
Magnetism
the property of some objects, like iron, aluminum, nickel and cobalt, which allows them to attract other magnetic objects to themselves like poles repel; opposite poles attract; ed to describe how materials respond on the microscopic level to an applied magnetic field;
Electrical circuit
an unbroken path (closed loop) formed by electrical conductors through which electricity can flow
Echoes
sound waves can bounce off (reflect) objects which have smooth surfaces
Scientific inquiry
conducting investigations and looking for explanations to questions about the physical world
Nicolaus Copernicus
demonstrated that the Sun is the center of the solar system
Galileo Galilei
wrote about acceleration, motion and gravity; developed the first astronomical telescope and made many discoveries in astronomy
scientific law
a statement of expected outcome under a particular set of conditions, generally accepted to be true and universal; may be expressed in terms of a simple mathematical equation;
scientific theory
a statement based on educated observations which may be tested and may be proven; is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based on proven hypotheses and verified multiple times
Conservation laws
Conservation of Mass/Matter, of Energy, of Momentum, and Charge Conservation
Conservation of Mass/Matter
matter cannot be created or destroyed but can be rearranged
Conservation of Energy
energy must remain constant in a system and cannot be recreated but it can change forms
Conservation of Momentum
total momentum remains the same unless acted upon by an outside force (p=mv, where m is mass and v is velocity)
Charge Conservation
principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed
atmosphere
layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity
lithosphere
the rigid, outer part of the earth, composed of the crust and mantle
hydrosphere
all the water on the earth's surface, and sometimes including water over the earth's surface, such as clouds
biosphere
the regions of the surface of the earth, atmosphere, and hydrosphere occupied by living organisms; Includes all organic matter that has not yet decomposed
layers of the atmosphere
troposphere (half of the atmosphere, where weather occurs), stratosphere (jets fly), mesosphere (rock fragments and meteors burn), thermosphere (auroras), and exosphere (outer limits, atmosphere thins)
layers of the Earth's crust
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
crust
5-30 miles thick not fixed, a mosaic of moving plates
mantle
1,800 miles thick, plasticity (ability of solid to flow) circulating currents causing the plates to move; Constitutes about 84 percent of Earth's volume. predominantly solid
outer core
1,300 miles thick, viscous liquid, where the earth's magnetic field originates
inner core
800 miles to the center; a solid
Plate tectonics
the earth's crust is divided into plates of various sizes and thickness; these continually shift and drift; there are continental plates and oceanic plates
Convergent plate movement (collision)
results in mountains, volcanoes, ridges, recycling of crust
Transform (rubbing) plate movement
movement where two plates slide laterally past each other;results in earthquakes
Divergent (separating) plate movement
results in new crust, rivers, oceans, lakes
heat
there are two sources: solar energy and radioactivity
Radioactivity
one of two of the Earth's heat sources; from the Earth's core,
Weathering
the process of changing structures through the effects of wind, water, ice, sun, and gravity
Erosion
the process of moving the weathered materials (rivers, wind)
limestone
Rock that comes from sea shells and corals, rather than the Earth's mantle
Igneous rock
forms when magma cools (i.e. granite and pumice)
Sedimentary rock
forms when layers of sediment are compressed (i.e. sandstone, coal, limestone, shale)
Metamorphic rock
forms through the transformation of igneous and sedimentary rocks through heat and pressure (i.e. marble, slate, quartzite)
Principle of Uniformitarianism
The scientific laws the govern the Earth today are the same since the beginning of time (the present is the key to the past)
Law of Superposition
The oldest rock and events are found at the bottom of formations, and the youngest at the top
Eons
a very long or indefinite period of time that explains the age of the universe and can be measured by billions of years; the geological time scale describes two - both equal to one billion years
Precambrian time
geological time from the formation of the Earth itself to the start of the Cambrian period. This immensely long stretch of time - some four billion years or more - saw the formation of the Earth as a planetary body, including geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere, as well as the appearance of the biosphere and hence the transformation of the Earth from a dead planet to a living one.
