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Layers of the Earth

crust, mantle, core

Igneous Rocks

formed from cooling of molten rock, called lava.

Metamorphic Rocks

formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface. egin to form at 12-16 kilometers beneath the earth's surface. They begin changing at temperatures of 100 degrees Celsius to 800 degrees Celsius.

Sedimentary Rocks

formed in layers contain plant and animal remains,

minerals found in saltwater

salt (sodium chloride), iron, phosphates, nitrates, magnesium

Freshwater bodies

lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, marshes.


shoreline, Beaches, Sandbar, Spit, Bay, Lagoon, Barrier islands, Arches and stacks


the boundary where the land meets the sea


deposits of sand and other fragments of rock left along the shoreline boundary


water currents deposit sand and debris in deeper water, parallel to the shore, and build up


a narrow piece of land which forms along a curved shoreline


part of the coastline where the rock has been gradually eroded by a large body of water


a body of water cut off from the sea by a sandbar or reef.

Barrier islands

islands made from sand and debris deposited parallel to the shore

Arches and stacks

formations of resistant rock left standing after softer rock had been worn away (eroded)

Continental shelf

underwater land at the edges of the continents

Continental slope

a steep slope running from the edge of the continental shelf down to the ocean floor; connects the continental shelf and the oceanic crust

Abyssal plain

wide, flat area that makes up most of the ocean floor

Mid-oceanic ridges

mountain ranges on the ocean floor


the breakdown of rock to form sediment.


weathered particles are moved from one location to another.


smooth layers of low clouds; a low cloud form extending over a large area at altitudes of usually 2000 to 7000 feet (600 to 2100 meters)


dense puffy cloud having turret-shaped tops (rounded outlines), flat bottoms


feather-like; : a high wispy white cloud usually of minute ice crystals formed at altitudes between about 20,000 and 40,000 feet (6,000 and 12,000 meters)

6 major biomes on land:

rainforest, desert, grassland,deciduous forest, boreal forest, tundra

"Big Bang" Theory

named in 1950 by British scientist, Fred Hoyle


the science studying former life through fossils

Geologic time scale

sequence of events in the Earth's history

Paleozoic Era

543 -248 million years ago

Mesozoic era

248 - 65 million years ago

Cenozoic era

65 million years ago to present


a system of stars, gases, and dust all held together as a group by gravity

Milky Way

Earth's galaxy

Solar system

consists of a star, a group of planets and their satellites


large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits. Grows a tail when approaching the sun


Rarely larger than a grain of sand.a meteor in outerspace, Does not orbit the sun


"shooting stars" or "falling stars".must strike the first layers of the Earth's atmosphere.


: a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently


the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located; a cellular organelle of eukaryotes that is essential to cell functions (as reproduction and protein synthesis), is composed of nucleoplasm and a nucleoprotein-rich network from which chromosomes and nucleoli arise, and is enclosed in a definite membrane

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

a system of interconnected vesicular and lamellar cytoplasmic membranes that functions especially in the transport of materials within the cell and that is studded with ribosomes in some places


rod-shaped or threadlike DNA-containing structures of cellular organisms that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are usually ring-shaped in prokaryotes (as bacteria), and contain all or most of the genes of the organism

Cell Membrane

controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; outer "wall." a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm

Nuclear membrane

controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus; inner "wall." a double membrane enclosing a cell nucleus and having its outer part continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi bodies

a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells; receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell


make proteins


substance which holds all other parts in suspension within the cell


the "powerhouse" of the cell; the site of energy production and release


Organelles containing a large range of digestive enzymes used primarily for digestion and removal of excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria.


may be used by plants to store water

Plant Cell wall

made of cellulose ; gives shape and support to plant cells; tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer


organelles that contain chlorophyll which traps sunlight to help make food via photosynthesis


the science of classifying living things


directional growth in which the direction of growth is determined by the direction of the light source.


is the growth of roots downwards, towards gravity


rincipal water-absorbing organs of a plant; must have vascular tissues, arranged in a particular way, Anchors plant, absorbs water and minderals, and stores food reserves


major aerial support system in most plants. Sometimes called a stalk or trunk, it holds up the plant into the air and provides a pathway for fluid transport between the shoot and the root


part of the plant where most of the food is made


the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration.


the evaporation of water from plants


plants use oxygen to break down sugar to release energy; 2 phase process the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of ATP for use by all the energy-consuming activities of the cell.

Organ Systems

re composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function. There are 10 major ones in the human body


fibrous bands or sheets of connective tissue linking two or more bones, cartilages, or structures together.


a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone[1] and is capable of withstanding tension.


a tough, elastic tissue that can withstand pressure


cells and tissues that allow movement of an organ or body part

Skeletal muscle

attached to bones and allows voluntary (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs

Smooth muscle

found in internal organs and aids in involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems; are found particularly in blood vessel walls, surrounding the intestine (particularly the gizzard in birds) and in the uterus.

