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SGU histo - endocrine system terms

small molecular hormones

ex: Nitric Oxide


ex: vasopressin, TRH


basophilic due to charge (versus peptides = acidophilic), ex: FSH, LH, TSH, same alpha but different beta?


pro-opiomelanocortin, precursor to ACTH, alpha-MSH, beta-endorphin, etc


can be on a hormone and later cleaved as part of intracellular signalling?


lipophilic, NOT stored, cont. made + secr via cholest

DNA binding fingers

allows binding to histones => loosen up DNA to inc transcription


in RER, pre AA w/ signal/copeptide


in Golgi vesicles, ready to make -> hormones

pituitary gland / hypophysis

master gland, made by neuroectoderm + Rathke's Pouch (from roof of mouth) -> Ant + Post Lobes, fenestrated capps

Anterior Pituitary

pars distalis (ant lobe) + pars tuberalis (basophilic) + pars intermedia (poorly basophilic cysts formed by remnants of Rathke's pouch and filled w/ colloid

Posterior Pituitary

median eminence, infundibulum/neural stalk, pars nervosa


GH + PRL secreting cells become cancerous

posterior lobe

contains only supporting cells, no cell bodies of neurons, just axons

cords of cells

in parathyroid, densly packed cuboidal cells made of chief + oxyphil cells and surrounded by retic loose CT


in thryoid, spheroids w/ simple cuboidal epith, contain colloid mat, proc hormones

hypothalamus blood supply

sup hypophys a -> pars tuberalis + infundibulum, forms primary capp plexus in median eminence, inf hypophys a -> pos lobe + some ant

hypophyseal portal system

primary capp plexus in median eminence --hypophys portal vv -> secondary plexus in pars distalis

herring bodies

dilated synaptic structures containing Oxytocin + Vasopressin


secrete GH after growth plates fuse


pit. dwarm + cretinism (pit + thyroid) forms exist

diabetes insipidus

hypothal lesion -> don't produce vasopressin -> renal failure -> polyuria/dehydration

pineal gland

involved in circadian ****, contains pinealocytes + astrocytes


secrete either Melatonin or Serotonin


neuroglial cells, astrocyte-like


secreted in morning, or during light, makes you more awake

corpora aranacea

aka brain sand/acervuli, Ca2+ deposits in pineal stroma that increase in # w/ age

thyroid gland

tongue evagination (endoderm epith of pharnyx) -> thryoglossal duct --> add ultimobranchial bodies -> parafollicular cells/C- thyrocytes, completed in 12 weeks w/ colloid (thyrogolubin) in lumen


mono/3-iodotyrosine (MIT), removed via iodotyrosine dehalogenase


DIT, removed via iodotyrosine dehalogenase


TIT, 2-10x more active than T4, 18 hour t1/2


tyroxine, 5-7 day t1/2, 90% of circ thyroid hormones


defic results in Goiter, imp for iodination of thryoglobulins

thyroglobulin / colloid

glycporot, contains 140 tyrosyl residues which are iodinated -> lysosomed by T-thyrocytes into T1, T2, T3, T4


thyroid follicular cells, lysosomal activity upon iodine/thryglobulin


parafollicular cells, larger thryocyte that contains calcitonin, never make contact w/ follic lumen


char by unusually large thyoid cells among smaller cells, dec metab


char by inc metab, hungriness

Hashimoto's Disease

autoimmune against thryoid peroxidase + thryglobulin

parathyroid gland

4 small glands of entwined cuboidal cords, extrathryoid glands, much more dense than the lobular thyroid gland

chief cells

release PTH, smaller than oxyphils


promotes Ca2+ release from bone, stim Ca2+ resorb by tubular kidney cells, inhib PO4- resorb by kidney, stim 1,25-dihydroxycalciferol

oxyphil cells

tons of mitoch => acidophilic

DiGeorge syndrome

disease characterized by lack of PTh glands

delta / D cells

secrete somatostatin -> inhib both A + B secretion

F / PP cells

secrete pancreatic polypeptide -> inhib pancreatic bicarb + zymogens

Beta / B cells

most abund cell in islets of Langerhaans


synth in RER, insulin + C peptide + signal peptide


RER transfer: insulin + C peptide


Golgi: insulin w/ disulfide links

ductal stem cells

allow islets to increase in size w/ age

Kultchitsky organs

vistigial suprarenals along the desc aorta

suprarenal glands

polyhedral cells in cords w/ retic CT + rich bl supply, cortex stim aldosterone + corticosteroid + androgen, medulla stim epi/norepi

adrenal cortex

derived from coelomic mesoderm, 3 zones: Glomerulosa (salt), Fasiculata (stress), Reticularis (sex)

adrenal medulla

derived from neural crest cells, 80% epi (20% NE), clumps of SNS ganglia w/ chromaffin granules, people w/ either A type personalties or tumors have a large medulla

zona glomerulosa

zone of adrenal cortex = "Salt" secretes aldosterone/mineralocorticoids (affect by angiotensin II + and renin - ), dense round/arched cords, SER rich

zona fasiculata

adrenal cortex zone = "Stress", most of cortex, secretes corticosteroids (affect by ACTH + CRF), straight cords of SER rich cells w/ fatty droplets

zona reticularis

adrenal cortex zone = "Sex", secretes androgens (affect by ACTH + CRF), irreg anastamosed cords of SER rich cells w/ fatty droplets + lipofuscin bodies


dehydroepiandosterone, male hormone secreted by females

provisional cortex

fetal suprarenal glands that are so strong that could result in mother androgenic

Cushing syndrome

DISEASE: secrete excess ACTH

Conn Syndrome

DISEASE: secrete excess Aldosterone

Addison's Disease

DISEASE: adrenocorticotropic failure

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