Phanerozoic Eon
the time since the formation of life-forms to the present day; divided into three eras: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
Paleozoic Era
early life (543-248 million years ago); single cell organisms, shells, mollusks, brachiopods, rise of first vertebrates, rise of land plants, amphibians, insects, seed plants, and trees, and reptiles
Mesozoic Era
middle life (245-144 million years ago); rise of mammals and dinosaurs; the rise of birds; extinction of dinosaurs, rise of flowering plants
Cenozoic Era
present life (65 million years ago-present) the rise of primates, horses, hominids and modern manangiosperm or flowering plants, the insects, the newest fish (teleostei) or modern birds.
solar system
the sun and all bodies that revolve around it
meteoroid
any solid object moving in interplanetary space that is much larger than an atom or a molecule, but smaller than a few meters in diameter
meteor
created when meteorites are burning through the Earth's atmosphere
comet
revolves around the sun and possesses a tail and a nucleus; the tail always points away from the sun due to solar wind
constellation system
a type of boundary system astronomers use for organizing the night sky; there are 88 regions, and each region is named for a group of stars found within it
Earth's moon
takes one lunar month to revolve around the earth (28 days); the same side is seen from the earth at all times
moon phases
new moon, (waxing or waning) crescent moon, quarter moon, (waxing or waning) gibbous moon, and full moon
lunar eclipse
eclipse which occurs whenever the moon passes behind the earth such that the earth blocks the sun's rays from striking the moon
solar eclipse
ccurs when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth so that the Sun is fully or partially covered. This can only happen during a new moon, when the Sun and Moon are in conjunction as seen from the Earth.
Monera
single-celled organism without nuclei (bacteria); One of the five kingdoms of living organisms in the five-kingdom classification, consisting of microscopic usually monocellular prokaryotic organisms that mostly reproduce by asexual fission, sporulation, or budding; it includes the bacteria and cyanophytes (blue-green algae), as well as certain primitive pathogenic microbes, such as the Rickettsias.
Protista
eukaryotic one-celled living organisms distinct from multicellular plants and animals: protozoa, slime molds, and eukaryotic algae
Fungi
a group of simple plants that have no chlorophyll; single-celled and multi-celled organisms (mushrooms, mold, yeast, lichen)
Plantae
multi-cellular plant organisms (moss, fern, pine, flowering); Kingdom thst contains ontains nearly 300,000 different species of plants
Animalia
Kingdom comprised of multi-cellular animals
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti)
Linnean classification system
phylum
contains organisms genetically related through ancestry; nformally, informally can be thought of as grouping animals based on general body plan,[3] as well as developmental or internal organizations
class
a more specific breakdown of phylum, in which the group shares common attribute(s)
order
Taxonomic classificaton that specifically divides class into smaller shared characteristics. Ie Primates
family
divides order into smaller groups in which organisms have multiple traits in common, usually comprising several to many genera
genus
Classification generally consisting of a group of species exhibiting similar characteristics
characteristics of all living things
made of protoplasm, organized into cells, use energy, capable of growth, have definite life spans, reproduce, affected by, adapt and respond to environment
cell
the fundamental unit that composes the structure and function of life
tissue
An aggregate of cells in an organism that have similar structure and function.
organs
a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose
system (in an organism)
a group of organs working together
organism
An individual living thing that can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, and maintain homeostasis. It can be a virus, bacterium, protist, fungus, plant or an animal.
functions of a cell
manufactures proteins and other materials for building cells, molecule transport, reproduction, and energy conversion
cell membrane
made of two layers of lipids, called a lipid bilayer, permits inward passage of needed items; outward passage of waste
nucleus
control center; contains DNA
cytoplasm
all materials outside the nucleus; a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended. eighty percent water and usually clear in color
endoplasmic reticulum
transport canals that travel from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
ribosomes
the components of cells that make proteins from amino acids.
mitochondria
Organelles in animal and plant cells in which oxidative phosphorylation takes place
lysosomes
Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.
