42 terms

TEAS Reproductive System

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male reproductive system
-responsible for the generation of male gametes, sperm
-components: penis, scrotum, testicles, prostate, rectum, bladder, vas deferens, urethra
sperm
-male gamete
-sperm are generated in the testes, which are housed in the scrotum
-sperm is produced in the seminiferous tubules in the testes through the process of spermatogenesis
-after spermatogenesis, sperm cells travel to the epididymis, where they gin motility and are stored until ejaculation
-produced continuously in males after puberty!
scrotum
-external sac/pouch that hangs below the penis and contains the testes
-keeps the temperature of the tests 2-4 degrees F below normal body temperature for sperm production
-can be lowered or raised to maintain temperature!
seminiferous tubules
site in the testes where sperm are produced
spermatogenesis
-process by which sperm are produced through meiotic division
-during spermatogenesis, 4 haploid sperm cells are produced from 1 diploid cell through meiotic division, a series of 2 divisions through which diploid cells produce haploid daughter cells
-after spermatogenesis, sperm cells travel to the epididymis, where they gin motility and are stored until ejaculation
testes
-structure in which male gametes are produced
-sperm is generated in the testes!
-housed in the scrotum
testosterone
-hormone released in the testes that induces spermatogenesis in males
-produced by the testes!
-responsible for initiating and maintaining sperm production
epididymus
-site in the testes where sperm mature and are stored
-located just above the seminiferous tubules in the testes
-sperm cells gain their motility here and are stored here until ejaculation
vas deferens
-a channel that connects the epididymus to the ejaculatory tract
-carries the sperm from the epididymus to the ejaculatory duct during ejaculation
ejaculatory duct
-site where secretions from different glands are mixed w/ sperm to produce semen
-located just above the prostate gland
-where different glands secrete nutrient-dense fluids that mix w/ the sperm to produce semen
-fuse with the urethra
seminal vesicles
glands that secrete a fructose-containing liquid to nourish the sperm
prostate gland
a gland that secretes a slightly alkaline fluid that enables the sperm to better survive the acidic female reproductive tract
bulbourethral glands
glands that secrete a viscous fluid that lubricates the male reproductive tract
urethra
-duct through which urine and semen are expelled
-the ejaculatory ducts from the testes fuse here
-semen travels down the urethra and is ejected from the body through the penis
-also a part of the urinary system, as it connects to the bladder
penis
male reproductive organ that ejects semen and urine
pathway of sperm
**Seminiferous tubules --> Epididymus --> Vas deferens --> Ejaculatory duct --> Nothing (placeholder) --> Urethra --> Penis
** REMEMBER SEVEN UP!!!
female reproductive system
-responsible for the production of female gametes, ova, and the incubation of the fetus during pregnancy
ova (ovum)
-female gamete/egg
-produced in the ovaries through the process of oogenesis
-women are born w/ all the immature ova they will ever have
-during ovulation, 1 immature ovum completes the first division and is arrested in the second division; oogenesis is not complete until after the ovum is fertilized
-during ovulation, the immature ovum is released and travels through the fallopian tubes
oogenesis
-process by which ova are produced by meiotic division
-during oogenesis, 1 haploid ovum is produced from 1 diploid cell along w/ 2 polar bodies (dead-end products) through meiotic division, so females have a 1:1 diploid-to-haploid cell ratio whereas males have a 1:4 ratio
-discontinuous process b/c females are born w/ all the immature ova they will ever have
-during ovulation, 1 immature ovum completes the first division and is arrested in the second division; oogenesis is not complete until after the ovum is fertilized
fallopian tubes
-tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus
-a fallopian tube is the site of fertilization
-during ovulation, the immature ovum is released and travels through the fallopian tubes. if the ovum is fertilized, it will implant in the uterine wall, leading to pregnancy.
endometrium
-highly vascularized lining of the uterus
-tissue w/ many blood vessels that nourishes the developing embryo
-forms the placenta
placenta
-a structure that develops from the endometrium during pregnancy to facilitate gas and nutrient exchange b/t the mother's body and the developing fetus
-site of nutrient and waste exchange for the developing fetus
menstruation
process during which the endometrium (lining of uterus) is shed
vagina
-passage b/t the cervix and the external genitalia in females
-fetus passes through during childbirth
cervix
-the opening that connects the vagina and uterus
-the cervix dilates, increasing in diameter, to allow passage of the fetus during childbirth
ovaries
ova produced here
uterus
-during childbirth, the walls of the uterus contract to push the fetus out of the body through the vagina
-the fertilized ovum implants on the uterine wall, leading to pregnancy
menstrual cycle
-approximately 28 days long, though it can vary among individuals
-can be subdivided into 2 halves: follicular phase and luteal phase
-caused by a drop in hormone levels, which resets the cycle
-regulated by the hormones FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone
follicular phase
-phase in the menstrual cycle in which the ovarian follicle matures
-days 1 through 14
-the anterior pituitary releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which acts on the ovaries to induce the release of estrogen
luteal phase
-phase in the menstrual cycle that starts following ovulation in which the corpus lute produces progesterone in preparation for fertilization of the ovum
-the ovum awaits fertilization
-days 14 through 28
-the ruptured ovarian follicle develops into the corpus luteum and secretes progesterone to maintain the uterine lining
estrogen
-hormone that leads to the maturation of one ovarian follicle and the thickening of the endometrium
-early in the cycle, it acts in a positive feedback loop to drive more FSH release, culminating in the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), which induces ovulation
luteinizing hormone
induces ovulation, during which the ovarian follicle ruptures and releases the egg into a fallopian tube
ovarian follicle
structure in the ovaries that contains a developing ovum
ovulation
process that releases an ovum from the ovarian follicle
corpus luteum
-structure that develops from the ovarian follicle and secretes progesterone
-the ruptured ovarian follicle develops into the corpus luteum and secretes progesterone to maintain the uterine lining
-in the absence of fertilization, the corpus lute atrophies, causing progesterone levels to drop and triggering menstruation, again resetting the cycle
Which of the following glands does NOT secrete nutrients into the ejaculatory duct during the formation of semen?
epididymus
During which phase of the menstrual cycle are progesterone levels the highest?
Luteal phase

**Since progesterone peaks following ovulation, it is highest during the luteal phase
After an ovum has been fertilized, where does it implant?
Uterus
Where does oogenesis occur in the female reproductive system?
Ovaries
Vasalgel is a new experimental form of male birth control that can be injected into the body to prevent the passage of sperm. When males are ready to procreate, a baking soda solution is injected to flush out and dissolve the Vasalgel. Which area of the male reproductive system should Vasalgel be injected into for it to achieve maximum effectiveness?
Vas deferns

**The question stem states that Vasalgel works by blocking the flow of sperm. Recall that sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules in the testes and mature in the epididymis. Mature sperm travel to the ejaculatory duct via the vas deferens
Which of the following are differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
-Spermatogenesis occurs continuously, whereas oogenesis occurs discontinuously.
-Spermatogenesis results in the creation of four haploid sperm cells, whereas oogenesis results in the creation of one mature ovum.
-Spermatogenesis is completed prior to fertilization, whereas oogenesis is fully completed only following fertilization.
Multiple forms of birth control function by preventing the release of the ovum through blocking ovulation. The action of which of the following hormones of the menstrual cycle is inhibited?
Luteinizing hormone
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