CH 5 MACROMOLECULES
Terms in this set (45)
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
3 fatty acids (chains of hydrocarbons) bonded to a glycerol, most fats are eaten and absorbed in this form, carbohydrate
SATURATED FATTY ACID
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
UNSATURATED FATTY ACID
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
The specific three dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.
BETA PLEATED SHEETS
Accordian-like secondary protein structure that forms as a result of hydrogen bonds between oxygen of one amino acid and hydrogen of another amino acid
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude the water.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
Proteins that help another protein fold properly; elevated levels of this protein are found when the cell is exposed to elevated temperatures
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cytosine, or uracil
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers in a chain; nucleotides can be those of DNA or RNA.
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CH 2 The Chemical Context of Life
CH 3 WATER
CH 4 CARBON MOLECULE