Cardiac muscle

forms powerful walls of the heart; controlled by autonomic nervous system; type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart, specifically the myocardium


transparent thin outer covering of the eye that protects the iris and pupil; ogether with the lens, it refracts light, accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power


small hole in the center of the eye, through which light enters; central transparent area (shows as black)


the colored muscles in the eye; a ring of muscle fibers located behind the cornea and in front of the lens. It contracts and expands, opening and closing the pupil, in response to the brightness of surrounding light; helps protect the retina


bends the rays of light to focus them on the retina


lines the back wall of the eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells; seven layers of alternating cells and processes which convert a light signal into a neural signal ("signal transduction").

Optic nerve

also called cranial nerve II, transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.


strong muscle which pumps blood to the lungs, organs, tissues and cells


central conduit from the heart to the body;largest artery in the body,arises from the left ventricle of the heart, goes up (ascends) a little ways, bends over (arches), then goes down (descends) through the chest and through the abdomen to where ends by dividing into two arteries called the common iliac arteries that go to the legs.

Carotid artery

artery on each side of the neck that supplies blood to the brain and face

Superior vena cava

the largest vein returning deoxygenated blood into the heart


smallest vessels in the body where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged located within the tissues of the body.


is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed;is a form of catabolism

Asexual reproduction

s reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization.


reproduce by growing a new organism out of a bud off a parent. Hydras exhibit this type of reproduction


animal divides itself and each piece grows the missing parts and becomes a full offspring


production of offspring from eggs which do not require fertilization by a "partner."


characteristic, such as eye color or height, which is coded for by genes contained on chromosomes


refers to an activity involving a force and movement in the directon of the force.


the coded instructions in DNA; the "genetic code;" they are the basic units of inheritance


A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.


2-step process by which all body cells of multi-cellular organisms multiply


condition of a decrease in normal number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood


lack of platelets, which help the blood to clot


disorder caused by lack of iodine and the over-activity (enlargement) of the thyroid gland


a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.

Down's Syndrome

genetic error in which an extra chromosome (#21) is passed on


tendency of a living organism towards balance and equilibrium

Endocrine system

system of glands which secrete hormones directly into the blood stream

Pituitary gland

small gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth, metabolism, and reproduction


gland behind the stomach that functions in both the endocrine and digestive system

Thyroid gland

large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism


the movement by animals over long distances in order to reproduce, mate, raise young, or find food


a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate.

Instinctive behavior

inborn responses to stimuli; An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli.


state or quality of being in accord; harmony


The adjustment or changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to an environment.


1. chemical -organic molecules were first formed. 2. development of single-celled organisms- capable of asexual reproduction. 3. development of complex, multi-cellular organisms - capable of sexual reproduction.

Theory of "Natural Selection."

theory that the earth's species have changed and diversified over time. first described by Charles Darwin. expression "survival of the fittest" was used to describe this process in the 19 century


ecology, a general term applied to any grouping of populations of different organisms found living together in a particular environment; essentially, the biotic component of an ecosystem.


describes a community, its habitat, and all of the relationships within that habitat.


the study of the relationships between organisms and their habitat

Green plants

producers because they make their own food


animals that eat green plants, are primary consumers


a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second


break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem


main way new individuals join a population


main way individuals leave a population


individuals move into a population from elsewhere, thus increasing its size


individuals move out of a population to elsewhere, thus decreasing its size


anything that has mass and takes up space


have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern


have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid


no definite size or shape; will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid


the amount of matter in an object; its "size";


the force of the Earth's gravity which pulls down on an object


amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume; is the relative "heaviness" of an object


internal property of a fluid that offers resistance to flow.

Freezing point

the temperature at which a liquid will become a solid.

Boiling point

temperature at which a liquid will become a gas; this is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a given liquid reaches atmospheric pressure

other physical properties of matter

Color, Hardness, Size, Shape and Odor


a change from a solid to a gas without going through a liquid state


a change from a gaseous to a liquid state caused by lowering the temperature


a change from a liquid to a gaseous state caused when a liquid is heated to its boiling point

pH scale

a range of numbers that measure of the strength of an acid or base


a substance which hastens a chemical reaction without itself undergoing chemical change


contains 2 or more different substances that have not undergone a chemical reaction


a mixture in which small particles are spread evenly throughout a liquid, resulting in a physical change, but not a chemical change, in the liquid


the smallest piece of matter that can exist on its own


substance which contains only one kind of atom Cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means. There are 103 that are named with most of them occurring naturally

Periodic Table

lists the elements in order of their atomic number displays the full name of each element, its symbol, as well as its atomic mass


an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bonds.


substances made up of two or more elements that are combined in a chemical reaction


a change in position of an object or substance


a push or pull acting on an object. can start a motion, stop a motion


the rate of motion of a body; expressed in distance per unit of time


the rate of change of position. It is a vector physical quantity; both speed and direction are required to define it.


the extent of space between two objects or places


the rate of change in velocity when the velocity increases


the rate of change in velocity when the velocity decreases

Centripetal force

pulls the object inward; is a force that makes a body follow a curved path; it is always directed orthogonal to the velocity of the body, toward the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.

Centrifugal force

n object traveling in a circle behaves as if it is experiencing an outward force

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