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63 terms

Histo - Endocrine System

SGU histo - endocrine system terms
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small molecular hormones
ex: Nitric Oxide
peptides
ex: vasopressin, TRH
glycoproteins
basophilic due to charge (versus peptides = acidophilic), ex: FSH, LH, TSH, same alpha but different beta?
POMC
pro-opiomelanocortin, precursor to ACTH, alpha-MSH, beta-endorphin, etc
copeptides
can be on a hormone and later cleaved as part of intracellular signalling?
steroids
lipophilic, NOT stored, cont. made + secr via cholest
DNA binding fingers
allows binding to histones => loosen up DNA to inc transcription
pre-prohormone
in RER, pre AA w/ signal/copeptide
prohormone
in Golgi vesicles, ready to make -> hormones
pituitary gland / hypophysis
master gland, made by neuroectoderm + Rathke's Pouch (from roof of mouth) -> Ant + Post Lobes, fenestrated capps
Anterior Pituitary
pars distalis (ant lobe) + pars tuberalis (basophilic) + pars intermedia (poorly basophilic cysts formed by remnants of Rathke's pouch and filled w/ colloid
Posterior Pituitary
median eminence, infundibulum/neural stalk, pars nervosa
craniopharyngioma
GH + PRL secreting cells become cancerous
posterior lobe
contains only supporting cells, no cell bodies of neurons, just axons
cords of cells
in parathyroid, densly packed cuboidal cells made of chief + oxyphil cells and surrounded by retic loose CT
follicles
in thryoid, spheroids w/ simple cuboidal epith, contain colloid mat, proc hormones
hypothalamus blood supply
sup hypophys a -> pars tuberalis + infundibulum, forms primary capp plexus in median eminence, inf hypophys a -> pos lobe + some ant
hypophyseal portal system
primary capp plexus in median eminence --hypophys portal vv -> secondary plexus in pars distalis
herring bodies
dilated synaptic structures containing Oxytocin + Vasopressin
acromegaly
secrete GH after growth plates fuse
dwarfism
pit. dwarm + cretinism (pit + thyroid) forms exist
diabetes insipidus
hypothal lesion -> don't produce vasopressin -> renal failure -> polyuria/dehydration
pineal gland
involved in circadian ****, contains pinealocytes + astrocytes
pinealocytes
secrete either Melatonin or Serotonin
pituicytes
neuroglial cells, astrocyte-like
serotonin
secreted in morning, or during light, makes you more awake
corpora aranacea
aka brain sand/acervuli, Ca2+ deposits in pineal stroma that increase in # w/ age
thyroid gland
tongue evagination (endoderm epith of pharnyx) -> thryoglossal duct --> add ultimobranchial bodies -> parafollicular cells/C- thyrocytes, completed in 12 weeks w/ colloid (thyrogolubin) in lumen
T1
mono/3-iodotyrosine (MIT), removed via iodotyrosine dehalogenase
T2
DIT, removed via iodotyrosine dehalogenase
T3
TIT, 2-10x more active than T4, 18 hour t1/2
T4
tyroxine, 5-7 day t1/2, 90% of circ thyroid hormones
iodine
defic results in Goiter, imp for iodination of thryoglobulins
thyroglobulin / colloid
glycporot, contains 140 tyrosyl residues which are iodinated -> lysosomed by T-thyrocytes into T1, T2, T3, T4
T-thyrocytes
thyroid follicular cells, lysosomal activity upon iodine/thryglobulin
C-thyrocytes
parafollicular cells, larger thryocyte that contains calcitonin, never make contact w/ follic lumen
hypothyroidism
char by unusually large thyoid cells among smaller cells, dec metab
hyperthyroidism
char by inc metab, hungriness
Hashimoto's Disease
autoimmune against thryoid peroxidase + thryglobulin
parathyroid gland
4 small glands of entwined cuboidal cords, extrathryoid glands, much more dense than the lobular thyroid gland
chief cells
release PTH, smaller than oxyphils
PTH
promotes Ca2+ release from bone, stim Ca2+ resorb by tubular kidney cells, inhib PO4- resorb by kidney, stim 1,25-dihydroxycalciferol
oxyphil cells
tons of mitoch => acidophilic
DiGeorge syndrome
disease characterized by lack of PTh glands
delta / D cells
secrete somatostatin -> inhib both A + B secretion
F / PP cells
secrete pancreatic polypeptide -> inhib pancreatic bicarb + zymogens
Beta / B cells
most abund cell in islets of Langerhaans
preproinsulin
synth in RER, insulin + C peptide + signal peptide
proinsulin
RER transfer: insulin + C peptide
insulin
Golgi: insulin w/ disulfide links
ductal stem cells
allow islets to increase in size w/ age
Kultchitsky organs
vistigial suprarenals along the desc aorta
suprarenal glands
polyhedral cells in cords w/ retic CT + rich bl supply, cortex stim aldosterone + corticosteroid + androgen, medulla stim epi/norepi
adrenal cortex
derived from coelomic mesoderm, 3 zones: Glomerulosa (salt), Fasiculata (stress), Reticularis (sex)
adrenal medulla
derived from neural crest cells, 80% epi (20% NE), clumps of SNS ganglia w/ chromaffin granules, people w/ either A type personalties or tumors have a large medulla
zona glomerulosa
zone of adrenal cortex = "Salt" secretes aldosterone/mineralocorticoids (affect by angiotensin II + and renin - ), dense round/arched cords, SER rich
zona fasiculata
adrenal cortex zone = "Stress", most of cortex, secretes corticosteroids (affect by ACTH + CRF), straight cords of SER rich cells w/ fatty droplets
zona reticularis
adrenal cortex zone = "Sex", secretes androgens (affect by ACTH + CRF), irreg anastamosed cords of SER rich cells w/ fatty droplets + lipofuscin bodies
DHEA
dehydroepiandosterone, male hormone secreted by females
provisional cortex
fetal suprarenal glands that are so strong that could result in mother androgenic
Cushing syndrome
DISEASE: secrete excess ACTH
Conn Syndrome
DISEASE: secrete excess Aldosterone
Addison's Disease
DISEASE: adrenocorticotropic failure