AP // 12 and 13
Terms in this set (50)
-The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
-Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
-Central Business District
-Central Business District (CBD) is the commercial (and sometimes cultural) heart of a city. It is dominated shops and offices many of which are found in tall skyscrapers.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
command and control centers
cities that have key corporate management, government, and financial and business services functions. For example, these cities have a high proportion of company headquarters where a large amount of corporate decision making is done and from where national and transnational business operations are controlled.
concentric zone model (Burgess Model)
-A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
-A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
-a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
-an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
A term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the united states away from the central business district (CBD) toward the loci of economic activity at the urban fringe (extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, modern buildings, less than 30 years old)
filtering (filter process)
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
A mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
-A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
-(in European cities) undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law
The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.
Latin America city model (Griffin-Ford Model)
a visual description of land uses in latin american cities. The model combines wedge shaped sectors and concentric rings emenating from a central business district. The wealthy live along a well served commercial spine and the poorest residents live in peripheral squatter settlements
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
A very large city
MSA (and CMSA)
Metropolitan statistical area. 85% of people live in these.These are cities with at least 50,000 people and all the counties around the city depend upon it.
multiple nuclei model (Harris-Ullman Model)
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman
-Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
-A movement in urban planning to promote mixed use commercial and residential development and pedestrian friendly, community orientated cities. New urbanism is a reaction to the sprawling, automobile centered cities of the mid twentieth century.
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
-A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
- The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
-Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
-a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal.
housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.
site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
sector model (Hoyt Model)
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
-A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
-A residential district located on the outskirts of a city
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
urban realms model
-a simplified description of urban land use, especially descriptive of the modern North American city. it features a number of dispersed, peripheral centers of dynamic commercial and industrial activity linked by sophisticated urban transportation networks.
-Includes a CBD, central city, new downtown, and suburban downtown.
-Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
-A program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use.
-Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
-Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
-area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD; mixture of growth, change, and decline
-An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
-A police power device which allows for legislative division of space into districts and imposition of regulation prescribing use and intensity of use to which land within each designated district may be put.
-dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
Describe the move of retailing and industry to the suburbs
consider that the emerging "galactic market" of urban strucuture
Describe a typical European city
Have different locations of CBD and suburbs and suburban growth
Describe a typical city in a LDC and explain the influence of Europe
city in ldc doesn't usually have a CBD, stable government, or population
List and evaluate the problems of the inner-city
population, space, trade, transportation of products
Explain and illustrate important models dealing with the urban hierarchy
a. Central-place theory
b. Rank-size rule and primate cities
a) distribution of services, settlements, serve as center of market areas
b) distribution of city sizes around the world
Describe the problems of "defining" a city and some of the potential solutions
issues in locating where the CBD is. some people could say its somewhere where some people can say its somewhere else
Contrast European and North American cities in terms of:
a. CBD functions and landscape
c. suburban growth patterns (greenbelts vs. sprawl)
a) different areas
b) want to live in the cities- close to their jobs
c) more people want to live in or closer to the city rather than farther
Explain the growth of suburbs in terms of:
a. social and cultural views
b. developments in transportation
c. economic changes
a) people want to live closer to the city to be with family
b) more transportation would be needed
c) government would be closer to the CBD
Differentiate between 3 models of North American cities:
a. Concentric zone (Burgess model)
b. Sector model (Hoyt model)
c. Multiple nuclei model (Harris and Ullman)
a) distribution of social groups
b) internal structure of cities
c) internal structure of cities
Describe the elements and their relationships in the post-modern city in terms of the following:
a. "galactic city"
b. "edge city"
a) mini edge city
b) a large node
List and evaluate the problems of the inner-city vs. suburbs.
inner- CBD, more jobs, more developed, stable government, more of how a city is like
suburbs- not as controlled, more developed, not as stable
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