golgi apparatus
packages the proteins and transports them through the cell; cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
vacuoles
A membrane-bound vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell whose function includes intracellular secretion, excretion, storage, and digestion.
cell wall
found in plant cells; made of cellulose, provides rigid structure for plant; functions as a membrane
chloroplasts
found in plant cells; plastids that contain chlorophyll
roots
The usually underground portion of a plant that lacks buds, leaves, or nodes and serves as support, draws minerals and water from the surrounding soil, and sometimes stores food.
stem
transports nutrients to leaves
leaves
builder; use water and carbon dioxide as raw materials to manufacture food (called "carbohydrates") and oxygen for a green plant
flower
sexual organs; reproduction site for the plant
fruit
ripened ovaries of flowers
pistil
female reproductive organ of flowers, composed of stigma, styles and an ovary
stamen
the pollen-producing male organ of a flower that consists of an anther and a filament
eight basic functions of animals
nutrition, respiration, response, regulation (glands & hormones), excretion, circulation, movement, reproduction
asexual reproduction
a cell that creates two identical pairs of chromosomes, splits and forms nuclei around the chromosomes (mitosis)
mitosis
the way cells divide in asexual reproduction
meiosis
cell division that produces gametes for sexual reproduction; involves a reduction in the amount of genetic material.
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; carries the code of protein production, which is the code of life
chromosomes
made up of genes that are comprised of strands of DNA; come in pairs with a gene for each trait on each part of the pair; traits can be dominant or recessive
natural selection
on of the two principles of evolution; producing and passing on traits that are helpful and necessary for the survival of the organism
adaptations
large changes that occur after successive, small, and random changes in traits; through natural selection, the best traits for the specific environment are kept or propagated forth
survival of the fittest
one of the two principles of evolution; organisms best adapted to their environment will generally produce the most offspring; offspring with more favorable traits will survive and reproduce
Interdependence of Organisms
1. atoms and molecules cycle through living and nonliving matter 2. energy travels in a specific direction (food chain) 3. organisms cooperate and compete 4. living organisms have the ability to produce unlimited populations, but environments and resources are limited 5. human beings live within the world's ecosystems and alter them
ecology
the study of the interactions of organisms within their environment and with each other
ecosystem
A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit; made up of plants, animals, microorganisms, soil, rocks, minerals, water sources and the local atmosphere interacting with one another.
balanced ecosystem
the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) parts of the ecosystem are in equilibrium.
atom
something so small, it can no longer be divided; the smallest measurement of matter; contains nucleus (protons and neutrons) and seven shells (orbiting electrons); the atomic mass is figured based on the total number of protons and neutrons
Niels Bohr
discovered the structure of the atom and developed the Bohr diagram
nucleus of an atom
has a positive charge; center of the atom; contains protons and neutrons
proton
located in the nucleus of an atom; has a positive charge
neutron
located in the nucleus of an atom along with protons; has a neutral charge
electron
located in the shells that orbit the atom's nucleus; has a negative charge
element
matter that cannot be separated into different kinds of matter; s a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus.
compound
the chemical bonding of two or more elements; result of a chemical reaction
common elements
Hydrogen (H); Carbon (C); Gold (Au); Iron (Fe); Sulfur (S); Calcium (Ca); Oxygen (O); Copper (Cu); Nickel (Ni); Aluminum (Al); Iodine (I); Sodium (Na); Helium (He); Silver (Ag); Tin (Sn); Nitrogen (N); Potassium (K); Magnesium (Mg)
common compounds
Water (H2O), table salt (NaCL); carbon dioxide (CO2); baking soda (NaHCO3); carbon monoxide (CO); sand or glass (SiO2)
gas
weak molecular forces with no shape, color, or volume; can expand infinitely
liquid
takes on the shape of its container, with definite volume and molecular forces weaker than a solid but stronger than a gas
solid
defined shape and definite volume; strong molecular forces; holds a shape
movements of states of matter
SOLID - decrease pressure, increase energy - LIQUID decrease pressure, increase energy - GAS
sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
deposition
the dumping of the load carried by a river, glacier, or the sea
work
when an object is moved through a distance in response to some force; energy is transferred from one object to another (____ = force x distance)
power
is the rate of doing work or the rate of using energy, which are numerically the same.
