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Terms in this set (13)
4 organs that assist in digestion
Salivary glands - secrete saliva full of enzymes that begin the digestion process
and moisten food as it prepares to be passed to the esophagus
b. Gallbladder - stores bile until it is needed by the small intestine
c. Liver - produces bile which helps break down fats
d. Pancreas - produces digestive enzymes and buffers used to neutralize stomach
acid as the bolus enters the small intestine
Describe the increasing complexity of digestive system from invertebrate to vertebrate to human
Simple animals have a gastrovascular cavity and a mouth. More advanced
animals have an alimentary canal - a digestive tract - with two openings. Some organisms, such as birds, have three or more chambers that assist in food manipulation
Describe gas exchange in huma
From the nasal cavity or the mouth, air passes to the pharynx then to the larynx
through the trachea and into two branches called bronchi and, finally, into the
bronchioles, alveoli (small air sacs) and into the lungs
Name and describe each of the vessels as well as the type of blood (oxygenated or deoxygenated) they carry. Rank in order of size
Those that carry oxygenated blood, from largest to smallest: Arteries arterioles capillaries
b. Those that carry deoxygenated blood, from largest to smallest: Veins venules capillaries.
What is an antigen and what does it cause our immune system to do?
a. Antigens are any molecule that elicits an adaptive immune response (non-self)
b. When the immune system detects an antigen, it responds with an increase in the number of cells that either attack the invader directly or produce immune proteins called antibodies.
What are lymphocytes and what do they do?
a. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that spend most of their time in the blood and the tissues and organs of the lymphatic system:
i. are responsible for adaptive immunity
fluids or inside cells.
3 stages of hormone signaling
Reception of the signal occurs when a hormone binds to a specific receptor protein
on or in the target cell.
b. Signal transduction converts the signal from one form to another.
c. Response is a change in the cell's behavior.
3 functions of nervous system?
Sensory input - the conduction of signals from sensory receptors
b. Integration - the analysis and interpretation of the sensory signals and the
formulation of appropriate responses
c. Motor output - the conduction of signals from the integration centers to the
5 general regions of brain?
Cerebrum - homeostatic control
b. Hindbrain and Midbrain - these two work together to make up the brain stem. The brain stem coordinates and filters information to send it to the right region of the brain. It also controls more "primitive" actions such as waking and sleeping and motor responses.
c. Cerebellum - coordinates body movement and plays are role in learning and remembering motor Reponses
d. Thalamus - Serves as input center for sensory data going to the cerebrum and as an output center for motor responses leaving the cerebrum
e. Hypothalamus - functions as homeostatic control center
5 categories of sensory receptors?
Pain receptors - respond to excess heat or pressure or to chemicals released from damaged or inflamed tissue
Thermoreceptors - heat or cold
Mechanoreceptors - mechanical energy such as touch and pressure, stretching, motion and sound
Chemoreceptors - sense chemicals in the external environment (through taste and smell)
Electromagnetic receptors - detect energy occurring as electricity, magnetism, or wavelengths of light (eyes, for example)
3 types of eyes?
Eyecups - can detect light and contain photoreceptors to do so, Example:
b. Compound eye - an image-forming eye made of several thousand light detectors
called ommatidia. Every ommatidium has its own light focusing lends and several
photoreceptor cells. Example - flies.
c. Single-lens eye - an image-forming eye. Light enters through the pupil and passes
through the lens which focuses light onto the retina. The retina contains photoreceptor cells. The pupil size is controlled by the iris
Name the three types of joints, define each, and give an example of each.
a. Ball and Socket - allow for rotation as seek in the human shoulder b. Hinge joint - allows for movement in a single plane - human knee
c. Pivot joint - can twist sideways like rotating the forearm at the elbow
What is the functional unit of muscle, what is it composed of, and how does it know to contract?
Sarcomeres are the functional units of muscle. A sarcomere is composed of fibers of actin and myosin that interact to allow a muscle to contract when stimulated by a motor neuron
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