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Arab World - History 5
Terms in this set (39)
A peninsula between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf where Islam originated and the Muslim empires had their beginnings.
land surrounded by water on three sides
A body of water that lies between Arabia and India; the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean
Body of water separating Africa from the Arabian Peninsula
a fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation;comes up from underground streams
-city in modern-day Jordan
-major trading post between Asia, Northern Africa, and the Mediterranean
groups of people traveling together for safety over long distances
-small groups of caravaning people in Arabia
-sleep in tents along the way
-means "people of the desert"
-Orphan raised by merchant uncle
-Founder of Islam, considered the prophet of Allah
-Angel told him in a cave that he was the prophet of Allah
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
First wife of Muhammad and first to convert to Islam.
a religious teacher who is regarded as someone who speaks for God or for a god
-founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran
-started in Mecca
-the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.
language of the Arabs
a believer or follower of Islam
cube shaped building in Mecca
held a sacred black stone - that originally honored the gods and goddesses worshiped by the people of Mecca
later contained in the Great Mosque after Muhammad returned to and conquered Mecca
-City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers fled in 622 to escape when the polytheistic priests pushed him out of Mecca
-north of Mecca
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
a Muslim house of worship
Islam holy book - serves as a guide
Teaching of Muhammad, the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
5 Pillars of Islam
1. belief in one God, Allah, and Muhammad his prophet 2. daily prayer; pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
3. charity - give to poor
4. fasting (sunrise to sunset) during Ramadan (September-October date varies on our calender
5. hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime (and visit Kaaba)
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
What are the 3 geographic regions of Arabia?
1. Jabal al Hijaz mountains on west coast - fertile
2. East Coast - fertile
3. Inner part - desert - largest region
List the 3 bodies of water that surround the Arabian Peninsula.
Persian Gulf - East
Arabian Sea - South
Red Sea - West
How did the geography of Arabia impact the development of civilization there.
-travel is difficult between oases so Arabia was isolated from other area for the majority of BCE before camels were domesticated
How did the environment of the Arabian Peninsula affect its inhabitants and development?
The different lifestyles between the farmers of the south and herders of the north cased conflict
What were the origins of Islam? What circumstances allowed it to flourish?
-Learned about diversity from traveling w/ caravans
-developed leadership skills.
-marriage to Khadija allowed him the leisure to think about religion.
- Muhammad had a vision when the angel Gabriel told him he was Allah's prophet
-Muhammad worked hard to persuade people to worship 1 god - Allah
-found many followers in Medina when he was forced to leave Mecca so he organized a government and army
-emphasized that Muslims are brothers of one another... unified them
What is the most important teaching of the Quran?
There is ONLY 1 god - Allah
What is the purpose of the 5 Pillars?
To strengthen Muslims ties to Allah and to other people.
The Islamic empire ruled by those believed to be the successors to the Prophet Muhammad.
Muslims created this city which is the center of politics and culture in spain
new capital, biggest and most wealthy city.
founded by Al-Mansur
Persian medic figured out that diseases travel through air and water
cancers can be fought with surgery
Abbasid Caliph, built Baghdad
an device used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
complex designs typical of Islamic art, combining intertwining plants and geometric patterns
a distinctive feature of mosque architecture, a tower from which the faithful are called to worship
A muslum physician who wrote about surgery, smallpox, and measles. (Not to be confused with Avicenna
Rhazes-physician, didn't actually treat people, did experiment
Avicenna- actively treated people
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