potential energy
the energy that could do work, if released, i.e. a ball held at the top of a hill
kinetic energy
energy that an object possesses because of its motion
The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
the sum of the matter and energy in the universe remains the same
heat energy
form of energy which transfers among particles in a substance (or system) by means of kinetic energy of those particle. determined by how active its atoms and molecules are. (more active equals more heat)
diffusion
the movement of particles from a high concentration to an area of low concentration; occurs until the concentrations in all areas are the same to achieve a state of equilibrium
inertia
tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.
friction
the force between any two objects that come into contact with one another
types of energy
heat, sound, light, magnetism, mechanical, electric, chemical, nuclear; all forms can change into other forms without loss of energy
conduction
type of heat movement in which heat moves from warmer areas to cooler areas along materials that conduct
convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
radiation
describes any process in which energy emitted by one body travels through a medium or through space, ultimately to be absorbed by another body
sound
produced by causing a series of compressions and rare fractions (waves) of molecules; travels quickest through solids and slowest through gases
wave
longitudinal movement in which the compressions and rare fractions travel spherically outward from the source
sound wavelength
the distance between two successive compressions or two successive rare fractions
pitch
how high or low the sound; faster vibrations = higher ____
amplitude
loudness or volume of sound; greater force = louder sound; height of the wave.
four rules of light
travels in rays (straight lines); travels more slowly through denser objects; travels in transverse ways; is an electromagnetic wave created by causing electrons to move rapidly and emit energy
transverse wave
has a series of crests and troughs, like dropping a pebble into still water
reflection
caused by light rays bouncing off a surface
wavelength
the distance between the crest or the distance between the troughs in light
refraction
the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it's speed is different.
electric energy
can produce light, heat, motion, and magnetic force; flows through a conductor as current
Coulomb's laws of electricity
like charges repel one another; opposite charges attract one another
electrical current
contains an electrical charge and a conductor
conductor
any material that allows electric current to flow (i.e. copper, gold, aluminum)
insulator
any material that does not allow electric current to flow (i.e. wood, rubber, plastic)
resistance
the forces that oppose electrical current in a conductor; measured in ohms; no conductor without it has been discovered
circuit
the path that an electric current flows; there are two types: series and parallel
series circuit
a circuit having its parts connected serially, if one resistance is disconnected, the circuit will fail
parallel circuit
a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit
static electricity
a result of the accumulation of electrons on an object
mechanical energy
the action or power created by use of machines
simple machine
a tool with few or no moving parts that does work; there are six types: lever, wedge, incline plane, pulley, wheel & axel, screw
lever
magnifies force, increases speed or changes direction, and is used to lift things; First class, fulcrum is in the middle, with effort and load on either side; Second class, fulcrum is at the end with load in the middle and effort at the other end; Third class, fulcrum is at the end, with effort in the middle and load at the other end
wedge
magnifies force, used to push things apart or secure them together; i.e. door stop or axe
incline plane
magnifies force and distance increases; is used help move things up and down; one of the original six simple machines
pulley
reduces force needed to move an object, but increases distance; changes the direction of force
wheel & axel
increases speed, facilitates motion and movement of objects; a lever that rotates in a circle around a center point or fulcrum.
screw
magnifies force by increasing distance over a rotating thread
chemical energy
Energy released from a substance, or absorbed in the formation of a chemical compound, during a chemical reaction.
mixture
when two or more elements combine without a chemical reaction
nuclear energy
the nucleus of the atom forms a different kind of element producing increased energy; s released by the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atom(s).
nuclear fission
when the nuclei of atoms are disintegrated (nuclear reactors or atomic bombs)
nuclear fusion
when two or more nuclei are smashed together with increased force to form a different kind of nucleus (i.e. the sun or hydrogen bomb)
plastid
A double membrane bound organelle involved in the synthesis and storage of food, and is commonly found within the cells of photosynthetic organisms, like plants.have their own DNA and ribosomes
coma
cloud of gasses formed around the nucleus of a comet when the comet is heated
Ion tail
Bluish colored electrons that are blown back on a comet by the solar wind
Dust tail
easiest part of a comet to see with the naked eye. Dust is pushed back by solar radiation
Oort Cloud and the Kuiper Belt.
2 sources of comets
Ceres
Largest asteroid, 933 km (530 m) across
meteor shower
is an astronomical event in which hundreds or thousands of dust-sized meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere and almost immediately burn up, creating a short-lived glowing streak in the night sky.
nucleoplasm
ne of the types of protoplasm, and it is enveloped by the nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope; is a highly viscous liquid that surrounds the chromosomes and nucleoli; nuclear sap;
vesicle
a membranous and usually fluid-filled pouch (as a cyst, vacuole, or cell) in a plant
lamella
a thin flat scale, platelike scale, membrane, or layer
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
One of the basic concepts of the theory states that atoms and molecules possess an energy of motion that we perceive as temperature
intermolecular forces
any atoms and molecules are attracted to each other as a result of various _________ ____________ such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and others
strongly
Atoms and molecules that have relatively small amounts of energy (and movement) will interact ________ with each other
slightly or not at all
Atoms and molecules that have relatively high energy will interact ______________with others
Solids
are formed when the attractive forces between individual molecules are greater than the energy causing them to move apart. Individual molecules are locked in position near each other, and cannot move past one another.
Vibrational
Atoms of solids remain in _________ motion
Liquids
are formed when the energy (usually in the form of heat) of a system is increased and the rigid structure of the solid state is broken down. molecules can move past one another and bump into other molecules; however, they remain relatively close to each other like solids.
compressed
Liquids cannot be easily _______ because the molecules are already close together.
liquid
has undefined shape, but a defined volume
Gases
are formed when the energy in the system exceeds all of the attractive forces between molecules. molecules have little interaction with each other beyond occasionally bumping into one another.
gas
expand to fill its container and has low density.
Solids, liquids, and gases
most common states of matter that exist on our planet
Plasmas
hot, ionized gases. Are formed under conditions of extremely high energy, so high, in fact, that molecules are ripped apart and only free atoms exist.
outer electrons
plasmas have so much energy that the ________ ________ are actually ripped off of individual atoms, thus forming a gas of highly energetic, charged ions.
Plasma
fourth state of matter, behaves differently than gas; Present in the sun
absolute zero
Temperature at which molecular motion stops; calculated to be -273.15 degrees Celsius; Scientists have never cooled a substance to this temperature though they have come close
LIght
Factor needed that raises the temperature of an object, thereby preventing scientists from cooling it to absolute zero
Bose-Einstein (B-E) Condensates
fifth state of matter only seen for the first time in 1995.
Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein
predicted 5th state of matter existed in the 1920's (2 people)
B-E condensates
gaseous superfluids cooled to temperatures very near absolute zero; all the atoms of the condensate attain the same quantum-mechanical state and can flow past one another without friction
trap light
B-E condensates can actually _______ _________, releasing it when the state breaks down.
phase transition
transformation of one state of matter into another state
melting, freezing, condensation,evaporation
more common phase transitions (4)
100 degrees Celsius (100ºC)
no matter how high the flame is on the stove, a pot of boiling water will remain at _________ until all of the water has undergone transition to the gas phase
cytosol
means cell substance; another name for cytoplasm
microtrabecular lattice (MTL)
cytoplasms three-dimensional lattice of thin protein-rich strands
cytoskeleton
a network of cytoplasmic filaments that are responsible for the movement of the cell and give the cell its shape
salts, electricity
The cytoplasm contains many ______ and is an excellent conductor of ________
Chemical reaction
A process in which one or more substances (reactants) are chemically changed into one or more new substances (products). Chemical changes may involve motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds.