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3,494 terms

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History types
"Generally defined by E/M services as: problem focused (chief complaint; brief history of present illness or problem); expanded problem focused (chief complaint; brief history of present illness; problem-pertinent system review); detailed (chief complaint; extended history of present illness; extended system review; pertinent past, family, and/or social history); and comprehensive (chief complaint; extended history of present illness; complete system review; complete past, family, and social history)"
Tactic
A method for accomplishing an end
Medical services
"The activities relating to medical care performed by physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professional and technical personnel under the direction of a physician"
Voluntary Disclosure Program
"A program unveiled in 1998 by the OIG that encourages healthcare providers to voluntarily report fraudulent conduct affecting Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal healthcare programs"
Net income
The difference between total revenues and total expenses
Transaction standards
Standards that support the uniform format and sequence of data during transmission from one healthcare entity to another
Health insurance prospective payment system (HIPPS) code
"A five-character alphanumeric code used in the home health prospective payment system (HHPPS) and in the inpatient rehabilitation facility prospective payment system (IRF PPS). In the HHPPS, the HIPPS code is derived or computed from the home health resource group (HHRG); in the IRF PPS, the HIPPS code is derived from the case mix group and comorbidity. Reimbursement weights for each HIPSS code correspond to the levels of care provided"
New technology
"Advance in medical technology that substantially improves, relative to technologies previously available, the diagnosis or treatment of Medicare beneficiaries. Applicants for the status of new technology must submit a formal request, including a full description of the clinical applications of the technology and the results of any clinical evaluations demonstrating that the new technology represents a substantial clinical improvement, along with data to demonstrate the technology meets the high cost threshold"
Lexicon
"1. The vocabulary used in a language or a subject area or by a particular speaker or group of speakers 2. A collection of words or terms and their meanings for a particular domain, used in healthcare for drug terms"
"International Classification of Impairments
Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH)","Published by the World Health Organization to measure the consequences of disease and divided into three classifications: impairments, disabilities, and handicaps; the precursor to ICF"
Osteopath
A physician licensed to practice in osteopathy (a system of medical practice that is based on the manipulation of body parts as well as other therapies)
System testing(s)
A type of testing performed by an independent organization to identify problems in information systems
Disease index
A list of diseases and conditions of patients sequenced according to the code numbers of the classification system in use
Residence
A patient's full address and zip code
"Carrier
Medicare",An organization under contract with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to serve as the financial agent that works with providers and the federal government to locally administer Medicare eligibility and payments
Traditional fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement
A reimbursement method involving third-party payers who compensate providers after the healthcare services have been delivered; payment is based on specific services provided to subscribers
Analyte
Any material or chemical substance subjected to analysis
Local Codes
"Also known as HCPCS Level III Codes, these codes were developed by local Medicare and/or Medicaid carriers and were eliminated December 31, 2003, to comply with HIPAA"
Years of schooling
The highest grade of schooling completed by the enrollee or patient
Image processing
"The ability of a computer to create a graphic representation of a text block, photograph, drawing, or other image and make it available throughout an information system"
Discovery process
"The pretrial stage in the litigation process during which both parties to a suit use various strategies to identify information about the case, the primary focus of which is to determine the strength of the opposing party's case"
Computers on wheels (COWs)
Term affectionately used to refer to notebook computers mounted on carts and moved with the users
Hospital inpatient autopsy
A postmortem (after death) examination performed on the body of a patient who died during an inpatient hospitalization by a hospital pathologist or a physician of the medical staff who has been delegated the responsibility
Ethical agent
An individual who promotes and supports ethical behavior
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
A type of therapy that consists of multiple drugs commonly given to HIV-positive individuals before they develop AIDS
Medication usage review
An evaluation of medication use and medication processes
Global payment method
Method of payment in which the third party payer makes one consolidated payment to cover the services of multiple providers who are treating a single episode of care
Spin-off
"A new, separate company formed by a parent company whose shares are distributed to existing shareholders of the parent company in proportion to the new entity's relationship to the parent company"
Temporary budget variance
The difference between the budgeted and actual amounts of a line item that is expected to reverse itself in a subsequent period; the timing difference between the budget and the actual event
Access
"1. The ability of a subject to view, change, or communicate with an object in a computer system 2. One of the rights protected by the Privacy Rule; an individual has a right of access to inspect and obtain a copy of his or her own PHI that is contained in a designated record set, such as a health record "
Data comparability
The standardization of vocabulary such that the meaning of a single term is the same each time the term is used in order to produce consistency in information derived from the data
Certified coding specialist-physician based (CCS-P)
"An AHIMA credential awarded to individuals who have demonstrated coding expertise in physician-based settings, such as group practices, by passing a certification examination"
Data consistency
"The extent to which the healthcare data is valid, accurate, usable and has integrity, so that each end user has a consistent view of the data"
Network provider
A physician or another healthcare professional who is a member of a managed care network
Systems analysis and design
A performance improvement methodology that can be applied to any type of system
Clean claim
A completed insurance claim form that contains all the required information (without any missing information) so that it can be processed and paid promptly
Group practice without walls (GPWW)
A type of managed care contract that allows physicians to maintain their own offices and share administrative services
Risk prevention
One component of a successful risk management program
System implementation
The third phase of the systems development life cycle
Strategic goals
Long-term objectives set by an organization to improve its operations
Project deliverables
The tangible end results of a project
Medical savings account (MSA) plans
"Plans that provide benefits after a single, high deductible has been met whereby Medicare makes an annual deposit to the MSA and the beneficiary is expected to use the money in the MSA to pay for medical expenses below the annual deductible"
Medicare+Choice
Former name of Medicare Advantage (Part C)
Hardware
The machines and media used in an information system
e-HIM
The application of technology to managing health information
Randomized clinical trial (RCT)
A special type of clinical trial in which the researchers follow strict rules to randomly assign patients to groups
Long-term assets
"Assets whose value to the organization extends beyond one fiscal year, for example, buildings, land, and equipment are long-term assets"
Write-off
The action taken to eliminate the balance of a bill after the bill has been submitted and partial payment has been made or payment has been denied and all avenues of collecting the payment have been exhausted
Request for proposal (RFP)
A type of business correspondence asking for very specific product and contract information that is often sent to a narrow list of vendors that have been preselected after a review of requests for information during the design phase of the systems development life cycle
Preoperative anesthesia evaluation
An assessment performed by an anesthesiologist to collect information on a patient's medical history and current physical and emotional condition that will become the basis of the anesthesia plan for the surgery to be performed
National provider file (NPF)
"A file developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that includes all healthcare providers, including nonphysicians, and sites of care"
Essential Medical Data Set (EMDS)
A recommended data set designed to create a health history for an individual patient treated in an emergency service
Placebo
A medication with no active ingredients
Newborn autopsy rate
The number of autopsies performed on newborns who died during a given time period divided by the total number of newborns who died during the same time period
Judge-made law
Unwritten law originating from court decisions where no applicable statute exists
Applications and data criticality analysis
"A covered entity's formal assessment of the sensitivity, vulnerabilities, and security of its programs and the information it generates, receives, manipulates, stores, and/or transmits"
Healthcare informatics
The field of information science concerned with the management of all aspects of health data and information through the application of computers and computer technologies
Interoperability
The ability of different information systems and software applications to communicate and exchange data
Aging of accounts
"The practice of counting the days, generally in thirty-day increments, from the time a bill was sent to the payer to the current day"
Unfreezing
The first stage of Lewin's change process in which people are presented with disconcerting information to motivate them to change
No man's land
The zone in the palmar or volar surface of the hand between the distal palmar crease (the crease in the palm closest to the fingers) and the middle of the middle phalanx (middle finger)
Leader-member relations
"A situation in contingency theory describing how well the leader is liked, respected, and followed"
Midnight rule
A Medicare regulation that states the day preceding a leave of absence becomes a nonbillable day for Medicare purposes when a Part A beneficiary takes a leave of absence and is not present in the skilled nursing facility at midnight
Clinical Care Classification (CCC)
"Two interrelated taxonomies, the CCC of Nursing Diagnoses and Outcomes and the CCC of Nursing Interventions and Actions, that provide a standardized framework for documenting patient care in hospitals, home health agencies, ambulatory care clinics, and other healthcare settings"
Pueperal
The period immediately following childbirth
Behavioral healthcare information
"Information related to treatment for conditions such as mental disorders, mental retardation, and other developmental disabilities"
Object request broker (ORB)
The messenger at the heart of the object-oriented framework that acts as a relay station between client and server
Affinity grouping
A technique for organizing similar ideas together in natural groupings
COMP
comprehensive
Transaction-processing system
"A computer-based information system that keeps track of an organization's business transactions through inputs (for example, transaction data such as admissions, discharges, and transfers in a hospital) and outputs (for example, census reports and bills)"
Permanence
"The quality of being in a constant, continuous state. (ASTM 2005 3.1.11)"
Occurrence report
A structured data collection tool that risk managers use to gather information about potentially compensable events
Organizational pull model
A model in which the organization views information systems technology as the means to enable people in the organization to work more efficiently and effectively
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA)
An activity of the IEEE that develops standards in a broad-range of industries including healthcare
Word-processing services
Companies outside the healthcare facility that specialize in the deciphering and typing of medical dictation
Amendment request
"The right of individuals to ask that a covered entity amend their health records, as provided in Section 164.526 of the Privacy Rule "
Late entry
An addition to the health record when a pertinent entry was missed or was not written in a timely manner
Executive dashboard
An information management system providing decision makers with regularly updated information on an organization's key strategic measures
Storage management software
"Software used to manage the SAN, keep track of where data are stored, and move older data to less expensive, but still accessible, storage locations"
Risk factor reduction
The reduction of risk in the pool of members
Security pyramid
A graphic representation of security measures in which each depends on the one below it
Role playing
A training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in their jobs
Health information services department
The department in a healthcare organization that is responsible for maintaining patient care records in accordance with external and internal rules and regulations
Medical informatics professionals
Individuals who work in the field of medical informatics
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Data Standards Manual
A compilation of standardized nomenclature monographs for sharing information regarding manufactured drug dosage forms
Episode-of-care (EOC) reimbursement
A category of payments made as lump sums to providers for all healthcare services delivered to a patient for a specific illness and/or over a specified time period; also called bundled payments because they include multiple services and may include multiple providers of care
Data Elements for Emergency Department Systems (DEEDS)
A data set designed to support the uniform collection of information in hospital-based emergency departments
Operational plan
The short-term objectives set by an organization to improve its methods of doing business and achieve its planned outcomes
Universal personal identifier
A unique numerical identifier for each citizen in the United States
Creditable coverage
Prior healthcare coverage that is taken into account to determine the allowable length of preexisting condition exclusion periods (for individuals entering group health plan coverage)
Analysis session
The process of mining a data segment
Medically needy option
An option in the Medicaid program that allows states to extend eligibility to persons who would be eligible for Medicaid under one of the mandatory or optional groups but whose income and/or resources fall above the eligibility level set by their state
Critic
"A role in organizational innovation in which an idea is challenged, compared to stringent criteria, and tested against reality"
Digital dictation
A process in which vocal sounds are converted to bits and stored on computer for random access
Hospital-based outpatient care
"A subset of ambulatory care that utilizes a hospital's staff, equipment, and resources to render preventive and/or corrective healthcare services"
Out-of-pocket expenses
"Healthcare costs paid by the insured (for example, deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance) after which the insurer pays a percentage (often 80 or 100 percent) of covered expenses"
Parents and children
A name for exploding charges wherein the parent is the item that explodes into other items and appears on the bill
Incentive
Something that stimulates or encourages an individual to work harder
Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)
"An accepted set of accounting principles; or standards, and recognized procedures central to financial accounting and reporting"
Hospital inpatient
"A patient who is provided with room, board, and continuous general nursing services in an area of an acute care facility where patients generally stay at least overnight"
Arden syntax
A standard language for encoding medical knowledge representation for use in clinical decision support systems
Inpatient rehabilitation facility PPS (IRFPPS)
Utilizes the patient assessment instrument to assign patients to case-mix groups according to their clinical situation and resource requirements
Performance measure/measurement system
System designed to improve performance by providing feedback on whether goals have been met
Orientation
"A set of activities designed to familiarize new employees with their jobs, the organization, and its work culture"
Survey
A type of research instrument with which the members of the population being studied are asked questions and respond orally
Job procedure
"A structured, action-oriented list of sequential steps involved in carrying out a specific task or solving a problem"
Purchase order
"A paper document or electronic screen on which all details of an intended purchase are reported, including authorizations"
Operation index
"A list of the operations and surgical procedures performed in a healthcare facility, which is sequenced according to the code numbers of the classification system in use"
Civilian Health and Medical Program - Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS)
"A federal program providing supplementary civilian-sector hospital and medical services beyond that which is available in military treatment facilities to military dependents, retirees and their dependents, and certain others"
Mean
A measure of central tendency that is determined by calculating the arithmetic average of the observations in a frequency distribution
Ambulatory care organization
"A healthcare provider or facility that offers preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services to individuals not classified as inpatients or residents"
Scope
The amount of effort and materials needed to produce project deliverables
Civil law
"The branch of law involving court actions among private parties, corporations, government bodies, or other organizations, typically for the recovery of private rights with compensation usually being monetary"
Discharge status
"The disposition of the patient at discharge (that is, left against medical advice, discharged to home, transferred to skilled nursing facility, or died)"
Computer virus
A software program that attacks computer systems with the intention of damaging or destroying files
DSM-IV-TR Classification
"A listing of psychiatric disorders that includes corresponding ICD-9-CM codes (i.e. 315.31, Expressive Language Disorder)"
Indicator measurement system
An indicator-based monitoring system developed by The Joint Commission for accredited organizations and meant to provide hospitals with information on their performance
Unique physician identification number (UPIN)
A unique numerical identifier created by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for use by physicians who bill for services provided to Medicare patients
Nosocomial infection
An infection acquired by a patient while receiving care or services in a healthcare organization
Supervised learning
Any learning technique that has as its purpose to classify or predict attributes of objects or individuals
Software
A program that directs the hardware components of a computer system to perform the tasks required
Dividends
The portion of an organization's profit that is distributed to its investors
Short-stay patient
A patient admitted to the hospital for an intended stay of less than twenty-four hours and who is considered an outpatient and not included in inpatient hospital census statistics
Workgroup on Electronic Data Interchange (WEDI)
A subgroup of Accreditation Standards Committee X12 that has been involved in developing electronic data interchange standards for billing transactions
Anesthesia death rate
The ratio of deaths caused by anesthetic agents to the number of anesthesias administered during a specified period of time
Secondary diagnosis
A statement of those conditions coexisting during a hospital episode that affect the treatment received or the length of stay
Pro forma
An estimate
System catalog
An integrated data dictionary (which is a component of a database management system) that generally contains information on data tables and relationships in addition to data definitions
Project network
The relationship between tasks in a project that determines the overall finish date
Health information exchange (HIE)
A plan in which health information is shared among providers
Clinic cases
Patient encounters that take place on an outpatient basis in a clinic within a teaching environment
Preexisting condition
"Any injury, disease, or physical condition occurring prior to an arbitrary date before the insured's enrollment date of coverage, medical advice, diagnosis, care, or treatment was recommended or received; Healthcare coverage may be denied for a period of time for a pre-existing condition, but the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act constrains the use of exclusions for pre-existing conditions and establishes requirements exclusions for pre-existing conditions must satisfy"
Row/record
A set of columns or a collection of related data items in a table
Goal
A specific description of the services or deliverable goods to be provided as the result of a business process
Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA)
The federal legislation that requires equal pay for men and women who perform substantially the same work
Continuous speech technology
A computer technology that automatically translates voice patterns into written language in real time. Sometimes called continuous speech recognition
Singleton ambulatory patient groups
"An ambulatory patient group assigned to a patient claim that, after consolidation of significant procedures and packaging of ancillaries, is part of a visit with no remaining multiple significant procedures"
Transfer record
"A review of the patient's acute stay along with current status, discharge and transfer orders, and any additional instructions that accompanies the patient when he or she is transferred to another facility"
Security management
"The oversight of facilities, equipment, and other resources, including human resources and technology, to reduce the possibility of harm to or theft of these assets of an organization"
Capital budget process
A four-stage process organizations follow to determine what capital projects to include in the budget
Developmental disability
"A mental or physical limitation affecting major life activities, arising before adulthood, and usually lasting throughout life"
Discovery request
A petition for discovery
Health Care Quality Improvement Program (HCQIP)
"A quality initiative begun in 1992 by the Health Care Financing Administration and implemented by peer review organizations that uses patterns of care analysis and collaboration with practitioners, beneficiaries, providers, plans, and other purchasers of healthcare services to develop scientifically based quality indicators and to identify and implement opportunities for healthcare improvement"
Population-based registry
"A type of registry that includes information from more than one facility in a specific geopolitical area, such as a state or region"
American Hospital Association (AHA)
"The national trade organization that provides education, conducts research, and represents the hospital industry's interests in national legislative matters; membership includes individual healthcare organizations as well as individual healthcare professionals working in specialized areas of hospitals, such as risk management; one of the four Cooperating Parties on policy development for the use of ICD-9-CM"
Mohs' micrographic surgery
"A type of surgery performed to remove complex or ill-defined skin cancer, requiring a single physician to act in two integrated, but separate and distinct, capacities: surgeon and pathologist"
Community health information network (CHIN)
"An integrated collection of computer and telecommunications capabilities that facilitates communications of patient, clinical, and payment information among multiple providers, payers, employers, and related healthcare entities within a community"
Request for information (RFI)
A written communication often sent to a comprehensive list of vendors during the design phase of the systems development life cycle to ask for general product information
Continuing medical education (CME)
"Activities such as accredited sponsorship, nonaccredited sponsorship, medical teaching, publications that advance medical care and other learning experiences, proof of which is required for a physician to maintain certification"
Benefit
Healthcare service for which the healthcare insurance company will pay
"Civil Rights Act
Title VII (1964)","The federal legislation that prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, religion, color, sex, or national origin"
Loss prevention
A risk management strategy that includes developing and revising policies and procedures that are both facilitywide and department specific
Federal Register
"The daily publication of the U.S. Government Printing Office that reports all changes in regulations and federally mandated standards, including HCPCS and ICD-9-CM codes"
Healthcare information system (HIS)
"A transactional system used in healthcare organizations (for example, patient admitting, accounting, and receivables)"
Internet
An international network of computer servers that provides individual users with communications channels and access to software and information repositories worldwide
Observation patient
"A patient who presents with a medical condition with a significant degree of instability and disability and who needs to be monitored, evaluated, and assessed to determine whether he or she should be admitted for inpatient care or discharged for care in another setting"
U/C
usual and customary
Historical research
A research design used to investigate past events
Major teaching hospital
A hospital that provides clinical education to one hundred or more resident physicians
Death rate
The proportion of inpatient hospitalizations that end in death
Confounding variable
An event or a factor that is outside a study but occurs concurrently with the study
Healthcare information standards
"Guidelines developed to standardize data throughout the healthcare industry (for example, developing uniform terminologies and vocabularies)"
Low-volume hospital
A hospital with fewer than 5000 outpatient visits per year
Data element
An individual fact or measurement that is the smallest unique subset of a database
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
An automatic recognition technology that uses a device attached to an object to transmit data to a receiver and does not require direct contact
Average record delinquency rate
The monthly average number of discharges divided by the monthly average number of delinquent records
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
A group of federal agencies that oversee health promotion and disease control and prevention activities in the United States
Workforce trends
Referring to changes that will likely take place in the workforce in the future
Application service provider (ASP)
"A third-party service company that delivers, manages, and remotely hosts standardized applications software via a network through an outsourcing contract based on fixed, monthly usage or transaction-based pricing"
Checksum
Digits or bits summed according to arbitrary rules and used to verify the integrity of numerical data
Cross-sectional study
A biomedical research study in which both the exposure and the disease outcome are determined at the same time in each subject
Chief medical informatics officer (CMIO)
"An emerging position, typically a physician with medical informatics training, that provides physician leadership and direction in the deployment of clinical applications in healthcare organizations"
Prospective study
A study designed to observe outcomes or events that occur after the identification of a group of subjects to be studied
Metadata
"Data that provides a detailed description about other data; Information about a particular data set or document that describes how, when, and by whom it was collected, created, accessed, or modified and how it is formatted. Metadata can be altered intentionally or inadvertently and can be extracted when native files are converted to images. Some metadata, such as file dates and sizes, can easily be seen by users; other metadata can be hidden or embedded and unavailable to computer users who are not technically adept. Metadata is generally not reproduced in full form when a document is printed. (The Sedona Conference 2005, 28)"
Job sharing
A work schedule in which two or more individuals share the tasks of one full-time or one full-time-equivalent position
Coordination of benefits (COB) transaction
The electronic transmission of claims and/or payment information from a healthcare provider to a health plan for the purpose of determining relative payment responsibilities
Certification
"1. The process by which a duly authorized body evaluates and recognizes an individual, institution, or educational program as meeting predetermined requirements 2. An evaluation performed to establish the extent to which a particular computer system, network design, or application implementation meets a prespecified set of requirements"
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB)
A not-for-profit organization that oversees the work of auditors of public companies
Nominal group technique
"A group process technique that involves the steps of silent listing, recording each participant's list, discussing, and rank ordering the priority or importance of items; allows groups to narrow the focus of discussion or to make decisions without becoming involved in extended, circular discussions"
Code editor
Software that evaluates the clinical consistency and completeness of health record information and identifies potential errors that could affect accurate prospective payment group assignment
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Group model health maintenance organization
A type of health plan in which an HMO contracts with an independent multispecialty physician group to provide medical services to members of the plan
e-health
"The application of e-commerce to the healthcare industry, including electronic data interchange and links among healthcare entities"
Professional standards review organization (PSRO)
An organization responsible for determining whether the care and services provided to hospital inpatients were medically necessary and met professional standards in the context of eligibility for reimbursement under the Medicare and Medicaid programs
Covered condition
"Health condition, illness, injury, disease, or symptom for which the healthcare insurance company will pay"
Date of procedure (inpatient)
"The year, month, and day of each significant procedure"
Variable costs
"Resources expended that vary with the activity of the organization, for example, medication expenses vary with patient volume"
Galen Common Reference Model (CRM)
A computer-based clinical terminology developed in Europe for representing medical concepts
Durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC)
A third party designated by a competent individual to make healthcare decisions for that individual should he or she become incompetent
Clinical practice guidelines
"A detailed, step-by-step guide used by healthcare practitioners to make knowledge-based decisions related to patient care and issued by an authoritative organization such as a medical society or government agency"
Fee schedule
A list of healthcare services and procedures (usually CPT/HCPCS codes) and the charges associated with them developed by a third-party payer to represent the approved payment levels for a given insurance plan
Privacy board
A group formed by a HIPAA-covered entity to review research studies where authorization waivers are requested and to ensure the HIPAA privacy rights of research subjects
Change control
The process of performing an impact analysis and obtaining approval before modifications to the project scope are made
Indicator
"An activity, event, occurrence, or outcome that is to be monitored and evaluated under The Joint Commission standard in order to determine whether those aspects conform to standards; commonly relates to the structure, process, and/or outcome of an important aspect of care; also called a criterion 2. A measure used to determine an organization's performance over time"
Ordinal-level data
Data with inherent order and with higher numbers usually associated with higher values
Physical data model
The lowest level of data model with the lowest level of abstraction
Case definition
A method of determining criteria for cases that should be included in a registry
Rubric
"A category; in ICPC, the two digits following the first character of an ICPC code and representing the second axis, components"
Incident report review
An analysis of incident reports or an evaluation of descriptions of adverse events
Radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA)
One of the tests used to confirm a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Justice
The impartial administration of policies or laws that takes into consideration the competing interests and limited resources of the individuals or groups involved
Causal-comparative research
A research design that resembles experimental research but lacks random assignment to a group and manipulation of treatment
American Medical Association (AMA)
"The national professional membership organization for physicians that distributes scientific information to its members and the public, informs members of legislation related to health and medicine, and represents the medical profession's interests in national legislative matters; maintains and publishes the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding system"
Bioethics
"A field of study that applies ethical principles to decisions that affect the lives of humans, such as whether to approve or deny access to health information"
Priority focus process (PFP)
"A process used by the Joint Commission to collect, analyze, and create information about a specific organization being accredited in order to customize the accreditation process"
Groupthink
An implicit form of group consensus in which openness and effective decision making are sacrificed to conformity
Medicare volume performance standard (MVPS)
A goal for the annual rate of growth in Part B expenditures for physicians' services
Medicare secondary payer
"One of the edits in the outpatient and inpatient code editors that reviews claims to determine if the claim should be paid by another form of insurance, such as workers' compensation or private insurance in the event of a traffic accident"
Contingency plan
"Documentation of the process for responding to a system emergency, including the performance of backups, the line-up of critical alternative facilities to facilitate continuity of operations, and the process of recovering from a disaster"
Middle management
The management level in an organization that is concerned primarily with facilitating the work performed by supervisory- and staff-level personnel as well as by executive leaders
Geometric mean length of stay (GMLOS)
"A statistically adjusted value of all cases of a given diagnosis-related group (MS-DRG), allowing for the outliers, transfer cases, and negative outlier cases that would normally skew that data; used to compute hospital reimbursement for transfer cases"
Patient's expected sources of payment
"Regardless of payment method, the primary source expected to be responsible for the largest percentage of a patient's current bill"
Living arrangement
A data element that denotes whether the patient lives alone or with others
Report generation
"The process of analyzing, organizing, and presenting recorded patient information for authentication and inclusion in the patient's healthcare record; the formatting and/or structuring of captured information"
Algorithmic translation
A process that involves the use of algorithms to translate or map clinical nomenclatures among each other or to map natural language to a clinical nomenclature or vice versa
All patient refined diagnosis-related groups (APR-DRGs)
"An expansion of the inpatient classification system that includes four distinct subclasses (minor, moderate, major, and extreme) based on the severity of the patient's illness"
Research method
"The particular strategy used by a researcher to collect, analyze, and present data"
Information capture
"The process of recording representations of human thought, perceptions, or actions in documenting patient care, as well as device-generated information that is gathered and/or computed about a patient as part of health care "
Statement of work
A document that defines the scope and goals of a specific project
Retrospective payment system
Type of fee-for-service reimbursement in which providers receive recompense after health services have been rendered
Principal diagnosis
"The disease or condition that was present on admission, was the principal reason for admission, and received treatment or evaluation during the hospital stay or visit or the reason established after study to be chiefly responsible for occasioning the admission of the patient to the hospital for care"
Data comprehensiveness
The extent to which healthcare data are complete
Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF)
"A private, not-for-profit organization that develops customer-focused standards for behavioral healthcare and medical rehabilitation programs and accredits such programs on the basis of its standards"
Regenstrief LOINC Mapping Assistant (RELMA)
A free Microsoft Windows software download that provides LOINC users help in working with LOINC database files
Weight
"The numerical assignment that is part of the formula by which a specific dollar amount, or reimbursement, is calculated for each diagnosis-related group or each ambulatory payment classification"
Long-term care diagnosis related group (LTC-DRG)
"Inpatient classification that categorizes patients who are similar in terms of diagnoses and treatments, age, resources used, and lengths of stay. Under the prospective payment system (PPS), hospitals are paid a set fee for treating patients in a single DRG category, regardless of the actual cost of care for the individual. LTC-DRGs are exactly the same as the DRGs for the inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS)."
Health information management services (HIMS)
One of several names for the health record department. This name is meant to provide a better description of the function of the department- the management of health information
Server redundancy
Situation where two servers are duplicating effort
Not otherwise specified (NOS)
A type of classification that denotes a lack of information in the record and means unspecified rather than not elsewhere classified
Discharge planning
The process of coordinating the activities related to the release of a patient when inpatient hospital care is no longer needed
Reserves
Unused profits from a not-for-profit organization that stay in the business
Authorization
"The granting of permission to disclose confidential information; as defined in terms of the HIPAA privacy rule, an individual's formal, written permission to use or disclose his or her personally identifiable health information for purposes other than treatment, payment, or healthcare operations"
Peer review
"1. Review by like professionals, or peers, established according to an organization's medical staff bylaws, organizational policy and procedure, or the requirements of state law; the peer review system allows medical professioanls to candidly critique and criticize the work of their colleagues without fear of reprisal 2. The process by which experts in the field evaluate the quality of a manuscript for publication in a scientific or professional journal"
Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Category II Code
A CPT code the represents services and/or test results that contribute to positive health outcomes and quality patient care
Distance learning
"A learning delivery mode in which the instructor, the classroom, and the students are not all present in the same location and at the same time"
Transcriptionist
A specially trained typist who understands medical terminology and translates physicians' verbal dictation into written reports
Grievance
"A formal, written description of a complaint or disagreement"
Network administrators
"The individuals involved in installing, configuring, managing, monitoring, securing, and maintaining network computer applications and responsible for supporting the network infrastructure and controlling user access"
Data-based DSS
Decision support system that focuses on providing access to the various data sources within the organization through one system
Byte
Eight bits treated as a single unit by a computer to represent a character
Healthcare-acquired infection
"An infection occurring in a patient in a hospital or healthcare setting in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission, or the remainder of an infection acquired during a previous admission"
Debt service
The current obligations of an organization to repay loans
Drug components
The elements that together constitute a clinical drug
Principal procedure
The procedure performed for the definitive treatment of a condition (as opposed to a procedure performed for diagnostic or exploratory purposes) or for care of a complication
VLBW
Very low birth weight
Advanced decision support
Automated clinical practice guidelines that are built in to electronic health record systems and designed to support clinical decision making
Universal chart order
A system in which the health record is maintained in the same format while the patient is in the facility and after discharge
Contra-account
"Any account set up to adjust the historical value of a balance sheet account (for example, cumulative depreciation is a contra-account to an equipment [fixed-asset] account)"
Total billed charges
All charges for procedures and services rendered to a patient during a hospitalization or encounter
Chart order policy
A policy that provides a detailed listing of all documents and defines their order and section location within the health record
DRG creep
"An increase in a case-mix index that occurs through the coding of higher-paying principal diagnoses and of more complications and comorbidities, even though the actual severity level of the patient population did not change"
Behavioral healthcare
"A broad array of psychiatric services provided in acute, long-term, and ambulatory care settings; includes treatment of mental disorders, chemical dependency, mental retardation, and developmental disabilities, as well as cognitive rehabilitation services"
Coaching
1. A training method in which an experienced person gives advice to a less-experienced worker on a formal or informal basis 2. A disciplinary method used as the first step for employees who are not meeting performance expectations
Health care record
"As distinguished from a medical record. The health care record is the service provider's care data collection and processing tool as well as the documentation of care in a broader sense. This term includes that information processing that, while useful, would not meet the definitional requirements of a medical record, thus encompassing purposes that extend outside or do not qualify as meeting requirements for the more well-defined domain of a medical record. This also then is inclusive of those documentation and data gathering activities that may not meet the validity requirements of a true medical record. "
Procedures and services (outpatient)
"All medical procedures and services of any type (including history, physical examination, laboratory, x-ray or radiograph, and others) that are performed pertinent to the patient's reasons for the encounter, all therapeutic services performed at the time of the encounter, and all preventive services and procedures performed at the time of the encounter"
ADFM
active duty family member; a designation used under TRICARE
Pull list
A list of requests for records to be pulled for review during the audit process
LBW
low birth weight
Member months
"The total membership each month accumulated for a given time period (for example, one hundred members serviced each month for six months equals six hundred member months)"
Clinical data manager
"The person responsible for managing the data collected during the research project, developing data standards, conducting clinical coding for specific data elements, determining the best database to house the data, choosing appropriate software systems to analyze the data, and conducting data entry and data analysis; various responsibilities according to the research study protocol"
Resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS)
A Medicare reimbursement system implemented in 1992 to compensate physicians according to a fee schedule predicated on weights assigned on the basis of the resources required to provide the services
Depreciation
The allocation of the dollar cost of a capital asset over its expected life
For-profit organizations
The tax status assigned to business entities that are owned by one or more individuals or organizations and that earn revenues in excess of expenditures that are subsequently paid out to the owners or stockholders
Predecessor
A task that affects the scheduling of a successor task in a dependency relationship
Ratio analysis
Mathematical computations that compare elements of an organization's financial statements to past and future performance trends and industry benchmarks
Ancillary service visit
"The appearance of an outpatient in a unit of a hospital or outpatient facility to receive services, tests, or procedures; ordinarily not counted as an encounter for healthcare services"
Trier of fact
The judge or jury hearing a civil or criminal trial
"Logical Observation Identifiers
Names and Codes (LOINC)","A database protocol developed by the Regenstrief Institute for Health Care aimed at standardizing laboratory and clinical codes for use in clinical care, outcomes management, and research"
System maintenance and evaluation
The final phase of the systems development life cycle
Abstract
Brief summary of the major parts of a research study
Focus
An organized form of charting narrative notes in which nursing terminology is used to explain the resident's health status and resulting nursing action
Dollars in accounts receivable
The amount of money owed a healthcare facility when claims are pending
Job redesign
"The process of realigning the needs of the organization with the skills and interests of the employee and then designing the job to meet those needs (for example, in order to introduce new tools or technology or provide better customer service)"
Misdemeanor
A crime that is less serious than a felony
History
"The pertinent information about a patient, including chief complaint, past and present illnesses, family history, social history, and review of body systems"
Wisdom
The intelligence that gives individuals the empowerment and courage to act
Skilled nursing facility (SNF)
"A long-term care facility with an organized professional staff and permanent facilities (including inpatient beds) that provides continuous nursing and other health-related, psychosocial, and personal services to patients who are not in an acute phase of illness but who primarily require continued care on an inpatient basis"
Quartile
The fourth equal part of a distribution
Path-goal theory
A situational leadership theory that emphasizes the role of the leader in removing barriers to goal achievement
Decision support system (DSS)
A computer-based system that gathers data from a variety of sources and assists in providing structure to the data by using various analytical models and visual tools in order to facilitate and improve the ultimate outcome in decision-making tasks associated with nonroutine and nonrepetitive problems
Communications technology
Computer networks in an information system
Project scope
1. The intention of a project 2. The range of a project's activities or influence
Medical classification system
A method of arranging related diseases and conditions into groups to be reported as quantitative data for statistical purposes
Wide-area network (WAN)
A computer network that connects devices across a large geographical area
Internal rate of return (IRR)
An interest rate that makes the net present value calculation equal zero
Coding specialist
The healthcare worker responsible for assigning numeric or alphanumeric codes to diagnostic or procedural statements
Efficacy
"In the language of The Joint Commission (JC), the degree to which the treatment intervention used for a patient has been shown to accomplish the desired/projected outcomes"
Scope of command
The number and type of employees who report to a specific management position in a defined organizational structure
Integrated health record format
A system of health record organization in which all the paper forms are arranged in strict chronological order and mixed with forms created by different departments
DRG grouper
A computer program that assigns inpatient cases to diagnosis-related groups and determines the Medicare reimbursement rate
Retained earnings
Undistributed profits from a for-profit organization that stay in the business
PMD
primary medical doctor
Scorecards
Reports of outcomes measures to help leaders know what they have accomplished; sometimes called dashboards
Nonprogrammed decision
"A decision that involves careful and deliberate thought and discussion because of a unique, complex, or changing situation"
Selection
The act or process of choosing
Applied research
"A type of research that focuses on the use of scientific theories to improve actual practice, as in medical research applied to the treatment of patients"
Credits
The amounts on the right side of a journal entry
Ambulatory surgery center or ambulatory surgical center (ASC)
"Under Medicare, an outpatient surgical facility that has its own national identifier; is a separate entity with respect to its licensure, accreditation, governance, professional supervision, administrative functions, clinical services, record keeping, and financial and accounting systems; has as its sole purpose the provision of services in connection with surgical procedures that do not require inpatient hospitalization; and meets the conditions and requirements set forth in the Medicare Conditions of Participation"
Ethical decision making
"The process of requiring everyone to consider the perspectives of others, even when they do not agree with them"
Outcomes and Assessment Information Set (OASIS)
A standard core assessment data tool developed to measure the outcomes of adult patients receiving home health services under the Medicare and Medicaid programs
Health services research
Research conducted on the subject of healthcare delivery that examines organizational structures and systems as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare services
Early fetal death
The death of a product of human conception that is fewer than twenty weeks of gestation and 500 grams or less in weight before its complete expulsion or extraction from the mother
Packet switching
An information transmission system in which data are encoded into short units (packets) and sent through an electronic communications network
Case-based payment
"Type of prospective payment method in which the third party payer reimburses the provider a fixed, pre-established payment for each case"
Career development
The process of growing or progressing within one's profession or occupation
Health information exchange (HIE)
The electronic movement of health-related information among organizations according to nationally recognized standards
Nonmaleficence
A legal principle that means 'first do no harm'
Newborn (NB)
An inpatient who was born in a hospital at the beginning of the current inpatient hospitalization
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or DHHS)
The cabinet-level federal agency that oversees all the health- and human-services-related activities of the federal government and administers federal regulations
Security rule
The federal regulations created to implement the security requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Healthcare practitioner identification
A unique national identification number assigned to the healthcare practitioner of record for each encounter
Health Information Security and Privacy Collaboration (HISPC)
An organization for exchanging ideas and developing solutions to promote interoperability
Nominal-level data
"Data that fall into groups or categories that are mutually exclusive and with no specific order (for example patient demographics such as third party payer, race, and sex)"
World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca)
"The organization instrumental in the development of the International Classification of Primary Care; formerly called the World Organization of National Colleges, Academics, and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (Wonca)"
Mainframe
A computer architecture built with a single central processing unit to which dumb terminals and/or personal computers are connected
Intelligent prompting
A means in tables and forms for displaying only clinically relevant items
Medicare-required assessment
A Minimum Data Set for Long-Term Care completed solely for the purpose of Medicare rate setting for skilled nursing facilities
Acute care prospective payment system
"The Medicare reimbursement methodology system referred to as the inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). Hospital providers subject to the IPPS utilize the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs) classification system, which determines payment rates"
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1989
"The federal legislation that mandated important changes in the payment rules for Medicare physicians; specifically, the legislation that requires nursing facilities to conduct regular patient assessments for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries"
Trial court
"The lowest tier of state court, usually divided into two courts: the court of limited jurisdiction, which hears cases pertaining to a particular subject matter or involving crimes of lesser severity or civil matters of lower dollar amounts; and the court of general jurisdiction, which hears more serious criminal cases or civil cases that involve large amounts of money"
Prevalence rate
The proportion of people in a population who have a particular disease at a specific point in time or over a specified period of time
Multidimensional analysis
Simultaneous analysis of data from multiple dimensions using different data elements
Ethics training
"The act of teaching others about moral principles, theories, and values"
Cost-sharing
Provision of a healthcare insurance policy that requires policyholders to pay for a portion of their healthcare services; a cost-control mechanism
Delegation of authority
The assignment of authority or responsibility
Active record
A health record of an individual who is a currently hospitalized inpatient or an outpatient
Clinician
"A healthcare provider, including physicians and others who treat patients"
Coding
The process of assigning numeric or alphanumeric representations to clinical documentation
Middleware
A bridge between two applications or the software equivalent of an interface
Surgical operation
One or more surgical procedures performed at one time for one patient via a common approach or for a common purpose
Census
The number of inpatients present in a healthcare facility at any given time
Patient assessment instrument (PAI)
"A standardized tool used to evaluate the patient's condition after admission to, and at discharge from, the healthcare facility"
Maternal mortality rate (community based)
A rate that measures the deaths associated with pregnancy for a specific community for a specific period of time
Assumptions
"Undetermined aspects of a project that are considered to be true (for example, assuming that project team members have the right skill set to perform their duties)"
Diagnosis chiefly responsible for services provided (outpatient)
"The diagnosis, condition, problem, or reason for an encounter/visit that is chiefly responsible for the services provided"
Hospital newborn inpatient
A patient born in the hospital at the beginning of the current inpatient hospitalization
Encryption
The process of transforming text into an unintelligible string of characters that can be transmitted via communications media with a high degree of security and then decrypted when it reaches a secure destination
Nursing assessment record (NAR)
A form used to track patients' functional status; supports the Minimum Data Set (MDS) process
Elective admission
The formal acceptance by a healthcare organization of a patient whose condition permits adequate time to schedule the availability of a suitable accommodation
Coder/biller
A person in an ambulatory care or a physician office setting who is generally responsible for processing the superbill
Outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS)
The Medicare prospective payment system used for hospital-based outpatient services and procedures that is predicated on the assignment of ambulatory payment classifications
Alternative hypothesis
A hypothesis that states that there is an association between independent and dependent variables
Administrative information
Information used for administrative and healthcare operations purposes such as billing and quality oversight
Entity relationship diagram (ERD)
A specific type of data modeling used in conceptual data modeling and the logical-level modeling of relational databases
Privacy standards
"Rules, conditions, or requirements developed to ensure the privacy of patient information"
Per diem (per day)
Type of prospective payment method in which the third party payer reimburses the provider a fixed rate for each day a covered member is hospitalized
National Regulatory Commission
A body that has oversight responsibility for the medical use of ionizing radiation and to which medical events must be reported
Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) SPECIALIST Lexicon
An English-language lexicon containing biomedical terms
Data analysis
The process of translating data into information that can be used by an application
Chief operating officer (COO)
An executive-level role responsible at a high level for day-to-day operations of an organization
Qui tam litigation
'Provisions within the law that allow for persons or entities with evidence of fraud against federal programs or contracts to sue the wrongdoer on behalf of the government' (Source: The False Claims Act Legal Center)
Blue Cross and Blue Shield Federal Employee Program (FEP)
A federal program that offers a fee-for-service plan with preferred provider organizations and a point-of-service product
Template
A pattern used in computer-based patient records to capture data in a structured manner
Quintile
Portion of a frequency distribution containing one-fifth of the total cases
Geographic adjustment factor (GAF)
Adjustment to the national standardized Medicare fee schedule relative value components used to account for differences in the cost of practicing medicine in different geographic areas of the country
Contextual
The condition of depending on the parts of a written or spoken statement that precede or follow a specified word or phrase and can influence its meaning or effect
National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)
A federal agency responsible for the collection of official vital statistics for the United States
Evaluation and management (E/M) services
"The history, examination, and medical decision-making services that physicians must perform in evaluating and treating patients in all healthcare settings "
Critical performance measures
"Those outputs by which the quality of an organization's services will be measured by patients, clients, visitors, and the community"
Balance billing
A reimbursement method that allows providers to bill patients for charges in excess of the amount paid by the patients' health plan or other third-party payer (not allowed under Medicare or Medicaid)
Materiality
The significance of a dollar amount based on predetermined criteria
Peritoneal dialysis
A continuous or intermittent procedure in which dialyzing solution is introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity to cleanse the body of metabolic waste products
Nursing vocabulary
A classification system used to capture documentation on nursing care
Unit testing
"The testing step in EHR implementation that ensures that each data element is captured, recorded, and processed appropriately within a given application"
Construct validity
"The ability of an instrument to measure hypothetical, nonobservable traits"
Ranked data
A type of ordinal data where the group of observations is first arranged from highest to lowest according to magnitude and then assigned numbers that correspond to each observation's place in the sequence
X12N
Referring to standards adopted for electronic data interchange
Chief complaint
"A concise statement, usually stated in the patient's words, describing the symptom, problem, condition, diagnosis, physician-recommended return, or other factor that is the reason for a healthcare encounter"
Newborn bassinet count day
"A unit of measure that denotes the presence of one newborn bassinet, either occupied or vacant, set up and staffed for use in one 24-hour period"
Editor
"Logic (algorithms) within computer software that evaluates data. Medicare's Standard Claims Processing System (or PSC Supplemental Edit Software) and its Outpatient Code Editor (OCE) contain editors that select certain claims, evaluate, or compare information on the selected claims or other accessible source, and depending on the evaluation, take actions on the claims, such as pay in full, pay in part, or suspend for manual review"
Absolute frequency
The number of times that a score of value occurs in a data set
Error
Act involving an unintentional deviation from truth or accuracy (ASTM 2005 3.1.7)
Department of a provider
"A facility, organization, or physician's office that is either created or acquired by a main provider for the purpose of furnishing healthcare services under the name, ownership, and financial and administrative control of the main provider, in accordance with the provisions of the ambulatory payment classification final rule"
Primary care
The continuous and comprehensive care provided at first contact with the healthcare provider in an ambulatory care setting
Rate of return method
A method used to justify a proposed capital expenditure in which the organization tries to find out what rate of return it would get if it invests in a particular project
Direct costs
"Resources expended that can be identified as pertaining to specific goods and/or services (for example, medications pertain to specific patients)"
Float employee
An employee who is not assigned to a particular shift or function and who may fill in as needed in cases of standard employee absence or vacation
Physician-patient privilege
The legal protection from confidential communications between physicians and patients related to diagnosis and treatment from being disclosed during civil and some misdemeanor litigation
Etiologic diagnosis
Underlying cause or origin of a problem that leads to a certain diagnosis or condition
Compliance officer
Designated individual who monitors the compliance process at a healthcare facility
National conversion factor (CF)
A mathematical factor used to convert relative value units into monetary payments for services provided to Medicare beneficiaries
Type of bill (TOB)
A form of coding that represents the nature of each form CMS-1450 claim
Main provider
"A provider that either creates or owns another entity in order to deliver additional healthcare services under its name, ownership, and financial and administrative control"
Crosswalks
Lists of translating codes from one system to another
Medications prescribed
"Descriptions (including, where possible, the national drug code, dosage, strength, and total amount prescribed) of all medications prescribed or provided by the healthcare practitioner at the encounter (for outpatients) or given on discharge to the patient (for inpatients)"
Procedural codes
The numeric or alphanumeric characters used to classify and report the medical procedures and services performed for patients
Benchmarking
"The systematic comparison of the products, services, and outcomes of one organization with those of a similar organization; or the systematic comparison of one organization's otucomes with regional or national standards"
Need for intervention
A term that relates to the severity-of-illness consequences that would result from the lack of immediate or continuing medical care
ALJ
administrative law judge
Integrated delivery system (IDS)
"A system that combines the financial and clinical aspects of healthcare and uses a group of healthcare providers, selected on the basis of quality and cost management criteria, to furnish comprehensive health services across the continuum of care"
Clearinghouse
An organization that processes and/or reformats electronic claims to insurers on behalf of multiple healthcare providers
Plan of care (POC)
A term referring to Medicare home health services for homebound beneficiaries that must be delivered under a plan established by a physician
Nonparticipant observation
A method of research in which researchers act as neutral observers who do not intentionally interact or affect the actions of the population being observed
Categorical data
"Four types of data (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio) that represent values or observations that can be sorted into a category"
Multi-axial
The ability of a nomenclature to express the meaning of a concept across several axes
Physician assistant (PA)
A healthcare professional licensed to practice medicine with physician supervision
Inventor
A role in organizational innovation that requires idea generation
Reference terminology
"A set of concepts and relationships that provide a common consultation point for the comparison and aggregation of data about the entire healthcare process, recorded by multiple individuals, systems, or institutions"
Social Security number (SSN)
A unique numerical identifier assigned to every U.S. citizen
Learning curve
The time required to acquire and apply certain skills so that new levels of productivity and/or performance exceed prelearning levels (productivity often is inversely related to the learning curve)
Morgue
The location where the bodies of deceased persons are kept until identified and claimed or are released for burial
Civil proceeding (action)
"An action brought to enforce, redress, or protect private rights or to protect a private right or compel a civil remedy in a dispute between private parties (in general, all types of actions other than criminal proceedings)"
Valuation
"The estimated market value of a project, an object, a merger, and so on"
Respite care
A type of short-term care provided during the day or overnight to individuals in the home or institution to temporarily relieve the family home caregiver
American College of Surgeons (ACS)
The scientific and educational association of surgeons formed to improve the quality of surgical care by setting high standards for surgical education and practice
Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM)
Notice published in the Federal Register calling for public comment on its policy; the public at large has a specified time period to submit comments
Administrative agencies
Executive branch agencies; source of administrative law
Computer-assisted coding
The process of extracting and translating dictated and then transcribed free-text data (or dictated and then computer-generated discrete data) into ICD-9-CM and CPT evaluation and management codes for billing and coding purposes
Network protocol
A set of conventions that governs the exchange of data between hardware and/or software components in a communications network
Multidimensional online analytical processing (MOLAP)
A data access methodology that is coupled tightly with a multidimensional database management system to allow the user to perform business analyses
Available for hospital autopsy
A situation in which the required conditions have been met to allow an autopsy to be performed on a hospital patient who has died
Discharge summary
A recapitulation of an individual's stay at a healthcare facility that is used along with the postdischarge plan of care to provide continuity of care upon discharge from the facility
Patient
A living or deceased individual who is receiving or has received healthcare services
Systems
"The foundations of caregiving, which include buildings (environmental services), equipment (technical services), professional staff (human resources), and appropriate policies (administrative)"
Source of admission code
Form locator 20 on the CMS-1450 form
360-degree evaluation
"A method of performance evaluation in which the supervisors, peers, and other staff who interact with the employee contribute information"
Resident assessment protocol (RAP)
A summary of a long-term care resident's medical condition and care requirements
Bundled payments
A category of payments made as lump sums to providers for all healthcare services delivered to a patient for a specific illness and/or over a specified time; a relatively continuous period in relation to a particular clinical problem or situation; they include multiple services and may include multiple providers of care
Adjustment
The process of writing off an unpaid balance on a patient account to make the account balance
Formulary
"A listing of drugs, classified by therapeutic category or disease class; in some health plans, providers are limited to prescribing only drugs listed on the plan's formulary. The selection of items to be included in the formulary is based on objective evaluations of their relative therapeutic merits, safety, and cost"
Control
One of the four management functions in which performance is monitored in accordance with organizational policies and procedures
Continuous monitoring
The regular and frequent assessment of healthcare processes and their outcomes and related costs
Average payment rate (APR)
The amount of money the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid could pay a health maintenance organization for services rendered to Medicare recipients under a risk contract
Mentoring
A type of employee coaching and training in which an individual is matched with a more experienced individual who serves as an advisor or counselor
Care path
A care-planning tool similar to a clinical practice guideline that has a multidisciplinary focus emphasizing the coordination of clinical services; also known as clinical algorithm
Applied healthcare informatics
"Automated information systems applied to healthcare delivery business and work-flow processes, including the diagnosis, therapy, and systems of managing health data and information within the healthcare setting"
Clinical protocol
"Specific instructions for performing clinical procedures established by authoritative bodies, such as medical staff committees, and intended to be applied literally and universally"
Network model
Type of health maintenance organization (HMO) in which the HMO contracts with two or more medical groups and reimburses the groups on a fee-for-service or capitation basis
Advance directive
"A legal, written document that describes the patient's preferences regarding future healthcare or stipulates the person who is authorized to make medical decisions in the event the patient is incapable of communicating his or her preferences"
Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) chart
A project management tool that diagrams a project's time lines and tasks as well as their interdependencies
Leadership grid
A leadership model proposed by Blake and Mouton and based on a grid measure of concern for people and production
Retrospective coding
A type of coding that takes place after the patient has been discharged and the entire health record has been routed to the health information management department
Contract coder
A coder who is hired as an independent contractor on temporary basis to assist with coding backlog
Management information system (MIS)
A computer-based system that provides information to a healthcare organization's managers for use in making decisions that affect a variety of day-to-day activities
Near miss
An opportunity to improve patient safety-related practices based on a condition or incident with potential for more serious consequences
Medical staff organization (MSO)
A self-governing entity that operates as a responsible extension of the governing body and exists for the purpose of providing patient care
Administrative information systems
"A category of healthcare information systems that supports human resources management, financial management, executive decision support, and other business-related functions"
Wireless local-area network (WLAN)
A data transmission network that uses an unguided medium such as radio waves or microwaves
Trigger
A documented response that alerts a skilled nursing facility resident assessment instrument assessor to the fact that further research is needed to clarify an assessment
Questionnaire
A type of survey in which the members of the population are questioned through the use of electronic or paper forms
Metathesaurus
"The very large, multipurpose, and multilingual vocabulary database that is the central vocabulary component of the Unified Medical Language System"
Financial data
"The data collected for the purpose of managing the assets and expenses of a business (for example, a healthcare organization, a product line); in healthcare, data derived from the charge generation documentation associated with the activities of care and then aggregated by specific customer grouping for financial analysis"
"Use
disclosures, and requests","Three types of situations in which personal health information is handled: use, which is internal to a covered entity or its business associate; disclosure, which is the dissemination of PHI from a covered entity or its business associate; and requests for PHI made by a covered entity or its business associate"
Cyclical staffing
A transitional staffing solution wherein workers are brought in for specific projects or to cover in busy times
One-tailed hypothesis
An alternative hypothesis in which the researcher makes a prediction in one direction
Computer output to laser disk/enterprise report management (COLD/ERM)
"Technology that electronically stores documents and distributes them with fax, e-mail, Web, and traditional hard-copy print processes"
Case management
"1. The ongoing, concurrent review performed by clinical professionals to ensure the necessity and effectiveness of the clinical services being provided to a patient 2. A process that integrates and coordinates patient care over time and across multiple sites and providers, especially in complex and high-cost cases, with goals of continuity of care, cost-effectiveness, quality, and appropriate utilization 3. The process of developing a specific care plan for a patient that serves as a communication tool to improve quality of care and reduce cost"
Behavioral description interview
An interview format that requires applicants to give specific examples of how they have performed a specific procedure or handled a specific problem in the past
Belmont Report
"A statement of ethical principles to prevent the unethical use of human subjects in research, sponsored by the Department of Health and Human Services"
Single-blinded study
"A study design in which (typically) the investigator but not the subject, knows the identity of the treatment and control groups"
Visit
A single encounter with a healthcare professional that includes all of the services supplied during the encounter
Simulation and inventory modeling
The key components of a plan that are computer simulated for testing and experimentation so that optimal operational procedures can be found
Object-oriented database (OODB)
"A type of database that uses commands that act as small, self-contained instructional units (objects) that may be combined in various ways"
Consultation
The response by one healthcare professional to another healthcare professional's request to provide recommendations and/or opinions regarding the care of a particular patient/resident
Semantic normal form (SNF)
The preferred term for clinical drugs in RxNorm
Inpatient Rehabilitation Validation and Entry (IRVEN)
A computerized data-entry system used by inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs). Captures data for the IRF Patient Assessment Instrument (IRF PAI) and supports electronic submission of the IRF PAI. Also allows data import and export in the standard record format of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
Medical specialties
"A group of clinical specialties that concentrates on the provision of nonsurgical care by physicians who have received advanced training in internal medicine, pediatrics, cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, oncology, nephrology, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, dermatology, radiology, and nuclear medicine, among many other concentrations"
Source system
An information system that operates independently of a CPR system but provides data to it
Data warehouse management system (DWMS)
A type of software that manages a data warehouse
Peer-reviewed journal
A type of professional or scientific journal for which content experts evaluate articles prior to publication
Population
The universe of data under investigation from which a sample is taken
Inpatient psychiatric facility PPS (IPFPPS)
"A per diem prospective payment system that is based on fifteen diagnosis-related groups, which became effective on January 1, 2005"
Risk
1. The probability of incurring injury or loss; 2. The probable amount of loss foreseen by an insurer in issuing a contract 3. A formal insurance term denoting liability to compensate individuals for injuries sustained in a healthcare facility
Boxplot
Tool in the form of a graph that displays five-number data summary
Innovator
An early adopter of change who is eager to experiment with new ways of doing things
Registered health information administrator (RHIA)
A type of certification granted after completion of an AHIMA-accredited four-year program in health information management and a credentialing examination
Groupware
An Internet technology that consolidates documents from different information systems within an organization into a tightly integrated workflow
Application programming interface (API)
A set of definitions of the ways in which one piece of computer software communicates with another or a programmer makes requests of the operating system or another application; operates outside the realm of the direct user interface
Baseline
"The original estimates for a project's schedule, work, and cost"
Chief knowledge officer (CKO)
"A position that oversees the entire knowledge acquisition, storage, and dissemination process and that identifies subject matter experts to help capture and organize the organization's knowledge assets"
Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC)
"A professional organization that offers accreditation programs for ambulatory and outpatient organizations such as single-specialty and multispecialty group practices, ambulatory surgery centers, college/university health services, and community health centers"
Bit
The level of voltage (low or high) in a computer that provides the binary states of 0 and 1 that computers use to represent characters
"Understandable
reproducible, and useful (URU) principle","The guiding principal for modeling concepts in SNOMED CT, which states that all concepts must be understandable, reproducible, and useful"
American Association of Medical Record Librarians (AAMRL)
The name adopted by the Association of Record Librarians of North America in 1944; precursor of the American Health Information Management Association
Pharmacy and therapeutics (P and T) committee
"The multidisciplinary committee that oversees and monitors the drugs and therapeutics available for use, the administration of medications and therapeutics, and the positive and negative outcomes of medications and therapeutics used in a healthcare organization"
Pictogram
A graphic technique in which pictures are used in the display of data
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
"The federal law, applicable only to federal agencies, through which individuals can seek access to information without the authorization of the person to whom the information applies"
Universal patient identifier
"A personal identifier applied to a patient, such as a number or code, that is used permanently for many and varied purposes"
Tort
An action brought when one party believes that another party caused harm through wrongful conduct and seeks compensation for that harm
"Customary
prevailing and reasonable (CPR) charge payment method","Type of retrospective fee-for-service payment method, used by Medicare until 1992 to determine payment amounts for physician services, in which the third party payer pays for fees that are customary, prevailing, and reasonable"
Objectivity
An accounting concept in which assets are classified at historical cost or current value
Run chart
A type of graph that shows data points collected over time and identifies emerging trends or patterns
Budget period
"A predetermined period of time, such as a fiscal year, in which a project budget will be spent"
Legal health record (LHR)
The form of a health record that is the legal business record of the organization and serves as evidence in lawsuits or other legal actions; what constitutes an organization's legal health record varies depending on how the organization defines it
Regression analysis
"Statistical technique that uses an independent variable to predict the value of a dependent variable. In the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system (IPF PPS), patient demographics and length of stay (independent variables) were used to predict cost of care (dependent variable)"
Custodial care
A type of care that is not directed toward a cure or restoration to a previous state of health but includes medical or nonmedical services provided to maintain a given level of health without skilled nursing care
Ability (achievement) tests
Tests used to assess the skills an individual already possesses
Evidence-based management
A management system in which practices based on research evidence will be effective and produce the outcomes they claim
Registered health information technician (RHIT)
A type of certification granted after completion of an AHIMA-accredited two-year program in health information management and a credentialing examination
Data structure
"The form in which data are stored, as in a file, a database, a data repository, and so on"
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
"Core-based statistical area associated with at least one urbanized area that has a population of at least 50,000. The MSA comprises the central county or counties containing the core, plus adjacent outlying counties"
Preterm neonate
Any neonate whose birth occurs through the end of the last day of the thirty-eighth week (two hundred sixty-sixth day) following onset of the last menstrual period
Admitting diagnosis
A provisional description of the reason why a patient requires care in an inpatient hospital setting
Discharge and readmit
A situation in which a home health provider receives a prorated partial episode payment for the original episode when a beneficiary is discharged and readmitted to the same agency within the same sixty-day period
Cancer mortality rate
The proportion of patients that die from cancer
Patient safety
The condition of a patient being safe from harm or injury
Chief privacy officer
"A position that (1) oversees activities related to the development, implementation, and maintenance of, and adherence to, organizational policies and procedures regarding the privacy of and access to patient-specific information and (2) ensures compliance with federal and state laws and regulations and accrediting body standards concerning the confidentiality and privacy of health-related information"
Implied consent
The type of permission that is inferred when a patient voluntarily submits to treatment
Extended care facility
"A healthcare facility licensed by applicable state or local law to offer room and board, skilled nursing by a full-time registered nurse, intermediate care, or a combination of levels on a twenty-four-hour basis over a long period of time"
Market value
The price at which something can be bought or sold on the open market
Acceptance theory of authority
A management theory based on the principle that employees have the freedom to choose whether they will follow managerial directions
Marital status
"The marital state of the patient at the start of care (for example, married, living together, not living together, never married, widowed, divorced, separated, or unknown/not stated)"
NIH
National Institutes of Health
Direct observation
A means of gathering data about a process in which participants in the process are observed
Tertiary care
"A type of highly specialized care provided by specialists (such as neurosurgeons, fertility specialists, or immunologists) who use sophisticated technology and support services"
Health management information system (HMIS)
"An information system whose purpose is to provide reports on routine operations and processing (for example, a pharmacy inventory system, radiological system, or patient-tracking system)"
Generalizability
"The ability to apply research results, data, or observations to groups not originally under study"
Health systems agency (HSA)
A type of organization called for by the Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 to have broad representation of healthcare providers and consumers on governing boards and committees
Private branch exchange (PBX)
A switching system for telephones on private extension lines that allows access to the public telephone network
Customer
"An internal or external recipient of services, products, or information"
Supervisory managers
Managers who oversee small (two- to ten-person) functional workgroups or teams and often perform hands-on functions in addition to supervisory functions
Context-based access control
"An access control system which limits users to accessing information not only in accordance with their identity and role, but to the location and time in which they are accessing the information "
Security threat
A situation that has the potential to damage a healthcare organization's information system
Outcome indicator
"A measurement of the end results of a clinical process (for example, complications, adverse effects, patient satisfaction) for an individual patient or a group of patients within a specific diagnostic category"
Variable
A characteristic or property that may take on different values
New patient
"An individual who has not received professional services from the physician, or any other physician of the same specialty in the same practice group within the past three years"
Implementation specifications
Descriptions that define how HIPAA standards are to be implemented
Pricer
"Software module in a Medicare claim-processing systems, specific to certain benefits, used in pricing claims and calculating payment rates and payments, most often under prospective payment systems"
Inpatient coding compliance
"The accurate and complete assignment of ICD-9-CM diagnostic and procedural codes, along with appropriate sequencing (for example, identification of principal diagnosis) to determine the appropriate diagnosis-related group and resultant payment"
Progressive discipline
"A four-step process for shaping employee behavior to conform to the requirements of the employee's job position that begins with a verbal caution and progresses to written reprimand, suspension, and dismissal upon subsequent offenses"
Corporate Code of Conduct
A part of the compliance plan which expresses the organization's commitment to ethical behavior
Inpatient admission
"An acute care facility's formal acceptance of a patient who is to be provided with room, board, and continuous nursing service in an area of the facility where patients generally stay at least overnight"
Medical malpractice insurance
Insurance that protects a party from claims for medical negligence or other tortious injury arising out of care provided to patients
Administrative services
"Business-related services provided by an insurance organization to self-insured employers or other parties according to an administrative services only contract (for example, actuarial support, benefit plan design, claims processing, data recovery and analysis, employee benefits communication, financial advice, medical care conversions, stop-loss coverage, and other services as requested)"
Elective surgery
A classification of surgery that does not have to be performed immediately to prevent death or serious disability
Account
"A subdivision of assets, liabilities, and equities in an organization's financial management system"
Retention
"1. Mechanisms for storing records, providing for timely retrieval, and establishing the length of times that various types of records will be retained by the healthcare organization 2. The ability to keep valuable employees from seeking employment elsewhere"
Data accuracy
The extent to which data are free of identifiable errors
Managed care organization (MCO)
"A type of healthcare organization that delivers medical care and manages all aspects of the care or the payment for care by limiting providers of care, discounting payment to providers of care, and/or limiting access to care; also known as a coordinated care organization"
History of present illness (HPI)
A chronological description of the development of the patient's present illness from the first sign and/or symptom or from the previous encounter to the present
Standard deviation
A measure of variability that describes the deviation from the mean of a frequency distribution in the original units of measurement; the square root of the variance
Carriers (Medicare Part B)
Financial agents that serve under contract with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to work with providers and the federal government to locally administer Medicare Part B claims
National Uniform Billing Committee (NUBC)
The national group responsible for identifying data elements and designing the CMS-1500
Denial
"The circumstance when a bill has been accepted, but payment has been denied for any of several reasons (for example, sending the bill to the wrong insurance company, patient not having current coverage, inaccurate coding, lack of medical necessity, and so on)"
Mapping
Creation of a cross map that links the content from one classification or terminology scheme to another
Public health services (PHS)
Services concerned primarily with the health of entire communities and population groups
Time period
A specific span of dates to which data apply
Bandwidth
The range of frequencies a device or communication medium is capable of carrying
Resident assessment instrument (RAI)
"A uniform assessment instrument developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to standardize the collection of skilled nursing facility patient data; includes the Minimum Data Set 2.0, triggers, and resident assessment protocols"
Documentation paradigm
A disease-specific format developed by the individual provider for the purpose of establishing standard clinical documentation forms
Contrast material
An ingested or injected substance that enhances the appearance of anatomical structures when they undergo imaging
Birthday rule
"A method of determining which insurance company is the primary carrier for dependents when both parents carry insurance on them. The rule states that the policyholder with the birthday earliest in the calendar year carries the primary policy for the dependents. If the policyholders are both born on the same day, the policy that has been in force the longest is the primary policy. Birth year has no relevance in this method"
Corporate compliance program
"A facilitywide program that comprises a system of policies, procedures, and guidelines that are used to ensure ethical business practices"
Universal precautions
The application of a set of procedures specifically designed to minimize or eliminate the passage of infectious disease agents from one individual to another during the provision of healthcare services
Cultural competence
"Skilled in awareness, understanding, and acceptance of beliefs and values of the people of groups other than one's own"
Leapfrog Group
Organization that promotes healthcare safety by giving consumers the information they need to make better-informed choices about the hospitals they choose
Network
"1. A type of information technology that connects different computers and computer systems so that they can share information 2. Physicians, hospitals, and other providers who provide healthcare services to members of a managed care organization; providers may be associated through formal or informal contracts and agreements"
Chemical destruction
The application of chemicals to destroy tissue
Forecast
To calculate or predict some future event or condition through study and analysis of available pertinent data
Purged records
Patient health records that have been removed from the active file area
Certainty factor
The defined certainty percentage rate with which an occurrence must present itself to satisfy quality standards
Hospital-based ambulatory care center
An organized hospital facility that provides nonemergency medical or dental services to patients who are not assigned to a bed as inpatients during the time services are rendered (an emergency department in which services are provided to nonemergency patients is not considered an ambulatory care center)
Range
Distance or extent between possible extremes
Physician index
A list of patients and their physicians that is usually arranged according to the physician code numbers assigned by the healthcare facility
Private right of action
1. The right of an injured person to secure redress for violation of his or her rights 2. A legal right to maintain an action growing out of a given transaction or state of facts and based thereon or a legal term pertaining to remedy and relief through judicial procedure
Sole proprietorship
A venture with one owner in which all profits are considered the owner's personal income
Videoconferencing
A communications service that allows a group of people to exchange information over a network by using a combination of video and computer technology
Dose form
"The form in which a drug is administered to a patient, as opposed to the form in which the manufacturer had supplied it"
Employer-based self-insurance
An umbrella term used to describe health plans that are funded directly by employers to provide coverage for their employees exclusively in which employers establish accounts to cover their employees' medical expenses and retain control over the funds but bear the risk of paying claims greater than their estimates
Deficiency slip
"A device for tracking information (for example, reports) missing from a paper-based health record"
Dependent variable
A measurable variable in a research study that depends on an independent variable
Regenstrief Medical Records System (RMRS)
One of the nation's first electronic medical record systems and the keystone of Regenstrief Institute activities
Push technology
A type of active computer technology that sends information directly to the end user as the information becomes available
Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA)
"The 1988 reenactment of the 1967 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act; A law that provides that clinical laboratories are only to disclose test results or reports to 'authorized persons,' who are defined by the law as the person who orders the test unless state law defines them otherwise"
Data input
The process of entering data into a healthcare database
Graphical user interface (GUI)
"A style of computer interface in which typed commands are replaced by images that represent tasks (for example, small pictures [icons] that represent the tasks, functions, and programs performed by a software program)"
Transition
An ongoing plan used in establishing and maintaining the Medicare fee schedule
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
An independent organization that sets accounting standards for businesses in the private sector
Protective order
Any court order or decree whose purpose is to protect a person from personal harassment or service of process or discovery
Biofeedback
The process of providing visual or auditory evidence to a person on the status of an autonomic body function (such as the sounding of a tone when blood pressure is at a desirable level) so that he or she learns to exert control over the function
Descriptive research
A type of research that determines and reports the current status of topics and subjects
Outcomes management
"The process of systematically tracking a patient's clinical treatment and responses to that treatment, including measures of morbidity and functional status, for the purpose of improving care"
Post-acute care
Care provided to patients who have been released from an acute care facility to recuperate at home
Community Health Dimension (CHD)
One aspect of a national health information network infrastructure that acknowledges the importance of population-based health data and resources that are necessary to improve public health
Palliative care
A type of medical care designed to relieve the patient's pain and suffering without attempting to cure the underlying disease
American Society for Quality (ASQ)
"A quality improvement organization whose members' interests are related to statistical process control, quality cost measurement and control, total quality management, failure analysis, and zero defects"
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations ensure that an employee (or designated representative) is given access to his or her own medical and exposure records within 15 days of a request
Care planning
"The process of organizing and documenting the specific goals in the treatment of an individual patient, amending the goals as the patient's condition requires, and assessing the outcomes of care"
Qualifying circumstances
"Unusual situations such as extreme age, total body hypothermia, controlled hypotension, and emergency situations that complicate the provision of anesthesia"
System infectors
Computer viruses that infect the system areas of diskettes or the hard drive of a computer
Clinical information system (CIS)
A category of a healthcare information system that includes systems that directly support patient care
Birth certificate
Paperwork that must be filed for every live birth regardless of where it occurred
Misfeasance
"Relating to negligence, improper performance during an otherwise correct act"
Cause-and-effect diagram
An investigational technique that facilitates the identification of the various factors that contribute to a problem
Credential verification organization (CVO)
"An organization that verifies healthcare professionals' background, licensing, and schooling, and tracks continuing education and other performance measures"
Need-to-know principle
The release-of-information principle based on the minimum necessary standard that means that only the information needed by a specific individual to perform a specific task should be released
Patient Care Data Set (PCDS)
"A terminology of patient problems, patient care goals, and patient care orders that represents and captures clinical data for inclusion in patient care information systems"
Strategy map
A visual representation of the cause-and-effect relationships among the components of an organization's strategy
Bylaws
Operating documents that describe the rules and regulations under which a healthcare organization operates
Knowledge production
"Involves the creation of knowledge through collection, generation, synthesis, identification and organization of knowledge through codification, storage, packaging, and coordination"
Medicare economic index (MEI)
"An index used by the Medicare program to update physician fee levels in relation to annual changes in the general economy for inflation, productivity, and changes in specific health-sector expense factors including malpractice, personnel costs, rent, and other expenses"
Tactical plan
A strategic plan at the level of divisions and departments
Ethernet
A popular protocol (format) for transmitting data in local area networks
Sample size
The number of subjects needed in a study to represent a population
Authority
The right to make decisions and take actions necessary to carry out assigned tasks
Coroner
A public officer whose principal duty is to inquire via an inquest into the cause of death that there is reason to suppose is not due to natural causes
Work measurement
The process of studying the amount of work accomplished and how long it takes to accomplish work in order to define and monitor productivity
United Nations International Standards Organization (ISO)
An international standards organization that coordinates all international standards development
Change drivers
Forces in the external environment of organizations or industries that force organizations or industries to change the way they operate in order to survive
Closed panel
Type of health maintenance organization that provides hospitalization and physicians' services through its own staff and facilities; beneficiaries are allowed to use only those specified facilities and physicians or dentists who accept the plan or organization's conditions of membership and reimbursement
Virtual reality (VR)
An artificial form of reality experienced through sensory stimuli and in which the participant's actions partly affect what happens
Skilled nursing facility prospective payment system (SNF PPS)
"A per-diem reimbursement system implemented in July 1998 for costs (routine, ancillary, and capital) associated with covered skilled nursing facility services furnished to Medicare Part A beneficiaries"
Peter Principle
"A cynical belief that employees will advance to their highest level of competence, and then be promoted to their level of incompetence where they will remain (named after the 1993 book by Laurence J. Peter)"
Solo practice
A practice in which the physician is self-employed and legally the sole owner
Discoverability
Limitations on the ability of parties to discover pretrial information held by another
Orion Project
"The Joint Commission's initiative designed to assess accreditation models, develop a continuous accreditation process, and test alternative processes for reporting survey findings to hospitals"
Aggregate data
Data extracted from individual health records and combined to form de-identified information about groups of patients that can be compared and analyzed
Records removal policy
A policy that outlines how and when records may be removed from the health record department
Rehabilitation
"The process of restoring a disabled insured to maximum physical, mental, and vocational independence and productivity (commensurate with their limitations) through the identification and development of residual capabilities, job modifications, or retraining"
Data mart
"A well-organized, user-centered, searchable database system that usually draws information from a data warehouse to meet the specific needs of users"
Physician query process
A communication tool and educational mechanism that provides a clearer picture of specific resident diagnoses when in question
Municipal ordinance/code
"A rule established by a local branch of government such as a town, city, or county"
Job evaluation
The process of applying predefined compensable factors to jobs to determine their relative worth
Dental informatics
A field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to support the practice and delivery of dental healthcare through the application of computers and computer technologies
CMS-1500
"The universal insurance claim form developed and approved by the American Medical Association and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Physicians use it to bill Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers for professional services provided"
Prospective payment
"A method of determining reimbursement based on predetermined factors, not individual services"
Administrative data
"Coded information contained in secondary records, such as billing records, describing patient identification, diagnoses, procedures, and insurance"
Nursing Information and Data Set Evaluation Center (NIDSEC)
"The Nursing Information and Data Set Evaluation Center was established by the American Nurses Association (ANA) to review, evaluate against defined criteria, and recognize information systems from developers and manufacturers that support documentation of nursing care within automated nursing information systems (NIS) or within computer-based patient record systems (CPR)"
Client
A patient who receives behavioral or mental health services
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (1994)
"Federal legislation that prohibits discrimination against individuals because of their service in the Armed Forces Reserves, National Guard, or other uniformed services"
Plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle
A performance improvement model designed specifically for healthcare organizations
Specified low-income Medicare beneficiaries (SLMBs)
"Medicare beneficiaries who have resources similar to qualified Medicare beneficiaries, but higher incomes, although still less than 120 percent of the federal poverty level"
Infection control
A system for the prevention of communicable diseases that concentrates on protecting healthcare workers and patients against exposure to disease-causing organisms and promotes compliance with applicable legal requirements through early identification of potential sources of contamination and implementation of policies and procedures that limit the spread of disease
Bar coding technology
"A method of encoding data that consists of parallel arrangements of dark elements, referred to as bars, and light elements, referred to as spaces, and interpreting the data for automatic identification and data collection purposes"
Hybrid entity
"An entity that performs both covered and noncovered functions under the Privacy Rule; for example, a university that educates students and maintains student educational records is not covered by the Privacy Rule; however, the same university that operates a medical center is covered by the Privacy Rule as it meets the definition of 'healthcare provider'"
Decentralization
The shift of decision-making authority and responsibility to lower levels of the organization
Supervisory management
Management level that oversees the organization's efforts at the staff level and monitors the effectiveness of everyday operations and individual performance against preestablished standards
"International Classification on Functioning
Disability and Health (ICF)","Classification of health and health-related domains that describe body functions and structures, activities, and participation"
Normalization
1. A formal process applied to relational database design to determine which variables should be grouped together in a table in order to reduce data redundancy across and within the table 2. Conversion of various representational forms to standard expressions so that those that have the same meaning will be recognized by computer software as synonymous in a data search
Cost centers
Groups of activities for which costs are specified together for management purposes
Evidence of insurability
A statement or proof of a person's physical condition and/or other factual information necessary to obtain healthcare insurance in certain situations
Enforcement rule
"A rule that created standardized procedures and substantive requirements for investigating complaints and imposing civil monetary penalties (CMPs) for HIPAA violations, as well as a uniform compliance and enforcement mechanism that addresses all of the Administrative Simplification regulations, including privacy, security, and transactions and code sets"
Concept permanence
Codes that represent the concept in a controlled medical terminology are not reused; therefore meanings do not change
Rebasing
The redetermination of the ambulatory payment classification weights to reflect changes in relative resource consumption
Cash budget
A forecast of needs for available funds throughout the year
Payment locality
A geographic pricing area historically used by Medicare carriers to calculate physicians' customary and prevailing charges for payment of Part B services
MEDCIN
A proprietary clinical terminology developed as a point-of-care tool for electronic medical record documentation at the time and place of patient care
Minimum Data Set for Post Acute Care (MDS-PAC)
"A patient-centered assessment instrument that must be completed for every Medicare patient, which emphasizes a patient's care needs instead of provider characteristics"
Fuzzy logic
An analytic technique used in data mining to handle imprecise concepts
Abbreviations
"Shortened forms of words or phrases; in healthcare, when there is more than one meaning for an approved abbreviation, only one meaning should be used or the context in which the abbreviation is to be used should be identified"
Standing orders
Orders the medical staff or an individual physician has established as routine care for a specific diagnosis or procedure
Point of care (POC)
The place or location where the physician administers services to the patient
Western blot
One of the tests used to confirm a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Diagnosis
"A word or phrase used by a physician to identify a disease from which an individual patient suffers or a condition for which the patient needs, seeks, or receives medical care"
Tort laws
State legislation that applies to civil cases dealing with wrongful conduct or injuries
Constructive confrontation
A method of approaching conflict in which both parties meet with an objective third party to explore perceptions and feelings
Fax on demand
A service in which a user may select from a list of available fax sources by keying the corresponding number of a fax title or from multiple fax messages via a twelve-digit telephone keypad
Postpartum
Occurring after childbirth
Relationship
A type of connection between two terms
Medicare summary notice (MSN)
A summary sent to the patient from Medicare that summarizes all services provided over a period of time with an explanation of benefits provided
Massed training
An educational technique that requires learning a large amount of material at one time
Three-dimensional imaging
The construction of pictures generated from computer data in three dimensions
Managerial accounting
"The development, implementation, and analysis of systems that track financial transactions for management control purposes, including both budget systems and cost analysis systems"
Disk mirroring
"The creation of an exact copy of one disk from another, for backup"
Uniform Ambulatory Care Data Set (UACDS)
A dataset developed by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics consisting of a minimum set of patient/client-specific data elements to be collected in ambulatory care settings
Facility-specific system
A computer information system developed exclusively to meet the needs of one healthcare organization
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A private key encryption algorithm adopted as the federal standard for the protection of sensitive unclassified information and also used extensively for the protection of commercial data
Medical care evaluation studies
Audits required by the Medicare Conditions of Participation that dictate the use of screening criteria with evaluation by diagnosis and/or procedure
Bed count
The number of inpatient beds set up and staffed for use on a given day
Resident's right to access
A term encompassing the mechanisms in place to allow residents to review their own health information
Mortality review
A review of deaths as part of an analysis of ongoing outcome and performance improvement
Rural area
Geographic area outside an urban area and its constituent counties or count equivalents. Any area not designated as a metropolitan statistical area for the purposes of case-mix index sets and wage index adjustments to federal Medicare reimbursement rates
Coordination of benefits (COB)
A method of integrating benefits payments from all health insurance sources to ensure that they do not exceed 100 percent of a plan member's allowable medical expenses
Recalibration
The adjustment of all ambulatory payment classification weights to reflect changes in relative resource consumption
Care plan
"The specific goals in the treatment of an individual patient, amended as the patient's condition requires, and the assessment of the outcomes of care; serves as the primary source for ongoing documentation of the resident's care, condition, and needs"
Analysis of discharged health records policy
A policy that outlines steps to be taken to process discharged resident records
E code (external cause of injury code)
"A supplementary ICD-9-CM classification used to identify the external causes of injuries, poisonings, and adverse effects of pharmaceuticals"
Nuclear medicine
"A method of examination in which technologists using a special camera introduce radioactive substances into the body orally, intravenously, or by ventilated aerosol or gas. A special camera is used to detect the radioactive substances as they circulate through the body and produce an image"
Alias policy
"A policy that is implemented when resident confidentiality is require by the resident, family, or responsible party"
Prosecutor
"An attorney who prosecutes a defendant accused for a crime on behalf of a local, state, or federal government"
Quality improvement (QI)
"A set of activities that measures the quality of a service or product through systems or process evaluation and then implements revised processes that result in better healthcare outcomes for patients, based on standards of care"
V codes
A set of ICD-9-CM codes used to classify occasions when circumstances other than disease or injury are recorded as the reason for the patient's encounter with healthcare providers
Semantic clinical drug component (SCDC)
"One of the two types of semantic normal forms created in RxNorm for every clinical drug, the SCDC consists of an active ingredient and strength"
Total quality management (TQM)
A management philosophy that includes all activities in which the needs of the customer and the organization are satisfied in the most efficient manner by using employee potentials and continuous improvement
Special-cause variation
An unusual source of variation that occurs outside a process but affects it
Indemnification statement
A statement that exempts the signer from incurring liabilities or penalties
Stealth virus
"A type of computer virus that can hide itself, making it difficult to locate"
Epidemiological studies
Studies that are concerned with finding the causes and effects of diseases and conditions
Managed care
"A generic term for reimbursement and delivery systems that integrate the financing and provision of healthcare services by means of entering contractual agreements with selected providers to furnish comprehensive healthcare services and developing explicit criteria for the selection of healthcare providers, formal programs of ongoing quality improvement and utilization review, and significant financial incentives for members to use providers associated with the plan"
Line chart
A type of data display tool used to plot information on the progress of a process over time
Physician query process policy
A policy that addresses request from physicians for additional information as part of the coding and reimbursement process
Scalable
"The measure of a system to grow relative to various measures of size, speed, number of users, volume of data, and so on"
Test statistics
A set of statistical techniques that examines the psychometric properties of measurement instruments
Dashboards
Reports of process measures to help leaders follow progress to assist with strategic planning- sometimes called scorecards
Physician work (WORK)
"Component or element of the relative value unit (RVU) that should cover the physician's salary. This work is the time the physician spends providing a service and the intensity with which that time is spent. The four elements of intensity are:(a) mental effort and judgment, (b) technical skill, (c) physical effort, and (d) psychological stress"
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
"The federal legislation enacted to provide continuity of health coverage, control fraud and abuse in healthcare, reduce healthcare costs, and guarantee the security and privacy of health information; limits exclusion for preexisting medical conditions, prohibits discrimination against employees and dependents based on health status, guarantees availability of health insurance to small employers, and guarantees renewability of insurance to all employees regardless of size; requires covered entities (most healthcare providers and organizations) to transmit healthcare claims in a specific format; develop, implement, and comply with the standards of the Privacy Rule and the Security Rule, and mandates that covered entities apply for and utilize national identifiers in HIPAA transactions. Also known as Public Law 104-191 and the Kassebaum-Kennedy Law"
Category III codes
"CPT codes that describe new and emerging technology. They may be published at any time during the year, rather than on the annual publication cycle, and can be found on the AMA Web site (www.ama-assn.org) and immediately preceding the alphabetic index in the CPT codebook "
Accession number
A number assigned to each case as it is entered in a cancer registry
Etiology axis
The cause of a disease or injury
Documentation guideline (DG)
A statement that indicates what health information must be recorded to substantiate use of a particular CPT code
Security standards
"Statements that describe the processes and procedures meant to ensure that patient-identifiable health information remains confidential and protected from unauthorized disclosure, alteration, and destruction"
Secondary storage
The permanent storage of data and programs on disks or tapes
Standard of law
"A statute or regulation, or common practice, established by professional associations to identify what an individual is expected to do or not do in a given situation unless determined otherwise by a court"
Release and disclosure
The processes that make health record information available to legitimate users
Focused review
"A process whereby a health record is analyzed to gather specific information about the diagnoses, treatments, or providers"
National health information infrastructure (NHII)
"An infrastructure proposed by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics in 2002 that would be a set of technologies, standards, applications, systems, values, and laws that support all facets of provider healthcare, individual health, and public health"
Simulation
A training technique for experimenting with real-world situations by means of a computerized model that represents the actual situation
Data definition
The specific meaning of a healthcare-related data element
Job rotation
A work design in which workers are shifted periodically among different tasks
Text mining
The process of extracting and then quantifying and filtering free-text data
Workers' compensation
The medical and income insurance coverage for certain employees in unusually hazardous jobs
Clinical Special Product Label (SPL)
A LOINC standard that provides information found in the approved FDA drug label or package insert in a computer readable format for use in electronic prescribing and decision support
Allied health professional
"A credentialed healthcare worker who is not a physician, nurse, psychologist, or pharmacist (for example, a physical therapist, dietitian, social worker, or occupational therapist)"
Labor-Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act)
Federal legislation passed in 1947 that imposed certain restrictions on unions while upholding their right to organize and bargain collectively
Certificate authority (CA)
An independent licensing agency that vouches for a person's identity in encrypted electronic communications
Vocabulary mapping process
A process that connects one clinical vocabulary to another
Column/field
"A basic fact within a table, such as LAST_NAME, FIRST_NAME, and date of birth"
Strategic plan
"The document in which the leadership of a healthcare organization identifies the organization's overall mission, vision, and goals to help set the long-term direction of the organization as a business entity"
Omaha System
A research-based taxonomy designed to generate data following routine client care
Modifier
A two-digit numeric code listed after a procedure code that indicates that a service was altered in some way from the stated CPT descriptor without changing the definition; also used to enhance a code narrative to describe the circumstances of each procedure or service and how it individually applies to a patient
Backward compatibility
The capability of a software or hardware product to work with earlier versions of itself
Going concern
An organization that can be assumed to continue indefinitely unless otherwise stated
OMT
osteopathic manipulative treatment
Multi-axial system
A system that can classify an entity in several different ways
Virus
"A computer program, typically hidden, that attaches itself to other programs and has the ability to replicate and cause various forms of harm to the data"
Applied artificial intelligence
An area of computer science that deals with algorithms and computer systems that exhibit the characteristics commonly associated with human intelligence
Token
"A physical device, such as a key card, inserted into a door to admit an authorized person or into a computer to authenticate a computer user"
Chief financial officer (CFO)
The senior manager responsible for the fiscal management of an organization
Retaliation and waiver
"Rights protected under the Privacy Rule; to ensure the integrity of individuals' right to complain about alleged Privacy Rule violations, covered entities are expressly prohibited from retaliating against anyone who exercises his rights under the Privacy Rule, assists in an investigation by the HHS or other appropriate investigative authority, or opposes an act or practice that the person believes is a violation of the Privacy Rule and individuals cannot be required to waive the rights that they hold under the Privacy Rule in order to obtain treatment, payment, or enrollment/benefits eligibility"
Fully Specified Name
"In SNOMED CT, the unique text assigned to a concept that completely describes that concept"
Case study
"A type of nonparticipant observation in which researchers investigate one person, one group, or one institution in depth"
Flex years
"A work arrangement in which employees can choose, at specific intervals, the number of hours they want to work each month over the next year"
Nosology
The branch of medical science that deals with classification systems
National Coverage Determination (NCD)
National medical necessity and reimbursement regulations
Confidential communication
"As defined by HIPAA, a request that PHI be routed to an alternative location or by an alternative method"
Clinical pertinence review
A review of medical records performed to assess the quality of information using criteria determined by the healthcare organization; includes quantitative and qualitative components
System design
The second phase of the systems development life cycle
Environmental scanning
A systematic and continuous effort to search for important cues about how the world is changing outside and inside the organization
Insurer
An organization that pays healthcare expenses on behalf of its enrollees
Market basket index
Relative measure that averages the costs of a mix of goods and services; used in the home health prospective payment system to reflect changes over time in the prices of an appropriate mix of goods and services and to develop the national sixty-day episode payment rates
Client/server architecture
A computer architecture in which multiple computers (clients) are connected to other computers (servers) that store and distribute large amounts of shared data
Internal controls
Policies and procedures designed to protect an organization's assets and to reduce the exposure to the risk of loss due to error or malfeasance
CPT-5 Project
"The AMA initiative to improve CPT to address the needs of hospitals, managed care organizations, and long-term care facilities"
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)
A collaboration of healthcare organizations that provides an objective voice dedicated to supporting healthcare quality and helping its members identify and achieve implementation of best practices for their patients
Home Assessment Validation and Entry (HAVEN)
"A type of data-entry software used to collect Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) data and then transmit them to state databases; imports and exports data in standard OASIS record format, maintains agency/patient/employee information, enforces data integrity through rigorous edit checks, and provides comprehensive online help. HAVEN is used in the home health prospective payment system (HHPPS)"
At risk contract
A type of managed care contract between Medicare and a payer or a payer and a provider according to which patients receive care during the entire term of the contract even if actual costs exceed the payment established by the agreement
Patient-elected transfer
The elective transfer of a patient from one home health agency to another during a sixty-day episode
Microcomputer
"A personal computer characterized by its relatively small size and fast processing speed; also called desktop computer, laptop computer, or PC"
Outlier
"1. A case in a prospective payment system with unusually long lengths of stay or exceptionally high costs; day outlier or cost outlier, respectively 2. An extreme statistical value that falls outside the normal range"
Double-blind study
A type of clinical trial conducted with strict procedures for randomization in which neither researcher nor subject knows whether the subject is in the control group or the experimental group
Computer-based training
A type of training that is delivered partially or completely using a computer
Incidence rate
A computation that compares the number of new cases of a specific disease for a given time period to the population at risk for the disease during the same time period
Temporary employee
"A person who is employed for a temporary, definite period of time, such as to complete a specific project or to fill in for a permanent employee on vacation or other leave; or a person who is employed for an indefinite period of time but who receives none of the fringe benefits offered to permanent employees"
Conditions of Participation
"The administrative and operational guidelines and regulations under which facilities are allowed to take part in the Medicare and Medicaid programs; published by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, a federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services"
Network control
A method of protecting data from unauthorized change and corruption during transmission among information systems
Tacit knowledge
"The actions, experiences, ideals, values, and emotions of an individual that tend to be highly personal and difficult to communicate (for example, corporate culture, organizational politics, and professional experience)"
Risk sharing
"An agreement in which a vendor assumes at least part of the responsibility, from a financial perspective, for the successful implementation of a computer system"
Strategic communications
"Programs created to advance specific organizational goals such as promoting a new center or service, establishing a new program, or positioning the organization as a center of excellence in a specific discipline such as cardiology or oncology"
Role-based access control (RBAC)
A control system in which access decisions are based on the roles of individual users as part of an organization
Healthcare provider
"A provider of diagnostic, medical, and surgical care as well as the services or supplies related to the health of an individual and any other person or organization that issues reimbursement claims or is paid for healthcare in the normal course of business. A provider is legally responsible for the patient's diagnosis and treatment"
Standing committees
"Committees that are put in place to oversee ongoing and cross-functional issues (examples include the medical staff committee, a quality improvement committee, or an infection control committee)"
Resources
"The labor, equipment, or materials needed to complete a project"
Managed fee-for-service reimbursement
A healthcare plan that implements utilization controls (prospective and retrospective review of healthcare services) for reimbursement under traditional fee-for-service insurance plans
Merger
"A business situation where two or more companies combine, but one of them continues to exist as a legal, business entity, while the others cease to exist legally and their assets and liabilities become part of the continuing company"
Topography
Description of a part of the body
Revenue
The charges generated from providing healthcare services; earned and measurable income
Civil Monetary Penalties Act (CMP)
"Section 1128A of the Social Security Act, passed in 1981 as one of several administrative remedies to combat increases in healthcare fraud and abuse, which authorized the Secretary and Inspector General of Health and Human Services (HHS) to impose, civil monetary penalties, assessment, and program exclusions on individuals and entities whose wrongdoing caused injury to HHS programs or their beneficiaries "
Digital
"1. A data transmission type based on data that have been binary encoded 2. A term that refers to the data or information represented in an encoded, computer-readable format"
Dependency
The relationship between two tasks in a project plan
Backup
The process of maintaining a copy of all software and data for use in the case that the primary source becomes compromised
Occasion of service
"A specified identifiable service involved in the care of a patient that is not an encounter (for example, a lab test ordered during an encounter)"
Infection review
"Evaluation of the risk of infection among patients and healthcare providers, looking for, preventing, and controlling the risk"
Redundant arrays of independent (or inexpensive) disks (RAID)
A method of ensuring data security
Principal investigator
The individual with primary responsibility for the design and conduct of a research project
Global Medical Device Nomenclature (GMDN)
"A collection of internationally recognized terms used to accurately describe and catalog medical devices, in particular, the products used in the diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease or injury in humans"
Stable monetary unit
The currency used as the measurement of financial transactions
Medical Group Management Association (MGMA)
A national organization composed of individuals actively engaged in the business management of medical groups consisting of three or more physicians in medical practice
Cost justification
A rationale developed to support competing requests for limited resources
Employment-at-will
Concept that employees can be fired at any time and for almost any reason based on the idea that employees can quit at any time and for any reason
Stop-loss benefit
"Specific amount, in a certain timeframe such as one year, beyond which all covered healthcare services for that policyholder or dependent are paid at 100 percent by the healthcare insurance plan"
Target population
A large group of individuals who are the focus of a study
Denominator
"The part of a fraction below the line signifying division that functions as the divisor of the numerator and, in fractions with 1 as the numerator, indicates into how many parts the unit is divided"
Skill
"The ability, education, experience, and training required to perform a job task"
National Health Care Survey
A national public health survey that contains data abstracted manually from a sample of acute care hospitals or from discharged inpatient records or that are obtained from state or other discharge databases
Panel
"A group of tests commonly performed together for a given purpose, usually for one diagnosis"
Pediatric service
A service that provides diagnostic and therapeutic services for patients under the age of fourteen years
Electronic medication administration record (EMAR)
A system designed to prevent medication errors by checking a patient's medication information against his or her bar-coded wristband
Clinical decision support system (CDSS)
A special subcategory of clinical information systems that is designed to help healthcare providers make knowledge-based clinical decisions
Time ladder
A form used by employees to document time spent on various tasks
Budget assumptions
Information about the overall organization's budget planning that sometimes includes an estimation of how revenues will increase or decrease and what limits will be placed on expenses
Macro virus
A type of computer virus that infects Microsoft Word or similar application by inserting unwanted words or phrases; most are relatively harmless
Packaging
"A payment under the Medicare outpatient prospective payment system that includes items such as anesthesia, supplies, certain drugs, and the use of recovery and observation rooms"
Business intelligence (BI)
The end product or goal of knowledge management
Primary source
An original work of a researcher who conducted an investigation
Wage index
Ratio that represents the relationship between the average wages in a healthcare setting's geographic area and the national average for that healthcare setting. Wage indexes are adjusted annually and published in the Federal Register.
Consolidation
The process by which the ambulatory patient group classification system determines whether separate payment is appropriate when a patient is assigned multiple significant procedure groups
Operational decision making
A process for addressing problems that come up in the day-to-day operation of a business unit or the day-to-day execution of a work task
Intracapsular lens extraction
"The surgical removal of the entire lens and its capsule, generally followed by insertion of an anterior chamber intraocular lens"
Data cube
"A collection of one or more tables of data, assembled in a fashion that allows for dynamic analysis to be conducted on the joins, intersections, and overall integration of these predefined tables"
Temporary National Codes
Codes established by insurers when a code is needed before the next January 1 annual update for permanent national codes; these codes are independent of the permanent national codes
Temporary assistance for needy families (TANF)
"A federal program that provides states with grants to be spent on time-limited cash assistance for low-income families, generally limiting a family's lifetime cash welfare benefits to a maximum of five years and permitting states to impose other requirements; replaced the Aid of Families with Dependent Children program"
EPF
Expanded problem focused
Interoperable
Adjective form of interoperability
Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Atlas (BI-RADS)
"A comprehensive guide providing standardized breast imaging terminology, and a report organization, assessment structure, and a classification system for mammography, ultrasound, and MRI of the breast"
Evidence-based medicine
"Healthcare services based on clinical methods that have been thoroughly tested through controlled, peer-reviewed biomedical studies"
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
A standard transmission format using strings of data for business information communicated among the computer systems of independent organizations
Convenience sample
A type of nonrandom sampling in which researchers use any unit at hand
Episode
The sixty-day unit of payment for the home health prospective payment system
Research data
Data used for the purpose of answering a proposed question or testing a hypothesis
HHS
Department of Health and Human Services
Disproportionate share hospital (DSH)
Healthcare organizations that meet governmental criteria for percentages of indigent patients
Demand bill
A bill generated and issued to the patient at the time of service or any other time outside the normal accounting cycle
Trojan horse
A destructive piece of programming code hidden in another piece of programming code (such as a macro or e-mail message) that looks harmless
Shared systems
"Systems developed by data-processing companies in the 1960s and 1970s to address the computing needs of healthcare organizations that could not afford, or chose not to purchase, their own mainframe computing systems"
Bloodborne pathogen
"Infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C that are transported through contact with infected body fluids such as blood, semen, and vomitus"
Business process reengineering (BPR)
The analysis and design of the work flow within and between organizations
PIN
Provider identification number
Health record ownership
The generally accepted principle that individual health records are maintained and owned by the healthcare organization that creates them but that patients have certain rights of control over the release of patient-identifiable (confidential) information
ORT
Operation Restore Trust
Risk treatment
"The application of risk control and risk financing techniques to determine how a risk should be treated, often aimed at preventing or reducing the chances and/or effects of a loss occurrence"
Percentage
A value computed on the basis of the whole divided into 100 parts
Autocoding
The process of extracting and translating dictated and then transcribed free-text data (or dictated and then computer-generated discrete data) into ICD-9-CM and CPT evaluation and management codes for billing and coding purposes
Attributes
1. Data elements within an entity that become the column or field names when the entity relationship diagram is implemented as a relational database 2. Properties or characteristics of concepts; used in SNOMED CT to characterize and define concepts
Special care unit
"A medical care unit in which there is appropriate equipment and a concentration of physicians, nurses, and others who have special skills and experience to provide optimal medical care for critically ill patients or continuous care of patients in special diagnostic categories"
Faxing policy
A policy that outlines the steps to take for faxing individually identifiable health information and business records and usually limits what information may be faxed
CPT Assistant
The official publication of American Medical Association that addresses CPT coding issues
Contract service
"An entity that provides certain agreed-upon services for the facility, such as transcription, coding, or copying"
T1
A digital phone line that can carry data at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits per second
Hospital ambulatory care
"All hospital-directed preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services provided by physicians and their surrogates to patients who are not hospital inpatients"
PF
problem focused
Intraoperative anesthesia record
Health record documentation that describes the entire surgical process from the time the operation began until the patient left the operating room
Actor
The role a user plays in a system
"International Classification of Diseases
Tenth Revision (ICD-10)",The most recent revision of the disease classification system developed and used by the World Health Organization to track morbidity and mortality information worldwide (not yet adopted by the United States)
Return on assets
"The return on a company's investment, or earnings, after taxes divided by total assets"
Neonatal death
"The death of a liveborn infant within the first twenty-seven days, twenty-three hours, and fifty-nine minutes following the moment of birth"
Unified modeling language (UML)
A common data-modeling notation used in conjunction with object-oriented database design
Not elsewhere classified (NEC)
A type of classification that indicates that there is no separate code for the condition even though the diagnostic statement is specific
SF
straightforward
Integrity
"1. The state of being whole or unimpaired 2. In the context of data security, data integrity means the protection of data from accidental or unauthorized intentional change. (JC 2004 IM-12) "
Intranet
A private information network that is similar to the Internet and whose servers are located inside a firewall or security barrier so that the general public cannot gain access to information housed within the network
Regional health information network (RHIN)
"System that links various healthcare information systems in a region together so that patients, healthcare institutions, and other entities can share clinical information"
Employee record
The document in which an employee's information relating to job performance and so on is kept
POS
Place of service or point of service
Pull-down menu
The design of a data-entry screen of a computer in which categories of functions or structured data elements may be accessed through that category element
Secondary record
A record derived from the primary record and containing selected data elements
Measurement
"The systematic process of data collection, repeated over time or at a single point in time"
Family numbering
"A filing system, sometimes used in clinic settings, in which an entire family is assigned one number"
Use case diagram
A systems analysis technique used to document a software project from a user's perspective
Incidence
The number of new cases of a specific disease
CMS-485
A Medicare form used to document care plans
Lecture
A one-way method of delivering education through speaking in which the teacher delivers the speech and the student listens
Medical staff unit
"One of the departments, divisions, or specialties into which the organized medical staff of a hospital is divided"
Cafeteria plan
A health plan that allows employees to choose among two or more benefits
Registered nurse (RN)
A graduate nurse who has passed examinations for registration
CC
chief complaint
Automatic log-off
A security procedure that ends a computer session after a predetermined period of inactivity
Motor
"Related to movement of muscles and coordination; includes both large motor skills, such as walking, and fine motor skills, such as buttoning and zipping clothing"
Clinical data warehouse (CDW)
A database that makes it possible to access data from multiple databases and combine the results into a single query and reporting interface
Clinical Context Object Workgroup (CCOW)
A standard protocol developed by HL7 to allow clinical applications to share information at the point of care
Services classification
"Functionally autonomous units (departments, services, or divisions) of the medical staff organization in a hospital"
User groups
Groups composed of users of a particular computer system
Capital budget
The allocation of resources for long-term investments and projects
Pilot study
A trial run on a smaller scale
Owner's equity
The value of the investment in an organization by its owners
Balance sheet
"A report that shows the total dollar amounts in accounts, expressed in accounting equation format, at a specific point in time"
Lower courts
"The lowest level of the U.S. judicial system, where state and local criminal and civil cases are tried"
Eligibility period
The period of time following the eligibility date (usually thirty-one days) during which a member of an insured group may apply for insurance without evidence of insurability
Medicare carrier
"A health plan that processes Part B claims for services by physicians and medical suppliers (for example, the Blue Shield plan in a state)"
Accession registry
A list of cases in a cancer registry in the order in which they were entered
Categorically needy eligibility groups
Categories of individuals to whom states must provide coverage under the federal Medicaid program
Public assistance
A monetary subsidy provided to financially needy individuals
Home health (HH)
An umbrella term that refers to the medical and nonmedical services provided to patients and their families in their places of residence
Judicial law
The body of law created as a result of court (judicial) decisions
Nonfeasance
A type of negligence meaning failure to act
Leadership
"The senior governing, administrative, and management groups of a healthcare organization that are responsible for setting the mission and overall strategic direction of the organization"
External validity
An attribute of a study's design that allows its findings to be applied to other groups
Interest
The cost of borrowing money; payment to creditors for using money on credit
Data display
A method for presenting or viewing data
Protected health information (PHI)
"Individually identifiable health information, transmitted electronically or maintained in any other form, that is created or received by a healthcare provider or any other entity subject to HIPAA requirements"
Public law
A type of legislation that involves the government and its relations with individuals and business organizations
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA)
The federal legislation that sets the minimum wage and overtime payment regulations
Longitudinal health record
"A permanent, coordinated patient record of significant information listed in chronological order and maintained across time, ideally from birth to death"
Case-mix system
A system for grouping cases that are clinically similar and ordinarily consume similar resources; used to provide information about the types of patients treated by a facility
"International Classification of Diseases
Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)",A coding and classification system used in the United States to report diagnoses in all healthcare settings and inpatient procedures and services as well as morbidity and mortality information
Sheltered employment
"An employment category provided in a special industry or workshop for the physically, mentally, emotionally, or developmentally handicapped"
Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology (SNOMED CT)
"A comprehensive, controlled clinical vocabulary developed by the College of American Pathologists"
Medical Data Interchange Standard (MEDIX)
A set of hospital system interface transaction standards developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Project management life cycle
"The period in which the processes involved in carrying out a project are completed, including project definition, project planning and organization, project tracking and analysis, project revisions, change control, and communication"
Retinal detachment
"The separation of two layers of the retina from each other, which usually occurs when the vitreous adheres to the retina (the sensitive layer of the eye) and 'pulls,' resulting in retinal holds that tears that may lead to retinal detachment"
Point-of-care documentation
A system whereby information is entered into the health record at the time and location of service
Nursing Home Quality Initiative
A six-state pilot project performed in 2002 by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that identifies quality measures that reflect the quality of care in nursing homes
CCA
Certified coding associate
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
A component computer technology developed by a large consortium of vendors and users for handling objects over a network from various distributed platforms; the subset of standards for healthcare covered in CORBAmed
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
"Electronic code that represents text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another "
Operating room (OR)
The area in a healthcare facility that is equipped and staffed to provide facilities and personnel for the performance of surgical procedures
Hawthorne effect
"A research study that found that novelty, attention, and interpersonal relations have a motivating effect on performance"
Step-down allocation
"A budgeting concept in which overhead costs are distributed once, beginning with the area that provides the least amount of non revenue-producing services"
Regulation
A rule or order having the force of law issued by executive authority of the government
Strategy
A course of action designed to produce a desired (business) outcome
Clinical data repository (CDR)
A central database that focuses on clinical information
Maternal death rate (hospital based)
"For a hospital, the total number of maternal deaths directly related to pregnancy for a given time period divided by the total number of obstetrical discharges for the same time period; for a community, the total number of deaths attributed to maternal conditions during a given time period in a specific geographic area divided by the total number of live births for the same time period in the same area"
Accounts payable (A/P)
Records of the payments owed by an organization to other entities
National Alliance for Health Information Technology (NAHIT)
"A partnership of government and private sector leaders from various healthcare organizations working to use technology to achieve improvements in patient safety, quality of care, and operating performance; founded in 2002"
Partial episode payment (PEP) adjustment
A reduced episode payment that may be based on the number of service days in an episode
Favorable variance
"The positive difference between the budgeted amount and the actual amount of a line item, that is, when actual revenue exceeds budget or actual expenses are less than budget"
Identifier standards
"Recommended methods for assigning unique identifiers to individuals (patients and clinical providers), corporate providers, and healthcare vendors and suppliers"
Web-based systems and applications
Systems and applications that use Internet technology
Break-even analysis
A financial analysis technique for determining the level of sales at which total revenues equal total costs beyond which revenues become profits
Benefit cap
"Total dollar amount that a healthcare insurance company will pay for covered healthcare services during a specified period, such as a year or lifetime"
Periodic performance review (PPR)
An organizational self-assessment conducted at the halfway point between triennial on-site accreditation surveys conducted by The Joint Commission
Semantic differential scale
"A measure that records a group's perception of a product, organization, or program through bipolar adjectives on a seven-point continuum, resulting in a profile"
National Cancer Registrars Association (NCRA)
An organization of cancer registry professionals that promotes research and education in cancer registry administration and practice
Management by objectives (MBO)
A management approach that defines target objectives for organizing work and comparing performance against those objectives
Vendor system
A computer system developed by a commercial company not affiliated with the healthcare organization
Product trade name
"Name (also referred to as catalog name) assigned or supplied by the labelers (firms) as required under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act"
Cross-training
The training to learn a job other than the employee's primary responsibility
Job ranking
"A method of job evaluation that arranges jobs in a hierarchy on the basis of each job's importance to the organization, with the most important jobs listed at the top of the hierarchy and the least important jobs listed at the bottom"
Accounting of disclosures
A list of all disclosures made of a patient's health information; Section 164.528 of the Privacy Rule states that an individual has the right to receive an accounting of certain disclosures made by a covered entity within the six years prior to the date on which the accounting is requested
Research
"Investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories, or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws; the collecting of information about a particular subject"
Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (HOPPS)
The reimbursement system created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 for hospital outpatient services rendered to Medicare beneficiaries; maintained by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
School special education
"Specifically designed instruction provided by qualified teachers within the context of school with the goal of helping students acquire academic, vocational, language, social, and self-care skills (includes adapted physical education and the use of specialized techniques to overcome intrinsic learning deficits)"
Data mining
"The process of extracting information from a database and then quantifying and filtering discrete, structured data"
Complications/comorbidities (CC)
Illnesses or injuries that coexist with the condition for which the patient is primarily seeking healthcare
Team group dynamics
"Models of team development uniformly define four stages of progression in team group dynamics (Montebello 1997 and Buzzotta 1993): cautious affiliation, competitiveness, harmonious cohesiveness, and collaborative teamwork"
Redisclosure
The process of releasing confidential health record information that was originally created and disclosed by another healthcare provider
Ethnography
A method of observational research that investigates culture in naturalistic settings using both qualitative and quantitative approaches
Organization
The planned coordination of the activities of more than one person for the achievement of a common purpose or goal
Interpreter
A type of communications technology that converts high-level language statements into machine language one at a time
Microfilming
A photographic process that reduces an original paper document into a small image on film to save storage space
Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997
"Public Law 105-33 enacted by Congress on August 5, 1997, that mandated a number of additions, deletions, and revisions to the original Medicare and Medicaid legislation; the legislation that added penalties for healthcare fraud and abuse to the Medicare and Medicaid programs and also affected the hospital outpatient prospective payment system (HOPPS) and programs of all-inclusive care for elderly (PACE)"
Machine learning
An area of computer science that studies algorithms and computer programs that improve employee performance on some task by exposure to a training or learning experience
Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Reference Terminology (SNOMED RT)
"A concept-based terminology consisting of more than 110,000 concepts with linkages to more than 180,000 terms with unique computer-readable codes"
Executive information system (EIS)
An information system designed to combine financial and clinical information for use in the management of business affairs of a healthcare organization
Object-relational database
A type of database (both object oriented and relational) that stores both objects and traditional tables
K-nearest neighbor (K-NN)
A classic technique used to discover associations and sequences when the data attributes are numeric; nonparametric estimator of a function
Author
"Person(s) who is (are) responsible and accountable for the health information creation, content, accuracy, and completeness for each documented event or health record entry"
Facility identification
A unique universal identification number across data systems for a facility
Numeric filing system
A system of health record identification and storage in which records are arranged consecutively in ascending numerical order according to the health record number
Description
"In a controlled medical vocabulary, a description is the combination of a concept and a term"
ASA
American Society of Anesthesiologists
Skilled nursing facility (SNF) market basket index
"An index consisting of the most commonly used cost categories for skilled nursing facility routine services, ancillary services, and capital-related expenses that reflects changes over time in the prices of an appropriate mix of goods and services included in covered skilled nursing facility services"
Required standards
The implementation specifications of the HIPAA Security Rule that are designated 'required' rather than 'addressable;' required standards must be present for the covered entity to be in compliance
Unique identification number
A combination of numbers or alphanumeric characters assigned to a particular patient
Inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF)
"A healthcare facility that specializes in providing services to patients who have suffered a disabling illness or injury in an effort to help them achieve or maintain their optimal level of functioning, self-care, and independence"
Scheduling engine
"A specific functionality in project management software that automates the assignment of task start-and-finish dates and, as a result, the expected project finish date"
Compulsory review
The examination of a healthcare facility and its processes and infrastructures as required by state laws and regulations
Subcutaneous mastectomy
"The removal of breast tissue, leaving the skin of the breast and nipple intact. This type of mastectomy usually requires that a breast implant be inserted "
Home healthcare
"The medical and/or personal care provided to individuals and families in their place of residence with the goal of promoting, maintaining, or restoring health or minimizing the effects of disabilities and illnesses, including terminal illnesses"
Electronic health record system (EHRS)
A network of electronically stored health records
Best practice
Term used to refer to services that have been deemed effective and efficient with certain groups of clients
Extranet
A system of connections of private Internet networks outside an organization's firewall that uses Internet technology to enable collaborative applications among enterprises
Boarder
"An individual such as a parent, caregiver, or other family member who receives lodging at a healthcare facility but is not a patient"
Ethics
"A field of study that deals with moral principles, theories, and values; in healthcare; a formal decision-making process for dealing with the competing perspectives and obligations of the people who have an interest in a common problem"
Structured decision
A decision made by following a formula or a step-by-step process
Y-axis
The vertical axis on a graph that displays frequency
Hay method of job evaluation
"A modification of the point method of job evaluation that numerically measures the levels of three major compensable factors: know-how, problem-solving ability, and accountability"
Computer system security
"The protection of computer hardware, software, and data from accidental or malicious access, use, modification, destruction, and/or disclosure"
Respect for Persons
The principle that all people are presumed to be free and responsible and should be treated accordingly
Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) File
A collection of data from reimbursement claims submitted to the Medicare program by acute care hospitals and skilled nursing facilities that is used to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the care being provided
Inferential statistics
1. Statistics that are used to make inferences from a smaller group of data to a large one 2. A set of statistical techniques that allows researchers to make generalizations about a population's characteristics (parameters) on the basis of a sample's characteristics
Primary research
Data collected specifically for a study
Revocation
The act of withdrawing an authorization or permission that was previously granted
Statutory law
Written law established by federal and state legislatures
Hospitalist
Physicians employed by teaching hospitals to play the role that admitting physicians fulfill in hospitals that are not affiliated with medical training programs
History and physical documentation requirements policy
A policy that specifies the detail required in the history and physical examination done by the physician or physician extender
Designated record set
"A group of records maintained by or for a covered entity that may include patient medical and billing records; the enrollment, payment, claims adjudication, and cases or medical management record systems maintained by or for a health plan; or information used, in whole or in part, to make patient care-related decisions"
Administrative simplification
"A term referring to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) provisions which include standards for transactions and code sets that are used to exchange health data, standard identifiers for use on transactions, and privacy and security standards to protect personal health information. HIPAA included these administrative simplification provisions in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system."
Secondary research
Data collected from a literature review
Pareto chart
"A bar graph that includes bars arranged in order of descending size to show decisions on the prioritization of issues, problems, or solutions"
Addressable standards
"The implementation specifications of the HIPAA Security Rule that are designated 'addressable' rather than 'required;' to be in compliance with the Rule, the covered entity must implement the specification as written, implement an alternative, or document that the risk for which the addressable implementation specification was provided either does not exist in the organization, or exists with a negligible probability of occurrence"
Physician practice management (PPM)
"A type of software that automates a physician office's patient appointment scheduling, registration, billing, and payroll functions"
Affiliated covered entity
"Legally-separate covered entities, affiliated by common ownership or control; for purposes of the Privacy Rule; these legally separate entities may refer to themselves as a single covered entity"
Functional status domain
"A classification made up of six activities of daily living, including upper and lower body dressing, bathing, toileting, transferring, and moving"
Diagnostic codes
"Numeric or alphanumeric characters used to classify and report diseases, conditions, and injuries"
Logical (or conceptual) repository
The compilation of multiple physical repositories
Compression algorithm
The process or program for reducing a message without significantly losing information
Population
The universe of data under investigation from which a sample is taken
Scatter diagram
A graph that visually displays the linear relationships among factors
Secondary patient record
"A record, derived from the primary record, that contains selected data elements to aid nonclinical persons in patient care support, evaluation, or advancement"
Charge
"In healthcare, a price assigned to a unit of medical or health service, such as a visit to a physician or a day in a hospital; may be unrelated to the actual cost of providing the service"
Indirect medical education (IME) adjustment
Percentage increase in Medicare reimbursement to offset the costs of medical education that a teaching hospital incurs
Movement diagram
A chart depicting the location of furniture and equipment in a work area and showing the usual flow of individuals or materials as they progress through the work area
Unique personal identifier
"A unique number assigned by a healthcare provider to a patient that distinguishes the patient and his or her medical record from all others in the institution, assists in the retrieval of the record, and facilitates the posting of payment"
Implementation phase
The third phase of the systems development life cycle during which a comprehensive plan is developed and instituted to ensure that the new information system is effectively implemented within the organization
Catastrophic expense limit
"Specific amount, in a certain time frame such as one year, beyond which all covered healthcare services for that policyholder or dependent are paid at 100 percent by the healthcare insurance plan"
Stem and leaf plot
"A visual display that organizes data to show its shape and distribution, using two columns with the stem in the left-hand column and all leaves associated with that stem in the right-hand column; the 'leaf' is the ones digit of the number, and the other digits form the 'stem'"
Contract law
A branch of law based on common law that deals with written or oral agreements that are enforceable through the legal system
National Information Infrastructure--Health Information Network Program (NII--HIN)
A national quasi-governmental organization that provides oversight of all healthcare information standards in the United States
Project definition
"First step in the project management life cycle that sets expectations for the what, when, and how of a project the organization wants to undertake "
Utilization Review Act
The federal legislation that requires hospitals to conduct continued-stay reviews for Medicare and Medicaid patients
Transfer
1. The movement of a patient from one treatment service or location to another 2. Discharge of a patient from a hospital and readmission to postacute care or another acute care hospital on the same day
Anesthesia report
"The report that notes any preoperative medication and response to it, the anesthesia administered with dose and method of administration, the duration of administration, the patient's vital signs while under anesthesia, and any additional products given the patient during a procedure"
Double distribution
"A budgeting concept in which overhead costs are allocated twice, taking into consideration that some overhead departments provide services to each other"
Plain text
A message that is not encrypted
Average wholesale price (AWP)
The price commonly used when negotiating pharmacy contracts
Clinician/physician Web portals
The media for providing physician/clinician access to the provider organization's multiple sources of data from any network-connected device
Knowledge management system (KMS)
"A type of system that supports the creation, organization, and dissemination of business or clinical knowledge and expertise to providers, employees, and managers throughout a healthcare enterprise"
Dual option
The offering of health maintenance organization coverage as well as indemnity insurance by the same carrier
Mission statement
A written statement that sets forth the core purpose and philosophies of an organization or PI team.; defines why an organization exists and what it is for
Severity of illness (SI or SOI)
A type of supportive documentation reflecting objective clinical indicators of a patient illness (essentially the patient is sick enough to be at an identified level of care) and referring to the extent of physiologic decompensation or organ system loss of function
Prepartum
Occurring prior to childbirth
Material safety data sheet (MSDS)
"Documentation maintained on the hazardous materials used in a healthcare organization; the documentation outlines such information as common and chemical names, family name, and product codes; risks associated with the material, including overall health risk, flammability, reactivity with other chemicals, and effects at the site of contact; descriptions of the protective equipment and clothing that should be used to handle the material; and other similar information"
Diagnostic image data
"Bit-mapped images used for medical or diagnostic purposes (for example, chest x-rays or computed tomography scans)"
Clinical drug
"A pharmaceutical product given to (or taken by) a patient with a therapeutic or diagnostic intent; has a clinical drug name, which includes the routed generic, the strength, and dose form"
Document
"Any analog or digital, formatted, and preserved 'container' of data or information"
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA)
"A 1986 law enacted as part of the Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act largely to combat 'patient-dumping'-the transferring, discharging, or refusing to treat indigent emergency department patients because of their inability to pay "
Ambulatory payment classification (APC) relative weight
"A number reflecting the expected resource consumption of cases associated with each APC, relative to the average of all APCs, that is used in determining payment under the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS)"
National health information network (NHIN)
"Interoperable information infrastructure that links various healthcare information systems together, allowing patients, physicians, healthcare institutions, and other entities nationwide to share clinical information privately and securely; network of networks"
Sample size calculation
The qualitative and quantitative procedures to determine an appropriate sample size
Healthcare practitioner
A clinical professional who is directly responsible for providing patient services
Third-party payment
Payments for healthcare services made by an insurance company or health agency on behalf of the insured
Systems thinking
An objective way of looking at work-related ideas and processes with the goal of allowing people to uncover ineffective patterns of behavior and thinking and then finding ways to make lasting improvements
Intermediate care facility
A facility that provides health-related care and services to individuals who do not require the degree of care or treatment that a hospital or a skilled nursing facility provides but who still require medical care and services because of their physical or mental condition
Cash flow
The availability of money to pay the organization's bills (receipts minus disbursements)
Withhold pool
Aggregate amount withheld from all providers' capitation payments as an amount to cover expenditures in excess of targets
Medicare discharge
"The status of Medicare patients who are formally released from a hospital, die in a hospital, or are transferred to another hospital or unit excluded from the prospective payment system"
North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International Taxonomy (NANDA II)
Nursing terminology used to develop and classify nursing diagnoses in a taxonomy
Work products
"Documents produced during the completion of a task that may be a component of, or contribute to, a project deliverable"
Integration
The complex task of ensuring that all elements and platforms in an information system communicate and act as a uniform entity; or the combination of two or more benefit plans to prevent duplication of benefit payment
License
The legal authorization granted by a state to an entity that allows the entity to provide healthcare services within a specific scope of services and geographical location; states license both individual healthcare professionals and healthcare facilities; licensure usually requires an applicant to pass an examination to obtain the license initially and then to participate in continuing education activities to maintain the license thereafter
Reflective learning
"A cycle of reflection, interpretation, application of learning, and action that is the basis of total quality management and other continuous improvement philosophies"
Speech-language therapy (SLP)
A treatment intended to improve or enhance the resident's ability to communicate and/or swallow
Systematic literature review
"Methodical approach to literature review that reduces the possibility of bias; characterized by explicit search criteria to identify literature, inclusion and exclusion criteria to select articles and information sources, and evaluation against consistent methodological standards"
Structure and content standards
Common data elements and definitions of the data elements to be included in an electronic patient record
Psychotherapy notes
Notes recorded in any medium by a mental health professional to document or analyze the contents of conversations between therapists and clients during private or group counseling sessions
Pixel
"An abbreviation for the term picture element, which is defined by many tiny bits of data or points"
"International Classification of Diseases
Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM)","The planned replacement for ICD-9-CM, volumes 1 and 2, developed to contain more codes and allow greater specificity "
Microcontroller
"A small, low-cost computer (embedded chip) installed in an appliance or electronic device to perform a specific task or program"
Productivity
A unit of performance defined by management in quantitative standards
Standard normal distribution
A normal distribution with a mean equal to zero and standard deviation equal to one
Data definition language (DDL)
"A special type of software used to create the tables within a relational database, the most common of which is structured query language"
Interagency transfer form (W-10)
A form that contains sufficient information about a patient to provide continuity of care during transfer or discharge
Facility quality indicator profile
"A report based on the data gathered during the Minimum Data Set for Long-Term Care that indicates what proportion of the facility's residents have deficits in each area of assessment during the reporting period and, specifically, which residents have which deficits; the profile also provides data comparing the facility's current status with a preestablished comparison group"
Transmission standards
Standards that support the uniform format and sequence of data during transmission from one healthcare entity to another
POMR
problem-oriented medical record
Habit
An activity repeated so often that it becomes automatic
Minicomputer
"A small, mainframe computer"
Statement
A list of unpaid invoices; sometimes a cumulative list of all transactions between purchaser and vendor during a specific time period
Change agent
An individual within an organization whose primary responsibility is to facilitate change
Data quality review
An examination of health records to determine the level of coding accuracy and to identify areas of coding problems
MPFSDB
Medicare Provider Fee Schedule Data Base
Extracapsular lens extraction
"The surgical removal of the front portion and nucleus of the lens, leaving the posterior capsule in place. A posterior chamber intraocular lens is generally inserted after this procedure "
Statement of changes in net assets
The accounting statement that explains the differences in net assets from period to period on the balance sheet
Coordinated care plans
"Organized patient care plans that meet the standards set forth in the law for managed care plans (for example, health maintenance organizations, provider-sponsored organizations, and preferred provider organizations)"
Concept Unique Identifier (CUI)
"A numeric identifier in RxNorm that designates the same concept, no matter the form of the name or the table where it is located; also represent an opaque identifier found in the UMLS Metathesaurus "
Information cycle
"The cycle of gathering, recording, processing, storing, sharing, transmitting, retrieving, and deleting information"
Participant observation
A research method in which researchers also participate in the observed actions
Fiscal year
Any consecutive twelve-month period an organization uses as its accounting period
Data backup plan
A plan that ensures the recovery of information that has been lost or becomes inaccessible
Values statement
A short description that communicates an organization's social and cultural belief system
Vendors
"Outside companies such as consultants and those who sell equipments and supplies, perform release-of-information functions, provide laundry or food services, or repair equipment, who have a presence in a healthcare facility and may or may not be business associates"
Negligence
A legal term that refers to the result of an action by an individual who does not act the way a reasonably prudent person would act under the same circumstances
Program for Evaluation Payment Patterns Electronic Report (PEPPER)
A benchmarking database maintained by the Texas Medical Foundation that supplies individual QIOs with hospital data to determine state benchmarks and monitor hospital compliance
Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System (UMDNS)
"A standard international nomenclature and computer coding system for medical devices, developed by ECRI"
Accept assignment
A term used to refer to a provider's or a supplier's acceptance of the allowed charges (from a fee schedule) as payment in full for services or materials provided
Technical component (TC)
"The portion of radiological and other procedures that is facility based or nonphysician based (for example, radiology films, equipment, overhead, endoscopic suites, and so on)"
Cost
1. The amount of financial resources consumed in the provision of healthcare services 2. The dollar amount of a service provided by a facility
Adverse drug event
"A patient injury resulting from a medication, either because of a pharmacological reaction to a normal dose, or because of a preventable adverse reaction to a drug resulting from an error. Source: TJC)"
Swing beds
Hospital-based acute care beds that may be used flexibly to serve as long-term care beds
Unbilled account
An account that has not been billed and is not included in accounts receivable
Regional health information organization (RHIO)
A health information organization that brings together health care stakeholders within a defined geographic area and governs health information exchange among them for the purpose of improving health and care in the community
Standard cost profile (SCP)
"A set of data that identifies, analyzes, and defines the activities, including the costs, of departments within the organization to produce a service unit"
Branding communications
"Messages sent to increase awareness of, and to enhance the image of, a product in the marketplace"
Histocompatibility
The immunologic similarity between an organ donor and a transplant recipient
Online/real-time transaction processing (OLTP)
The real-time processing of day-to-day business transactions from a database
Auditing
"The performance of internal and/or external reviews (audits) to identify variations from established baselines (for example, review of outpatient coding as compared with CMS outpatient coding guidelines)"
AHA Coding Clinic for HCPCS
"The official coding advice resource for coding information on HCPCS CPT codes for hospital providers and certain HCPCS Level II codes for hospitals, physicians, and other healthcare professionals"
Relational database management system (RDBMS)
A database management system in which data are organized and managed as a collection of tables
Business continuity plan
A program that incorporates policies and procedures for continuing business operations during a computer system shutdown; sometimes called contingency and disaster planning
Patient's bill of rights
The protections afforded to individuals who are undergoing medical procedures in hospitals or other healthcare facilities
Synchronous
Occurring at the same time
Hospital outpatient
A hospital patient who receives services in one or more of a hospital's facilities when he or she is not currently an inpatient or a home care patient
AQA Alliance
"A broad based coalition of physicians, consumers, purchasers, health insurance plans, and others who are committed to effectively and efficiently improve performance measurement, data aggregation, and reporting in the ambulatory care setting"
Phacoemulsification
A cataract extraction technique that uses ultrasonic waves to fragment the lens and aspirate it out of the eye
TRICARE Senior Prime
"A managed care demonstration TRICARE program designed to better serve the medical needs of military retirees, dependents, and survivors who are sixty-five years old and over"
Medical nomenclature
A recognized system of preferred terminology for naming disease processes
Downsizing
A reengineering strategy to reduce the cost of labor and streamline the organization by laying off portions of the workforce
Information kiosk
A computer station located within a healthcare facility that patients and families can use to access information
Hospital information system (HIS)
"The comprehensive database containing all the clinical, administrative, financial, and demographic information about each patient served by a hospital"
Accreditation standards
Pre-established statements of the criteria against which the performance of participating healthcare organizations will be assessed during a voluntary accreditation
Pay for quality (P4Q)
A type of incentive to improve the quality of clinical outcomes using the electronic health record that could result in additional reimbursement or eligibility for grants or other subsidies to support further HIT efforts
Staging system
A method used in cancer registers to identify specific and separate different stages or aspects of the disease
Flextime
"A work schedule that gives employees some choice in the pattern of their work hours, usually around a core of midday hours"
Third opinion
"Cost containment measure to prevent unnecessary tests, treatments, medical devices, or surgical procedures"
Data store
"A real-time, sensitive, operationally oriented form of data warehousing, retaining small amounts of key indicators to run day-to-day processes"
Interval-level data
"Data with a defined unit of measure, no true zero point, and equal intervals between successive values"
Platform
The combination of the hardware and operating system on which an application program can run
Daily inpatient census
"The number of inpatients present at census-taking time each day, plus any inpatients who were both admitted and discharged after the census-taking time the previous day"
Significant procedure
A procedure that is surgical in nature or carries a procedural or an anesthetic risk or requires specialized training
Chief executive officer (CEO)
The senior manager appointed by a governing board to direct an organization's overall long-term strategic management
Criminal law
"A branch of law that addresses crimes that are wrongful acts against public health, safety, and welfare, usually punishable by imprisonment and/or fine"
Process indicators
Specific measures that enable the assessment of the steps taken in rendering a service
Human relations movement
A management philosophy emphasizing the shift from a mechanistic view of workers to concern for their satisfaction at work
Medicaid
An entitlement program that oversees medical assistance for individuals and families with low incomes and limited resources; jointly funded between state and federal governments and legislated by the Social Security Act
Minimum Data Set for Long-Term Care Version 2.0 (MDS 2.0)
"A federally mandated standard assessment form that Medicare- and/or Medicaid-certified nursing facilities must use to collect demographic and clinical data on nursing home residents; includes screening, clinical, and functional status elements"
Mirrored processing
The act of entering data into a primary and a secondary server simultaneously so that the secondary server can continue to process the data in the event the primary server crashes
American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA)
"A professional association for individuals, institutions, and corporations that promotes the development and use of medical informatics for patient care, teaching, research, and healthcare administration "
Access control system
A system that defines who has access to what information in a computer system and specifies each user's rights and/or restrictions with respect to that information
Preemption
"In law, the principle that a statute at one level supercedes or is applied over the same or similar statute at a lower level (for example, the federal HIPAA privacy provisions trump the same or similar state law with certain exceptions)"
Fund balance
"In a not-for-profit setting, the entity's net assets or resources remaining after subtracting liabilities that are owed; in a for-profit organization, the owner's equity"
Cybernetic systems
"Systems that have standards, controls, and feedback mechanisms built in to them"
Radioimmunoassay
A procedure that combines the use of radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect hormones and drugs in a patient's blood
Key indicator
"A quantifiable measure used over time to determine whether some structure, process, or outcome in the provision of care to a patient supports high-quality performance measured against best practice criteria"
Well newborn
"A newborn born at term, under sterile conditions, with no diseases, conditions, disorders, syndromes, injuries, malformations, or defects diagnosed, and no operations other than routine circumcisions performed"
Case-mix group (CMG) relative weights
Factors that account for the variance in cost per discharge and resource utilization among case-mix groups
Chart-tracking/requests policy
A policy that outline the way in which charts are signed out of the permanent files and how requests for records are handled
Office of Research Integrity (ORI)
"Organization that provides integrity in biomedical and behavioral research, monitoring incidents of research misconduct and facilitating responsible research conduct through educational, preventive, and regulatory activities"
Office of the Inspector General (OIG)
1. The office through which the federal government established compliance plans for the healthcare industry 2. A division of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that investigates issues of noncompliance in the Medicare and Medicaid programs such as fraud and abuse; overseen by the Department of Justice
Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS)
A data set that provides uniform definitions and categories of nursing care; built on the uniform minimum health data sets (UMHDS)
Entity authentication
The corroboration that an entity is who it claims to be
Radioactive source
Radioactive elements packaged in a small configuration used for permanent implantation into tumors
Short-stay outlier
Hospitalization that is five-sixths of the geometric length of stay for the long-term care diagnosis related group (LTC-DRG)
Certified medical transcriptionist (CMT)
A certification that is granted upon successfully passing the Association of Healthcare Documentation Integrity (AHDI) certification examination for medical transcriptionists with generally at least two years of experience
Transfer of records
"The movement of a record from one medium to another (for example, from paper to microfilm or to an optical imaging system) or to another records custodian "
National Research Act of 1974
"An act that required the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now the Department of Health and Human Services) to codify its policy for the protection of human subjects into Federal regulations, and created a commission that generated the Belmont Report "
Administrative controls
Policies and procedures that address the management of computer resources
Criminal proceeding
An action instituted and conducted for the purpose of preventing the commission of a crime or for fixing the guilt of a crime already committed and punishing the offender
Strategic decision making
"A type of decision making that is usually limited to individuals, such as boards of directors, chief executive officers, and top-level executives, who make decisions about the healthcare organization's strategic direction"
Hospital identification
A unique institutional number within a data collection system
Appreciative inquiry
An organizational development technique in which successful practices are identified and expanded throughout the organization
Electrodesiccation
The destruction of tissue by way of a small needle heated by passing electricity through it
Revenue cycle
"1. The process of how patient financial and health information moves into, through, and out of the healthcare facility, culminating with the facility receiving reimbursement for services provided 2. The regularly repeating set of events that produces revenue"
Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system
"The Medicare reimbursement methodology system referred to as the hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS). Hospital providers subject to the OPPS utilize the ambulatory payment classification (APC) system, which determines payment rates "
Reengineering
Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve significant performance improvements
Theory
A systematic organization of knowledge that predicts or explains the behavior or events
Unit work division
"A method of work organization where each task is performed by one person at the same time that another person is doing a task, but one does not have to wait for the other"
Direct method of allocation
A budgeting concept in which the cost of overhead departments is distributed solely to the revenue-producing areas
Patient-specific/identifiable data
"1. Data in the health record that relates to a particular patient identified by name 2. Personal information that can be linked to a specific patient, such as age, gender, date of birth, and address-specific data"
Flowchart
"A graphic tool that uses standard symbols to visually display detailed information, including time and distance, of the sequential flow of work of an individual or a product as it progresses through a process"
Historical cost
The original resources expended by an organization to acquire an asset; considered the more objective measurement for financial reporting purposes
Strategic issue
"A question, topic, opportunity, or concern that is addressed through strategic management"
Multimedia
"The combination of free-text, raster or vector graphics, sound, and/or motion video/frame data"
Consulting agencies
"Companies outside the healthcare organization that provide assistance with various issues, including security awareness training "
Physician care group (PCG)
"Type of outpatient prospective payment method for physician services in which patients are classified into similar, homogenous categories"
Neural networks
"Nonlinear predictive models that, using a set of data that describe what a person wants to find, detect a pattern to match a particular profile through a training process involving interactive learning"
Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA)
"The legislation enacted in 1916 to mandate workers' compensation for civilian federal employees, whose coverage includes lost wages, medical expenses, and survivors' benefits"
EHR collaborative
"A group of healthcare professional and trade associations formed to support Health Level 7 (HL7), a healthcare standards development organization, in the development of a functional model for electronic health record systems"
Insurance certification
The process of determining that the patient has insurance coverage for the treatment that is planned or expected
Health Industry Business Communications Council (HIBCC)
A subgroup of the American Standards Committee X12 that focuses on electronic data interchange for billing transactions
Accreditation
"1. A voluntary process of institutional or organizational review in which a quasi-independent body created for this purpose periodically evaluates the quality of the entity's work against preestablished written criteria 2. A determination by an accrediting body that an eligible organization, network, program, group, or individual complies with applicable standards 3. The act of granting approval to a healthcare organization based on whether the organization has met a set of voluntary standards developed by an accreditation agency"
Cost allocation
The distribution of costs
Position power
A situation in contingency theory in which the leader is perceived as having the authority to give direction
Breach of security
"A violation of security (for example, when standards of confidentiality are broken)"
Programmed decisions
An automated decision made by people or computers based on a situation being so stable and recurrent that decision rules can be applied to it
Scales of measurement
A reference standard for data collection and classification
Quantitative analysis
A review of the health record to determine its completeness and accuracy
Blanket authorization
An authorization for the release of confidential information from a certain point in time and any time thereafter
Peripheral
"Any hardware device connected to a computer (for example, a keyboard, mouse, or printer)"
On-the-job training
A method of training in which an employee learns necessary skills and processes by performing the functions of his or her position
Significant procedure ambulatory payment classification
"A procedure that constitutes the reason for the visit, dominates the time and resources rendered during the visit, and is not subject to payment reduction/discounting"
Planning
An examination of the future and preparation of action plans to attain goals; one of the four traditional management functions
Middle managers
The individuals in an organization who oversee the operation of a broad scope of functions at the departmental level or who oversee defined product or service lines
Restraints and seclusion
Ways of managing behavior; the right of patients to be free from non-medically necessary restraints and seclusion is protected under the Medicare Conditions of Participation
Location or address of encounter
The full address and nine-digit zip code for the location at which outpatient care was received from the healthcare practitioner of record
Vision statement
A short description of an organization's ideal future state
Civilian Health and Medical Program - Veterans Administration (CHAMPVA)
"The federal healthcare benefits program for dependents (spouse or widow(er) and children) of veterans rated by the Veterans Administration (VA) as having a total and permanent disability, for survivors of veterans who died from VA-rated service-connected conditions or who were rated permanently and totally disabled at the time of death from a VA-rated service-connected condition, and for survivors of persons who died in the line of duty"
Team member
"A performance improvement team role responsible for participating in team decision making and plan development; identifying opportunities for improvement; gathering, prioritizing, and analyzing data; and sharing knowledge, information, and data that pertain to the process under study"
Degaussing
The process of removing or rearranging the magnetic field of a disk in order to render the data unrecoverable
Recruitment
"The process of finding, soliciting, and attracting employees"
Usual fee
The amount a physician normally charges the majority of the patients seen for that service
Bills of Mortality
Documents used in London during the seventeenth century to identify the most common causes of death
Database management system (DBMS)
"Computer software that enables the user to create, modify, delete, and view the data in a database"
American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC)
"The American Academy of Professional Coders provides certified credentials to medical coders in physician offices, hospital outpatient facilities, ambulatory surgical centers and in payer organizations"
Bad debt
The receivables of an organization that are uncollectible
Reimbursement
Compensation or repayment for healthcare services
SOAPIER
"A form of charting narrative notes that requires subjective, objective, assessment, plan, intervention, evaluation, and revision in the note structure"
Certificate holder
Member of a group for which an employer or association has purchased group healthcare insurance
American Association of Health Plans (AAHP)
"The trade organization for health maintenance organizations, preferred provider organizations, and other network-based health plans created by the merger of the Group Health Association of America and the American Managed Care and Review Association"
Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI)
A quality and safety improvement group
Research methodology
"A set of procedures or strategies used by researchers to collect, analyze, and present data"
Sole community hospital
"Hospital that, by reason of factors such as isolated location, weather conditions, travel conditions, or absence of other hospitals (as determined by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS]), is the sole source of patient hospital services reasonably available to individuals in a geographical area who are entitled to benefits"
Diagnostic mammography
"Breast imaging, either unilateral or bilateral, done to provide information on a patient with a suspected breast condition "
Mark sense technology
"Technology that detects the presence or absence of hand-marked characters on analog documents; used for processing questionnaires, surveys, and tests, such as filled-in circles by Number 2 pencils on exam forms"
Fiscal intermediary (FI)
"An organization that contracts with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to serve as the financial agent between providers and the federal government in the local administration of Medicare Part A or Part B claims; usually, but not necessarily, an insurance company"
Breach
A violation of the law
Sub acute care
"A type of step-down care provided after a patient is released from an acute care hospital (including nursing homes and other facilities that provide medical care, but not surgical or emergency care)"
C
A high-level programming language that enables programmers to write software instructions that can be translated into machine language to run on different types of computers
Genetic algorithms
Optimization techniques that can be used to improve other data-mining algorithms so that they derive the best model for a given set of data
Esprit de corps
Enthusiasm among the members of a group supporting the group's existence
Cost of capital
The rate of return required to undertake a project
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
A classification of patient/client outcomes developed to evaluate the effects of nursing interventions
IPPB
intermittent positive pressure breathing
Category I codes
Procedures or services identified by a five-digit CPT code and organized within the six sections
Syntax
"A term that refers to the comparable structure or format of data, usually as they are being transmitted from one system to another"
Measure
The quantifiable data about a function or process
Aftercare
Healthcare services that are provided to a patient after a period of hospitalization or rehabilitation and are administered with the objective of improving or restoring health to the degree that aftercare is no longer needed
Variability
The dispersion of a set of measures around the population mean
Knowledge base
A database that not only manages raw data but also integrates them with information from various reference works
Workflow
Any work process that must be handled by more than one person
Information technology (IT)
"1. Computer technology (hardware and software) combined with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks); often used interchangeably with information system (IS) 2. A term that encompasses most forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use electronic information"
Sniffer
"A software security product that runs in the background of a network, examining and logging packet traffic and serving as an early warning device against crackers"
Performance review
An evaluation of an employee's job performance
System
A set of related and highly interdependent components that are operating for a particular purpose
Managed behavioral healthcare organization (MBHO)
"A type of healthcare organization that delivers and manages all aspects of behavioral healthcare or the payment for care by limiting providers of care, discounting payment to providers of care, and/or limiting access to care"
Uniform Bill-92 (UB-92)
Replaced by the UB-04 in 2007; It was a Medicare form for standardized uniform billing
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
"A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005)"
Univariate
A term referring to the involvement of one variable
Capital assets
Physical asset with an estimated useful life of more than 1 year
Budget neutral
1. Adjustment of payment rates when policies change so that total spending under the new rules is the same as it would have been under the previous payment rules 2. Financial protections to ensure that overall reimbursement under the Ambulatory Payment Classification (APC) system is not greater than it would have been had the system not been in effect
Product Code
"The part of the National Drug Code that identifies a specific strength, dosage form, and formulation for a particular drug"
Breach of confidentiality
"A violation of a formal or implied contract in which private information belonging to one party, but entrusted to another party, is disclosed by that individual without the consent of the party to whom the information pertains; an unauthorized disclosure of confidential information"
"Usual
customary, and reasonable (UCR)","Type of retrospective fee-for-service payment method in which the third party payer pays for fees that are usual, customary, and reasonable, wherein 'usual' is usual for the individual provider's practice; 'customary' means customary for the community; and 'reasonable' is reasonable for the situation"
Impact analysis
"A collective term used to refer to any study that determines the benefit of a proposed project, including cost-benefit analysis, return on investment, benefits realization study, or qualitative benefit study"
Transactional leadership
The leadership style of a manager who strives to maintain high levels of efficiency in an organization by balancing tasks with social orientation
Private key
"In cryptography, an asymmetric algorithm restricted to one entity"
Statement of retained earnings
A statement expressing the change in retained earnings from the beginning of the balance sheet period to the end
Inventory
"Goods on hand and available to sell, presumably within a year (a business cycle)"
District court
"The lowest tier in the federal court system, which hears cases involving felonies and misdemeanors that fall under federal statute and suits in which a citizen of one state sues a citizen of another state"
Emergency department
An organized hospital-based facility providing unscheduled episodic services to patients who present for immediate medical attention
Alias
"A name added to, or substituted for, the proper name of a person; an assumed name"
Operative report
A formal document that describes the events surrounding a surgical procedure or operation and identifies the principal participants in the surgery
Unallocated reserves
Monies that have not been assigned a specific use
Risk corridor
The limits established to prevent immediate large financial gains or losses for hospitals because of the implementation of a prospective payment system
Significant change in condition (SCIC) adjustment
"A single episode payment under multiple home health resource groups, each prorated to the number of service days delivered"
Positivism
"A philosophy of research that assumes that there is a single truth across time and place and that researchers are able to adopt a neutral, unbiased stance and establish causation"
Marketing
The process of issuing a communication about a product or service with the purpose of encouraging recipients of the communication to purchase or use the product or service
Password crackers
Software programs used to identify an unknown or forgotten password
Reference check
Contact made with an individual that a prospective employee has listed to provide a favorable account of his or her work performance or personal attributes
Attending Physician Statement (APS)
The standardized insurance claim form created in 1958 by the Health Insurance Association of America and the American Medical Association
Geographic information system (GIS)
"A decision support system that is capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced data and information"
Interim payment system (IPS)
A cost-based reimbursement system that was used until the prospective payment system was phased in
Controlled vocabulary
"1. A predefined set of terms and their meanings that may be used in structured data entry or natural language processing to represent expressions 2. A restricted set of phrases, generally enumerated in a list and perhaps arranged into a hierarchy (Hardiker and Casey 2000)"
Health record number
A unique numeric or alphanumeric identifier assigned to each patient's record upon admission to a healthcare facility
Collective bargaining
A process through which a contract is negotiated that sets forth the relationship between the employees and the healthcare organization
Selective catheter placement
"Catheter placement into any arterial or venous vessel other than the aorta, vena cava, or the original vessel that was punctured"
Hold harmless
1. Status in which one party does not hold the other party responsible 2. A term used to refer to the financial protections that ensure that cancer hospitals recoup all losses due to the differences in their ambulatory payment classification payments and the pre-APC payments for Medicare outpatient services
Descriptor
Wording that represents the official definition of an item or service that can be billed using a particular code
Process measures
"A measure that focuses on a process that leads to a certain outcome, meaning that a scientific basis exists for believing that the process, when executed well, will increase the probability of achieving a desired outcome"
Office for Civil Rights (OCR)
"Department in HHS responsible for enforcing civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, disability, age, sex, and religion by health care and human services entities over which OCR has jurisdiction, such as state and local social and health services agencies; and hospitals, clinics, nursing homes or other entities receiving Federal Financial Assistance from HHS. This office also has the authority to investigate alleged violations of the HIPAA Privacy Rule."
Observational research
A method of research in which researchers obtain data by watching research participants rather than by asking questions
Rider
Document added to a healthcare insurance policy that provides details about coverage or lack of coverage for special situations that are not usually included in standard policies; may function as an exclusion or limitation
Accrediting body
A professional organization that establishes the standards against which healthcare organizations are measured and conducts periodic assessment of the performance of individual healthcare organizations
Imaging technology
Computer software designed to combine health record text files with diagnostic imaging files
Duty
Obligation
Performance improvement council
The leadership group that oversees performance improvement activities in some healthcare organizations
Data retrieval
The process of obtaining data from a healthcare database
Therapy threshold
The total number of therapy visits (ten) for an episode of care in the Medicare system
Cost report
A report required from providers on an annual basis in order for the Medicare program to make a proper determination of amounts payable to providers under its provisions; analyzes the direct and indirect costs of providing care to Medicare patients
Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Category III Code
A CPT code that represents emerging technologies for which a Category I Code has yet to be established
Risk-transfer mechanism
"A mechanism whereby risk is passed from a regulated insurer to a quasi-regulated, regulated, or nonregulated provider"
Grievance management
The policies and procedures used to handle employee complaints
Controlled medical terminology
A coded vocabulary of medical concepts and expressions used in healthcare
Independent variables
The factors in experimental research that researchers manipulate directly
Requisition
A request from an authorized health record user to gain access to a medical record
Endorsement
Language or statements within a healthcare insurance policy providing additional details about coverage or lack of coverage for special situations that are not usually included in standard policies; may function as a limitation or exclusion
Point-of-care information system
"A computer system that captures data at the location (for example, bedside, exam room, or home) where the healthcare service is performed"
Integration testing
A form of testing during EHR implementation performed to ensure that the interfaces between applications and systems work
Data stewardship
"The responsibilities and accountabilities associated with managing, collecting, viewing, storing, sharing, disclosing, or otherwise making use of personal health information (AMIA 2007) "
Episode of care
"1. A period of relatively continuous medical care performed by healthcare professionals in relation to a particular clinical problem or situation 2. One or more healthcare services given by a provider during a specific period of relatively continuous care in relation to a particular health or medical problem or situation 3. In home health, all home care services and nonroutine medical supplies delivered to a patient during a 60-day period; the episode of care is the unit of payment under the home health prospective payment system (HHPPS)"
SPECIALIST Lexicon
A tool that supplies the lexical information needed for the SPECIALIST natural language processing system
Data availability
The extent to which healthcare data are accessible whenever and wherever they are needed
Food and drug interactions
Unexpected conditions that result from the physiologic incompatibility of therapeutic drugs and food consumed by a patient
Assessment completion date
" According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' instructions, the date by which a Minimum Data Set for Long-Term Care must be completed; that is, within fourteen days of admission to a long-term care facility"
Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)
A standardized form that can be used in facilities to document involuntary movements
Contingency model of leadership
"A leadership theory based on the idea that the success of task- or relationship-oriented leadership depends on leader-member relationships, task structure, and position power"
Evidence-based practices
Services that use decision support systems and best practices in medicine rather than relying on subjective information
Evaluation research
"A design of research that examines the effectiveness of policies, programs, or organizations"
Timeliness
The time between the occurrence of an event and the availability of data about the event. Timeliness is related to the use of the data. (JC 2004 IM-15)
Single sign-on
"A type of technology that allows a user access to all disparate applications through one authentication procedure, thus reducing the number and variety of passwords a user must remember and enforcing and centralizing access control"
National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC)
"A partnership among the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the American Medical Association, and the American Association of Health Plans that allows free online access to its clinical guidelines"
Web services architecture (WSA)
An emerging architecture that utilizes Web-based tools to permit communication among different software applications
Matching expenses
The costs that are recorded during the same period as the related revenue
One-to-many relationship
A relationship that exists when one instance of an entity is associated with multiple instances of another entity
Emergency
"A situation in which a patient requires immediate medical intervention as a result of severe, life-threatening, or potentially disabling conditions "
Laser
A tool such as the argon laser and the Nd:YAG laser used to cut or destroy tissue; acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
Morality
A composite of the personal values concerning what is considered right or wrong in a specific cultural group
Local Coverage Determination (LCD)
"New format for LMRPs, Coverage rules, at a fiscal intermediary (FI) or carrier level, that provide information on what diagnoses justify the medical necessity of a test; LCDs vary from state to state"
Labor and delivery record
Health record documentation that takes the place of an operative report for patients who give birth in the obstetrics department of an acute care hospital
Outcomes assessment
"An evaluation that measures the actual outcomes of patient care and service against predetermined criteria (expected outcomes), based on the premise that care is delivered in order to bring about certain results"
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A theory developed by Abraham Maslow suggesting that a hierarchy of needs might help explain behavior and guide managers on how to motivate employees
Access control grid
A tabular representation of the levels of authorization granted to users of a computer system's information and resources
Pathology report
A type of health record or documentation that describes the results of a microscopic and macroscopic evaluation of a specimen removed or expelled during a surgical procedure
Practice management system (PMS)
Software designed to help medical practices run more smoothly and efficiently
"Usual
customary, and reasonable (UCR) charges",Method of evaluating providers' fees in which the third party payer pays for fees that are 'usual' in that provider's practice; 'customary' in the community; and 'reasonable' for the situation
Hard coding
1. The process of attaching a CPT/HCPCS code to a procedure located on the facility's chargemaster so that the code will automatically be included on the patient's bill 2. Use of the charge description master to code repetitive services
Flat-panel display
"The technology using liquid crystal display or other low-emission substances, once found primarily on laptops and now being used for desktop monitors, large-screen wall monitors, and high-density television"
Medicare Part A
The portion of Medicare that provides benefits for inpatient hospital services
Rules and regulations
Operating documents that describe the rules and regulations under which a healthcare organization operates
Concurrent utilization review
"An evaluation of the medical necessity, quality, and cost-effectiveness of a hospital admission and ongoing patient care at or during the time that services are rendered"
Forms management policy
A policy that outlines the process for the creation of new forms
Chief of staff
The physician designated as leader of a healthcare organization's medical staff
Refreezing
Lewin's last stage of change in which people internalize new practices following transition
Data accessibility
The extent to which healthcare data are obtainable
Population health dimension (PHD)
One of three dimensions of the National Health Information Infrastructure privacy concept that addresses protecting and promoting the health of the community
Balanced score card (BSC)
A strategic planning tool that identifies performance measures related to strategic goals
Induced termination of pregnancy
The purposeful interruption of an intrauterine pregnancy that did not result in a live birth
Hospital inpatient beds
"Accommodations with supporting services (such as food, laundry, and housekeeping) for hospital inpatients, excluding those for the newborn nursery but including incubators and bassinets in nurseries for premature or sick newborn infants"
Trauma center
An emergency care center that is specially staffed and equipped (usually with an air transport system) to handle trauma patients
Risk pool
"The people in an insured group, their medical and mental histories, other factors, such as age, and their predicted health "
Magnetic resonance image (MRI)
"The generation of a powerful magnetic field that surrounds the patient, creating computer-interpreted radio frequency imaging"
Point method
A method of job evaluation that places weight (points) on each of the compensable factors in a job whereby the total points associated with a job establish its relative worth and jobs that fall within a specific range of points fall into a pay grade with an associated wage
Boarder baby
A newborn who remains in the nursery following discharge because the mother is still hospitalized or a premature infant who no longer needs intensive care but remains for observation
HCPCS level I
"Current Procedural Terminology, developed by the American Medical Association"
Random sampling
"An unbiased selection of subjects that includes methods such as simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling, and cluster sampling"
Ending
The first stage of Bridges's model of transition management in which people experience losses because of change
Data security
The process of keeping data safe from unauthorized alteration or destruction
Coinsurance
Cost sharing in which the policy or certificate holder pays a pre-established percentage of eligible expenses after the deductible has been met; the percentage may vary by type or site of service
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's theory that suggested that human needs are organized hierarchically from basic physiological requirements to creative motivations
Clinical communication space
The context and range of electronic and interpersonal information exchanged among staff and patients
Data collection
The process by which data are gathered
Mainframe architecture
The term used to refer to the configuration of a mainframe computer
Snowflake schema
A modification of the star schema in which the dimension tables are further divided to reduce data redundancy
Physician profiling
A type of quality improvement and utilization management software that enables provider and payer organizations to monitor how and with what resources physicians are treating patients
Critical care
The care of critically ill patients in a medical emergency requiring the constant attention of the physician
Interval note
Health record documentation that describes the patient's course between two closely related hospitalizations directed toward the treatment of the same complaint
Policies
1. Governing principles that describe how a department or an organization is supposed to handle a specific situation 2. Binding contracts issued by a healthcare insurance company to an individual or group in which the company promises to pay for healthcare to treat illness or injury; such contracts may also be referred to as health plan agreements and evidence of coverage
Full-time equivalent (FTE)
"A statistic representing the number of full-time employees as calculated by the reported number of hours worked by all employees, including part-time and temporary, during a specific time period"
Physical data repository
"A repository organized into data fields, data records, and data files, storing structured, discrete, clinical, administrative, and financial data as well as unstructured, patient free-text, bit-mapped, real audio, streaming video, or vector graphic data"
Disease registry
A centralized collection of data used to improve the quality of care and measure the effectiveness of a particular aspect of healthcare delivery
Textual
A term referring to the narrative nature of much of clinical documentation to date
Overcoding
The practice of using a billing code that provides a higher reimbursement rate than the code applicable to the service actually furnished to the patient
"Private
unrestricted fee-for-service plan",A prepaid health insurance plan that allows beneficiaries to select private healthcare providers
Bill hold period
"The span of time during which a bill is suspended in the billing system awaiting late charges, diagnosis and/or procedure codes, insurance verification, or other required information"
Jurisdiction
"The power and authority of a court to hear, interpret, and apply the law to and decide specific types of cases"
Damaged record recovery policy
A policy that outlines the steps the facility should take to recover paper and/or electronic records in the event of a disaster
Multivoting technique
A decision-making method for determining group consensus on the prioritization of issues or solutions
Face sheet
"Usually the first page of the health record, which contains resident identification, demographics, original date of admission, insurance coverage or payment source, referral information, hospital stay dates, physician information, and discharge information, as well as the name of the responsible party, emergency and additional contacts, and the resident's diagnoses"
Current ratio
The total current assets divided by total current liabilities
Payment status indicator (PSI)
An alphabetic code assigned to CPT/HCPCS codes to indicate whether a service or procedure is to be reimbursed under the Medicare outpatient prospective payment system
Systematic random sampling
The process of selecting a sample of subjects for a study by drawing every nth unit on a list
Complication
"1. A medical condition that arises during an inpatient hospitalization (for example, a postoperative wound infection) 2. Condition that arises during the hospital stay that prolongs the length of stay at least one day in approximately 75 percent of the cases (as in complication and comorbidity [CC])"
Compliance
"1. The process of establishing an organizational culture that promotes the prevention, detection, and resolution of instances of conduct that do not conform to federal, state, or private payer healthcare program requirements or the healthcare organization's ethical and business policies 2. The act of adhering to official requirements 3. Managing a coding or billing department according to the laws, regulations, and guidelines that govern it"
Architecture
"The configuration, structure, and relationships of hardware (the machinery of the computer including input/output devices, storage devices, and so on) in an information system"
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
"A national organization whose purpose is to establish standards on materials, products, systems, and services"
Systems theory
An approach to understanding organizations based on the organization and interconnections of its parts
Physician-patient relationship
"A relationship in which the physician trusts the patient to be forthcoming and honest in providing the information necessary for diagnosis and treatment, and the patient trusts the physician to use that information responsibly and in his or her best interest and to protect it from becoming public knowledge"
Common-cause variation
The source of variation in a process that is inherent within the process
Scientific inquiry
"A process that comprises making predictions, collecting and analyzing evidence, testing alternative theories, and choosing the best theory"
Date of service (DOS)
"The date a test, procedure, and/or service was rendered"
Key field
An explanatory notation that uniquely identifies each row in a database table
Component alignment model (CAM)
A model for strategic information systems planning that includes seven major interdependent components that should be aligned with other components in the organization
Admissibility
The condition of being admitted into evidence in a court of law
Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network
A categorization of all concepts UMDNS in the UMLS Metathesaurus
Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT)
"An independent, voluntary, private-sector initiative organized as a limited liability corporation that has been awarded a contract by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to develop, create prototypes for, and evaluate the certification criteria and inspection process for electronic health record products (EHRs). (www.cchit.org)"
Operation Restore Trust
"A 1995 joint effort of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Office of Inspector General (OIG), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the Administration of Aging (AOA) to target fraud and abuse among healthcare providers"
Assumption coding
"The practice of assigning codes on the basis of clinical signs, symptoms, test findings, or treatments without supporting physician documentation"
Asynchronous
Occurring at different times
Delivery
"The process of delivering a liveborn infant or dead fetus (and placenta) by manual, instrumental, or surgical means"
Acknowledgement
A form that provides a mechanism for the resident to acknowledge receipt of important information
Major medical insurance
"Prepaid healthcare benefits that include a high limit for most types of medical expenses and usually require a large deductible and sometimes place limits on coverage and charges (for example, room and board); also known as catastrophic coverage"
Conceptual data model
"The highest level of data model, representing the highest level of abstraction, independent of hardware and software"
Hacker
An individual who bypasses a computer system's access control by taking advantage of system security weaknesses and/or by appropriating the password of an authorized user
Pretty good privacy (PGP)
A type of encryption software that uses public key cryptology and digital signatures
Baseline adjustment for volume and intensity of service
An adjustment to the conversion factor needed to fulfill the statutory budget neutrality requirement
Time and motion studies
Studies in which complex tasks are broken down into their component motions to determine inefficiencies and to develop improvements
Nursing assessment
The assessment performed by a nurse to obtain clinical and personal information about a patient shortly after he or she has been admitted to a nursing unit
Data quality model
"A managerial process that ensures the integrity (accuracy and completeness) of an organization's data during data collection, application, warehousing, and analysis"
Chargemaster
A financial management form that contains information about the organization's charges for the healthcare services it provides to patients
Foreign key
A key attribute used to link one entity/table to another
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
"The children's healthcare program implemented as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997; sometimes referred to as the Children's Health Insurance Program, or CHIP"
Electronically stored information (ESI)
"Data or documents, including e-mail and electronic health records, that are stored electronically rather than physically"
Operations research (OR)
A scientific discipline primarily begun during the Second World War that seeks to apply the scientific method and mathematical models to the solution of a variety of management decision problems
Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB)
The federal agency that sets the accounting standards to be followed by government entities
Insured
A holder of a health insurance policy
Intensity of service (IS or IOS)
A type of supportive documentation that reflects the diagnostic and therapeutic services for a specified level of care
Object
The basic component in an object-oriented database that includes both data and their relationships within a single structure
Turnkey product
A computer application that may be purchased from a vendor and installed without modification or further development by the user organization
Discharge utilization review
A process for assessing a patient's readiness to leave the hospital
Code look-up
A computer file with all of the indexes and codes recorded on magnetic disk or CD-ROM
Healthcare claims and payment/advice transaction
An electronic transmission sent by a health plan to a provider's financial representative for the purpose of providing information about payments and/or payment processing and information about the transfer of funds
Charges
The dollar amounts actually billed by healthcare facilities for specific services or supplies and owed by patients
Clinical Data Abstraction Centers (CDACs)
Independent review firms that contract with CMS to perform data collection
American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA)
"The nationally recognized professional association of more than 40,000 occupational therapists, occupational therapy assistants, and students of occupational therapy"
Motion video
"A medium for storing, manipulating, and displaying moving images in a format, such as frames, that can be presented on a computer monitor"
Open-record review
A review of the health records of patients currently in the hospital or under active treatment; part of The Joint Commission survey process
Data precision
The extent to which data have the values they are expected to have
Kolb's 'Learning Loop'
"A theory of experiential learning involving four interrelated steps: concrete experiences, observation and reflection, formation of abstract concepts and theories, and testing new implications of theory in new situations"
Resident classification system
"A system for classifying skilled nursing facility residents into mutually exclusive groups based on clinical, functional, and resource-based criteria"
Router
A device programmed to filter out or to allow certain types of data to pass through
Artificial neural network (ANN)
A computational technique based on artificial intelligence and machine learning in which the structure and operation are inspired by the properties and operation of the human brain
Present value
A value that targets the current dollar investment and interest rate needs to achieve a particular investment goal
Model
"The representation of a theory in a visual format, on a smaller scale, or with objects"
Postterm neonate
Any neonate whose birth occurs from the beginning of the first day (two hundred ninety-fifth day) of the forty-third week following onset of the last menstrual period
Charitable immunity
A doctrine that shielded hospitals (as well as other institutions) from liability for negligence because of the belief that donors would not make contributions to hospitals if they thought their donation would be used to litigate claims combined with concern that a few lawsuits could bankrupt a hospital
Mixed costs
Costs that are part variable and part fixed
Sample survey
A type of survey that collects data from representative members of a population
ICNP Catalogues
"A set of precoordinated statements being developed by the International Council of Nurses that will consist of subsets of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes for a specific area of practice"
Hippocratic oath
An oath created by ancient Greeks to embody a code of medical ethics
Generic device group
The actual nomenclature or naming level by which a product or a group of similar products can be classified in the Global Medical Dictionary Nomenclature using a selected generic descriptor and its unique code
Grouping
A system for assigning patients to a classification scheme via a computer software program
Due process
The right of individuals to fair treatment under the law
Board of directors
The elected or appointed group of officials who bear ultimate responsibility for the successful operation of a healthcare organization
Technical skills
"One of the three managerial skill categories, related to knowledge of the technical aspects of the business"
Medical necessity
"1. The likelihood that a proposed healthcare service will have a reasonable beneficial effect on the patient's physical condition and quality of life at a specific point in his or her illness or lifetime 2. healthcare services and supplies that are proven or acknowledged to be effective in the diagnosis, treatment, cure, or relief of a health condition, illness, injury, disease, or its symptoms and to be consistent with the community's accepted standard of care. Under medical necessity, only those services, procedures, and patient care warranted by the patient's condition are provided; 3. The concept that procedures are only eligible for reimbursement as a covered benefit when they are performed for a specific diagnosis or specified frequency; also called the 'Need to Know' principle"
Service bonus
A monetary reward given to long-term staff in recognition of their skills and commitment to the organization
Acquisition
Purchase
Policyholder
An individual or entity that purchases healthcare insurance coverage
Roles and responsibilities
The definition of who does what on a project and the hierarchy for decision making
Dollars billed
The amount of money billed for services rendered
Rules engine
A computer program that applies sophisticated mathematical models to data that generate alerts and reminders to support healthcare decision making
Common law
Unwritten law originating from court decisions where no applicable statute exists
Hospital-based ambulatory surgery center
"A department of an inpatient facility that provides same-day surgical services using the facility's equipment, staff, and support services"
Business associate
"According to the HIPAA privacy rule, an individual (or group) who is not a member of a covered entity's workforce but who helps the covered entity in the performance of various functions involving the use or disclosure of patient-identifiable health information or disclosure of individually identifiable health information"
Public health
"An area of healthcare that deals with the health of populations in geopolitical areas, such as states and counties"
Date of birth
"The year, month, and day when an individual was born"
Install base
"The number of clients for which a vendor has installed a system, as opposed to the number of clients for which a vendor is in the process of selling a system"
Contract
1. A legally enforceable agreement 2. An agreement between a union and an employer that spells out details of the relationship of management and the employees
Needs assessment
"A procedure performed by collecting and analyzing data to determine what is required, lacking, or desired by an employee, a group, or an organization"
Legibility
"An aspect of the quality of provider entries in which an entry or notation is readable; if an entry cannot be read, it must be assumed that it cannot or was not used in the patient care process "
Health Information Management and Systems Society (HIMSS)
"A national membership association that provides leadership in healthcare for the management of technology, information, and change"
Capitated patient
A patient enrolled in a managed care program that pays a fixed monthly payment to the patient's identified primary care provider
Exclusive provider organization (EPO)
Hybrid managed care organization that provides benefits to subscribers only when healthcare services are performed by network providers; sponsored by self-insured (self-funded) employers or associations and exhibits characteristics of both health maintenance organizations and preferred provider organizations
Clinical messaging
The function of electronically delivering data and automating the work flow around the management of clinical data
Category II codes
"CPT codes that describe services or test results that are agreed upon as contributing to positive health outcomes and high-quality patient care. They are for performance measurement, and use of these codes is optional "
Clinical value compass
Performance improvement approach that measures the association of quality and value
Net present value (NPV)
"A formula used to assess the current value of a project when the monies used were invested in the organization's investment vehicles rather than expended for the project; this value is then compared to the allocation of the monies and the cash inflows of the project, both of which are adjusted to current time"
Zero-based budgets
Types of budgets in which each budget cycle poses the opportunity to continue or discontinue services based on available resources so that every department or activity must be justified and prioritized annually to effectively allocate resources
Informatics
"A field of study that focuses on the use of technology to improve access to, and utilization of, information"
Tonometry
"The measurement of tension or pressure, especially the indirect estimation of the intraocular pressure, from determination of the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force "
Primary care provider (PCP)
"Healthcare provider who provides, supervises, and coordinates the healthcare of a member; primary care physicians can be family and general practitioners, internists, pediatricians, and obstetricians/gynecologists; other PCPs are nurse practitioners and physician assistants"
Data model
An abstraction model of real conditions that describes how data is represented and accessed
Debt financing
The process of borrowing money at a cost in the form of interest
Insurance
1. A purchased contract (policy) according to which the purchaser (insured) is protected from loss by the insurer's agreeing to reimburse for such loss 2. Reduction of a person's (insured's) exposure to risk by having another party (insurer) assume the risk
Accidents/incidents
"Those mishaps, misfortunes, mistakes, events, or occurrences that can happen during the normal daily routines and activities in the long-term care setting"
Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act)
"Federal legislation passed in 1959 to ensure that union members' interests were properly represented by union leadership; created, among other things, a bill of rights for union members"
In-service education
"Training that teaches employees specific skills required to maintain or improve performance, usually internal to an organization"
Knowledge
"The information, understanding, and experience that give individuals the power to make informed decisions"
Expressed consent
The spoken or written permission granted by a patient to a healthcare provider that allows the provider to perform medical or surgical services
Master resident index
A listing or database that a long-term care facility keeps to record all the residents who have ever been admitted or treated there
Hospital newborn bassinet
"Accommodations including incubators and isolettes in the newborn nursery with supporting services (such as food, laundry, and housekeeping) for hospital newborn inpatients"
Comorbidity
"1. A medical condition that coexists with the primary cause for hospitalization and affects the patient's treatment and length of stay 2. Preexisting condition that, because of its presence with a specific diagnosis, causes an increase in length of stay by at least one day in approximately 75 percent of the cases (as in complication and comorbidity [CC])"
Sentinel event
"An unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof. Serious injury specifically includes loss of limb or function. The phrase 'or risk thereof' includes any process variation for which a recurrence would carry a significant chance of serious adverse outcome. Such events are called 'sentinel' because they signal the need for immediate investigation and response"
Object-oriented framework
"A new way of programming and representing data that uses commands that act as small, self-contained instructional units that may be combined in various ways to produce larger programs"
Awareness training
Training designed to help individuals understand and respond to information technology concerns
e-Discovery
The discovery of evidence contained in electronic documents such as e-mails or electronic health records
Profitability index
"An index used to prioritize investment opportunities, where the present value of the cash inflows is divided by the present value of the cash outflows for each investment and the results are compared"
Patient status code
A code that describes patient status at discharge or at the end of period in form locator 22 of the CMS-1450 form
Default judgment
A court ruling against a defendant in a lawsuit who fails to answer a summons for a court appearance
Ambulatory care
"Preventive or corrective healthcare services provided on a nonresident basis in a provider's office, clinic setting, or hospital outpatient setting"
Straight numeric filing system
A health record filing system in which health records are arranged in ascending numerical order
Internet browsers
A type of client software that facilitates communications among World Wide Web information servers
Knowledge-based DSS
"Decision support system in which the key element is the knowledge base; often referred to as a rule-based system because the knowledge is stored in the form of rules (for example, the IF, THEN, ELSE format)"
Unsupervised learning
"Any learning technique that has as its purpose to group or cluster items, objects, or individuals"
Expectations
"The characteristics that customers want to be evident in a healthcare product, service, or outcome"
RxNorm
"A clinical drug nomenclature developed by the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and HL7 to provide standard names for clinical drugs and administered dose forms"
Payment Error Prevention Program (PEPP)
Payment compliance program established under the 6th Scope of Work to help healthcare facilities identify simple mistakes that are causing payment errors; monitored by Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
"A national organization that develops standards for hospital system interface transactions, including links between critical care bedside instruments and clinical information systems"
Care
"The management of, responsibility for, or attention to the safety and well-being of other persons in the context of healthcare settings"
Self-monitoring
The act of observing the reactions of others to one's behavior and making the necessary behavioral adjustments to improve the reactions of others in the future
Place of service
A two-digit code used in box 24b of the CMS-1500 claim form to describe the location where the service was performed
North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR)
"A national organization that certifies state, population-based cancer registries"
Bed turnover rate
The average number of times a bed changes occupants during a given period of time
Priority focus area (PFA)
"One of fourteen areas that The Joint Commission considers vital in the successful operation of a hospital; includes processes, systems, and structures that have a substantial effect on patient care services"
Complete master census
A total census for a facility showing the names and locations of patients present in the hospital at a particular point in time
Language translator
A software system that translates a program written in a particular computer language into a language that other types of computers can understand
Union
"A collective bargaining unit that represents groups of employees and is authorized to negotiate with employers on the employees' behalf in matters related to compensation, health, and safety"
Race
"The major biological category to which an individual belongs as a result of a pedigree analysis or with which the individual identifies in cases where the data are inconclusive; usually includes American Indian/Eskimo/Aleut, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, white, other, and unknown/not stated"
Survey team
A group of individuals sent by an accrediting agency (usually The Joint Commission) to review a healthcare organization for accreditation purposes
Source-oriented health record format
A system of health record organization in which information is arranged according to the patient care department that provided the care
Accredited Standards Committee X12 (ASC X12)
A committee of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) responsible for the development and maintenance of electronic data interchange (EDI) standards for many industries. The ASC 'X12N' is the subcommittee of ASC X12 responsible for the EDI health insurance administrative transactions such as 837 Institutional Health Care Claim and 835 Professional Health Care Claim forms
Association rule analysis (rule induction)
The process of extracting useful if/then rules from data based on statistical significance
Outpatient Service Mix Index (SMI)
The sum of the weights of ambulatory payment classification groups for patients treated during a given period divided by the total volume of patients treated
IOL
Intraocular lens
Surgical specialties
"A group of clinical specialties that concentrates on the provision of surgical services by physicians who have received advanced training in obstetrics/gynecology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, cardiovascular surgery, otorhinolaryngology, trauma surgery, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, urology, plastic and reconstructive surgery, anesthesiology, and pathology"
Coronary care unit (CCU)
"A facility dedicated to the care of patients who suffer from heart attacks, strokes, or other serious cardiopulmonary problems"
Seven dimensions of data quality
"The seven characteristics-relevancy, granularity, precision, timeliness, currency, consistency, and accuracy-used to evaluate the quality of data"
Physical safeguards
"Measures such as locking doors to safeguard data and computer programs from undesired occurrences and exposures; a set of four standards defined by the HIPAA Security Rule including facility access controls, workstation use, workstation security, and device and media controls"
Resident record
A term frequently used in long-term care in lieu of health record
Health information management (HIM) professional
An individual who has received professional training at the associate or baccalaureate degree level in the management of health data and information flow throughout healthcare delivery systems; formerly known as medical record technician or medical record administrator
"Current Procedural Terminology
Fourth Edition (CPT)","A comprehensive, descriptive list of terms and associate numeric and alphanumeric codes used for reporting diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and other medical services performed by physicians; published and updated annually by the American Medical Association"
Working conditions
The environment in which work is performed (surroundings) and the physical dangers or risks involved in performing the job (hazards)
Fraud and abuse
The intentional and mistaken misrepresentation of reimbursement claims submitted to government-sponsored health programs
Individual
"According to the HIPAA privacy rule, a person who is the subject of protected health information"
Treatment difficulty
"A term referring to the patient management problems that a particular illness presents to the healthcare provider, usually problems associated with illnesses without a clear pattern of symptoms, illnesses requiring sophisticated and technically difficult procedures, and illnesses requiring close monitoring and supervision"
Normal distribution
"A theoretical family of continuous frequency distributions characterized by a symmetric bell-shaped curve, with an equal mean, median, and mode, any standard deviation, and with half of the observations above the mean and half below it"
CT
computed tomography
Cross-claim
"In law, a complaint filed against a codefendant"
Civil Rights Act of 1991
"The federal legislation that focuses on establishing an employer's responsibility for justifying hiring practices that seem to adversely affect people because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin"
Portals
Special Web pages that offer secure access and entry of data upon authorization of the owner of the page
Stage of the neoplasm
"A classification of malignancies (cancers) according to the anatomic extent of the tumor, such as primary neoplasm, regional lymph nodes, and metastases"
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
"Entity that combines the provision of healthcare insurance and the delivery of healthcare services, characterized by: (1) organized healthcare delivery system to a geographic area, (2) set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services, (3) voluntarily enrolled members, and (4) predetermined fixed, periodic prepayments for members' coverage"
Logical data model
The second level of data model that is drawn according to the type of database to be developed
Incisional breast biopsy
A type of breast biopsy done through an incision that does not include removal of the entire lesion
UNIX
"An operating system developed by Bell Labs in the late 1960s, and one of the best systems for mission-critical applications"
General ledger
A master list of individual revenue and expense accounts maintained by an organization
Quota sampling
"A sampling technique where the population is first segmented into mutually exclusive subgroups, just as in stratified sampling, and then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion"
Discipline
A field of study characterized by a knowledge base and perspective that is different from other fields of study
Process
"1. A systematic series of actions taken to create a product or service; a formal writing (writ) issued by authority of law; any means used by the court to acquire or to exercise jurisdiction over a person or a specified property; a term from Donabedian's model of quality assessment that focuses on how care is provided 2. The interrelated activities of healthcare organizations-including governance, managerial support, and clinical services-that affect patient oucomes across departments and disciplines within an integrated environment"
Honesty (integrity) tests
Tests designed to evaluate an individual's honesty using a series of hypothetical questions
Code edit
"An accuracy checkpoint in the claims-processing software, such as female procedures done only on female patients "
American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA)
"The professional membership organization for managers of health record services and healthcare information systems as well as coding services; provides accreditation, advocacy, certification, and educational services"
Decision tree
A structured data-mining technique based on a set of rules useful for predicting and classifying information and making decisions
Reinforcement
The process of increasing the probability of a desired response through reward
Interrater reliability
A measure of a research instrument's consistency in data collection when used by different abstractors
Linking
"The assignment of diagnosis codes to individual line items (1 through 4) on a CMS-1500 claim form to cross-reference the procedure to the diagnosis code, establishing the medical necessity of the procedure"
Case finding
A method of identifying patients who have been seen and/or treated in a healthcare facility for the particular disease or condition of interest to the registry
Item description
An explanation of a service or supply listed in the chargemaster
Function axis
Physiological or chemical disorders and alterations resulting from a disease or injury
Surgical review
"Evaluation of operative and other procedures, invasive and noninvasive, using The Joint Commission guidelines"
Standards development organization (SDO)
A private or government agency involved in the development of healthcare informatics standards at a national or international level
Employee orientation
The process in which employees are introduced to an organization and a new job
Revenue cycle management
"The supervision of all administrative and clinical functions that contribute to the capture, management, and collection of patient service revenue, with the goals of accelerated cash flow and lowered accounts receivable"
Interview survey
A type of research instrument with which the members of the population being studied are asked questions and respond orally
Case fatality rate
The total number of deaths due to a specific illness during a given time period divided by the total number of cases during the same period
Free-text data
Data that are narrative in nature
Personal/unique identifier
The unique name or numeric identifier that sets apart information for an individual person for research and administrative purposes
Association of Record Librarians of North America (ARLNA)
"Organization formed ten years after the beginning of the hospital standardization movement whose original objective was to elevate the standards of clinical record keeping in hospitals, dispensaries, and other healthcare facilities; precursor of the American Health Information Management Association"
Alliance Standards Directory
Web site that includes 850 voluntary and mandatory standards and links to more than 200 standards development organizations (nahit.org/hitsdir/)
Access control
"1. A computer software program designed to prevent unauthorized use of an information resource 2. The process of designing, implementing, and monitoring a system for guaranteeing that only individuals who have a legitimate need are allowed to view or amend specific data sets"
Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)
Previous name of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
Occupational therapy (OT)
A treatment that uses constructive activities to help restore the resident's ability to carry out needed activities of daily living and improves or maintains functional ability
Clinic outpatient
A patient who is admitted to a clinical service of a clinic or hospital for diagnosis or treatment on an ambulatory basis
Home health prospective payment system (HH PPS)
The reimbursement system developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to cover home health services provided to Medicare beneficiaries
HCPCS level III
"Codes, often called local codes, developed by local Medicare and/or Medicaid carriers for use in their particular geographic locations; eliminated on December 31, 2003 "
Champion
An individual within an organization who believes in an innovation or change and promotes the idea by building financial and political support
Clinical informatics
A field of information science concerned with the management of data and information used to support the practice and delivery of patient care through the application of computers and computer technologies
Consumer Coalition for Health Privacy
"Affiliated with the Health Privacy Project, this organization was created to educate and empower healthcare consumers on privacy issues at the various levels of government and consists of patients and consumer advocacy organizations "
Vocational rehabilitation
The evaluation and training aimed at assisting a person to enter or reenter the labor force
Expert system (ES)
A type of information system that supports the work of professionals engaged in the development or evaluation of complex activities that require high-level knowledge in a well-defined and usually limited area
Outguide
A device used in paper-based health record systems to track the location of records removed from the file storage area
Current Dental Terminology (CDT)
"A medical code set of dental procedures, maintained and copyrighted by the American Dental Association (ADA), referred to as the Uniform Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclatures until 1990 "
Standard generalized markup language (SGML)
An International Standards Organization standard that establishes rules for identifying elements within a text document
Simple random sampling
The process of selecting units from a population so that each one has exactly the same chance of being included in the sample
Direct obstetric death
"The death of a woman resulting from obstetric complications of the pregnancy state, labor, or puerperium; from interventions, omissions, or treatment; or from a chain of events resulting from any of the events listed"
EEG
Electroencephalogram
Patient's right to privacy
The justifiable expectation on the part of a patient that the information in his or her health record will be used only in the context of providing healthcare services
Credited coverage
Reduction of waiting period for pre-existing condition based on previous creditable coverage
Screen prototype
A sketch of the user interface of each screen that is anticipated in a project
Temporary privileges
"Privileges granted for a limited time period to a licensed, independent practitioner on the basis of recommendations made by the appropriate clinical department or the president of the medical staff"
Method
"1. A way of performing an action or task 2. A strategy used by a researcher to collect, analyze, and present data"
Chart depletion policy
"A policy that outlines the documents that can be removed, or depleted, from resident records over time"
Admission utilization review
A review of planned services (intensity of service) and/or a patient's condition (severity of illness) to determine whether care must be delivered in an acute care setting
Provider-based entity
"A provider of healthcare services, a rural health clinic, or a federally qualified health clinic, as defined in section 405-2401 of the Code of Federal Regulations, that is either created or acquired by a main provider for the purpose of furnishing healthcare services under the name, ownership, and administrative and financial control of the main provider, in accordance with the provisions of the proposed rule"
Local medical review policies (LMRPs)
Documents that define Medicare coverage of outpatient services via lists of diagnoses defined as medically reasonable and necessary for the services provided
Budget
A plan that converts the organization's goals and objectives into targets for revenue and spending
Semantics
"The meaning of a word or term; sometimes refers to comparable meaning, usually achieved through a standard vocabulary"
Information modeling
The use of clinical code sets with application software to create information that is meaningful to the end user
Convenience sampling
A sampling technique where the selection of units from the population is based on easy availability and/or accessibility
Ethicist
"An individual trained in the application of ethical theories and principles to problems that cannot be easily solved because of conflicting values, perspectives, and options for action"
Health record analysis
A concurrent or ongoing review of health record content performed by caregivers or HIM professionals while the patient is still receiving inpatient services to ensure the quality of the services being provided and the completeness of the documentation being maintained
Descriptive text
"One component of the DSM, text that describes mental disorders under the following headings: Diagnostic Features; Subtypes and/or Specifiers; Recording Procedures; Associated Features and Disorders; Specific Culture, Age, and Gender Features; Prevalence, Course, Familial Pattern, and Differential Diagnosis"
Systems testing
A type of testing performed by an independent organization to identify problems in information systems
Web browser-based systems
Systems and applications written in one or more Web programming languages
Transformational leadership
The leadership of a visionary who strives to change an organization
Abstracting
"1. The process of extracting information from a document to create a brief summary of a patient's illness, treatment, and outcome 2. The process of extracting elements of data from a source document or database and entering them into an automated system "
Exacerbation
"To make more violent, bitter, or severe"
Alarm
A type of warning that is generated by an automated medical device
Forecast budget
A budgeting approach that simply divides the amount budgeted by the number of months in the fiscal period
Low-utilization payment adjustment (LUPA)
An alternative (reduced) payment made to home health agencies instead of the home health resource group reimbursement rate when a patient receives fewer than four home care visits during a sixty-day episode
Workers' Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act
Federal legislation that requires employers to give employees a sixty-day notice in advance of covered plant closings and covered mass layoffs
Referral
A request by a provider for a patient under the provider's care to be evaluated and/or treated by another provider
Confidentiality
A legal and ethical concept that establishes the healthcare provider's responsibility for protecting health records and other personal and private information from unauthorized use or disclosure
Code of ethics
A statement of ethical principles regarding business practices and professional behavior
Literature review
"A systematic investation of all the knowledge available about a topic from sources such as books, journal articles, theses, and dissertations"
Use case
A technique that develops scenarios based on how users will use information to assist in developing information systems that support the information requirements
Ethnicity
A category in the Uniform Hospital Discharge Data Set that describes a patient's cultural or racial background
Partial hospitalization
"A limited patient stay in the hospital setting, typically as part of a transitional program to a less intense level of service; for example, psychiatric and drug and alcohol treatment facilities that offer services to help patients reenter the community, return to work, and assume family responsibilities"
Bounded rationality
The recognition that decision making is often based on limited time and information about a problem and that many situations are complex and rapidly changing
Activity date or status
The element in the chargemaster that indicates the most recent activity of an item
Carrier
1. The insurance company; the insurer that sold the policy and administers the benefits 2. Entity that has a contract with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to determine and make Medicare payments for Part B benefits
Inductive reasoning
A process of creating conclusions based on a limited number of observations
Activity-based budget
A budget based on activities or projects rather than on functions or departments
Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII)
"A cooperative of public health services, health information systems, and informatics experts established to develop health information systems for public and population health purposes"
Indemnity plans
Health insurance coverage provided in the form of cash payments to patients or providers
Corrective controls
"Internal controls designed to fix problems that have been discovered, frequently as a result of detective controls"
Physical access controls
"1. Security mechanisms designed to protect an organization's equipment, media, and facilities from physical damage or intrusion 2. Security mechanisms designed to prevent unauthorized physical access to health records and health record storage areas"
SOF
signature on file
Graph
A graphic tool used to show numerical data in a pictorial representation
Assisted living
A type of freestanding long-term care facility where residents receive necessary medical services but retain a degree of independence
Adverse drug reaction (ADR)
"Unintended, undesirable, or unexpected effects of prescribed medications or of medication errors that require discontinuing a medication or modifying the dose, require initial or prolonged hospitalization, result in disability, require treatment with a prescription medication, result in cognitive deteriororation or impairment, are life threatening, result in death, or result in congenital anomalies. (Source: Joint Commission)"
Employer identification number (EIN)
"The federal tax identification number of a business, designated in HIPAA as the standard identifier for employers"
Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM
A publication issued quarterly by the American Hospital Association and approved by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to give coding advice and direction for ICD-9-CM
Customer relationship management (CRM)
A management system whereby organizational structure and culture and customer information and technology are aligned with business strategy so that all customer interactions can be conducted to the long-term satisfaction of the customer and to the benefit and profit of the organization
Continuous variables
Discrete variables measured with sufficient precision
Medigap
A private insurance policy that supplements Medicare coverage
Summons
An instrument used to begin a civil action or special proceeding and is a means of acquiring jurisdiction over a party
Census-reporting policy
A policy that outlines the process for census reporting and tracking
Inventory control
The balance between purchasing and storing the supplies needed and not wasting money or space should the requirements for that supply change or the space available for storage be limited
Scanning
The process by which a document is read into an optical imaging system
Ambulatory payment classification group (APC group)
"Basic unit of the ambulatory payment classification (APC) system. Within a group, the diagnoses and procedures are similar in terms of resources used, complexity of illness, and conditions represented. A single payment is made for the outpatient services provided. APC groups are based on HCPCS/CPT codes. A single visit can result in multiple APC groups. APC groups consist of five types of service: significant procedures, surgical services, medical visits, ancillary services, and partial hospitalization. The APC group was formerly known as the ambulatory visit group (AVG) and ambulatory patient group (APG)"
Inpatient service day (IPSD)
A unit of measure equivalent to the services received by one inpatient during one 24-hour period
Major diagnostic category (MDC)
"Under diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), one of twenty-five categories based on single or multiple organ systems into which all diseases and disorders relating to that system are classified"
E/M
evaluation and management
Terminal
A term used to describe the hardware in a mainframe computer system by which data may be entered or retrieved
Programming language
A set of words and symbols that allows programmers to tell the computer what operations to follow
Key
"In cryptography, a secret value used to encrypt and decrypt messages; in a symmetric cryptographic algorithm, only one key is needed to encrypt and decrypt a message, but in an asymmetric algorithm, two keys are needed"
Audioconferencing
A learning technique in which participants in different locations can learn together via telephone lines while listening to a presenter and looking at handouts or books
Discounted fee for service
A rate agreed to between the provider and the health plan that is lower than the provider's customary fee
Cost outlier
Exceptionally high costs associated with inpatient care when compared with other cases in the same diagnosis-related group
Action plan
A set of initiatives that are to be undertaken to achieve a performance improvement goal
Caregiver
"1. Any clinical professional (physician, nurse, technologist, or therapist, for example) who provides care directly to patients 2. A nonprofessional who provides supportive assistance in a residential setting to a relative, friend, or client who is seriously ill"
Health information management (HIM) department
Healthcare facility department responsible for the management and safeguarding of information in paper and electronic form
Help desk
"A central access point to information system support services that attempts to resolve users' technical problems, sometimes with the use of decision-making algorithms, and tracks problems until their resolution"
Transitional nonfacility relative value unit
"A blend of charge-based relative value units and resource-based relative expense for services provided in a practice setting other than a facility, for example, a physician's office or freestanding clinic"
Affinity diagram
A graphic tool used to organize and prioritize ideas after a brainstorming session
Conclusive research
A type of research performed in order to come to some sort of conclusion or help in decision making; includes descriptive research and causal research
Clinical service
"A general term used to indicate a unit of medical staff responsibility (such as cardiology), a unit of inpatient beds (such as general medicine), or even a group of discharged patients with related diseases or treatment (such as orthopedic)"
Motion for summary judgment
A request made by the defendant in a civil case to have the case ruled in his or he favor based on the assertion that the plaintiff has no genuine issue to be tried
Cookie
A piece of information passed from a Web server to the user's Web browser that is accessible only to the server/domain that sent it and is retrieved automatically through a program called an intelligent agent whenever the server's Web page is visited; used to store passwords and ordering information and to set preferences and bookmarks
Discrete data
"Data that represent separate and distinct values or observations; that is, data that contain only finite numbers and have only specified values"
Hospital live birth
"In an inpatient facility, the complete expulsion or extraction of a product of human conception from the mother, regardless of the duration of pregnancy, which, after such expulsion or extraction, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles"
Eligibility date
The date on which a member of an insured group may apply for insurance
American College of Radiology-National Electrical Manufacturers Association (ACR-NEMA)
The professional organizations (ACR) and trade associations (NEMA) that work collaboratively to develop digital imaging standards
Project team
A collection of individuals assigned to work on a project
Structured query language (SQL)
A fourth-generation computer language that includes both DDL and DML components and is used to create and manipulate relational databases
Intensive review
A process undertaken when an incident occurs that requires the review of medical record or other data elements to determine if process problems exsist and if an ongoing performance measure should be established to monitor process stability
Physical
"The actual organization of data in a system (for example, a single file divided into many pieces scattered across a disk); the opposite of logical"
Statement of cash flow
A statement detailing the reasons why cash amounts changed from one balance sheet period to another
Partnership
The business venture of two or more owners for whom the profits represent the owners' personal income
Coding Clinic for HCPCS
A publication issued quarterly by the American Hospital Association and approved by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to give coding advice and direction for HCPCS code assignment
e-learning
The use of the Internet and its derived technologies to deliver training and education
Sixty-day episode payment
"The basic unit of payment under home health prospective payment system that covers a beneficiary for sixty days regardless of the number of days furnished unless the beneficiary elects to transfer, has a significant change in condition, or is discharged and then returns to the same agency within the sixty-day episode"
American Society for Healthcare Risk Management (ASHRM)
The professional society for healthcare risk management professionals that is affiliated with the American Hospital Association and provides educational tools and networking opportunities for its members
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1975 (COBRA)
"The federal law requiring every hospital that participates in Medicare and has an emergency room to treat any patient in an emergency condition or active labor, whether or not the patient is covered by Medicare and regardless of the patient's ability to pay; COBRA also requires employers to provide continuation benefits to specified workers and families who have been terminated but previously had healthcare insurance benefits"
Ground rules
"An agreement concerning attendance, time management, participation, communication, decision making, documentation, room arrangements and cleanup, and so forth, that has been developed by PI team members at the initiation of the team's work"
Identity management
"In the master patient index, policies and procedures that manage patient identity, such as prohibiting the same record number for duplicate patients or duplicate records for one patient"
ACOG
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Simple payback method
A method used to justify a proposed capital expenditure where the asset cost is divided by the net annual income of the asset to determine how long it will take for the asset to 'pay back' what it cost the organization
Extreme immaturity
A condition referring to a newborn with a birth weight of fewer than 1000 grams and/or gestation of fewer than 28 completed weeks
Relational database
A type of database that stores data in predefined tables made up of rows and columns
Point and click
"A means of data entry in which the user moves the computer's cursor by way of a mouse, up-and-down arrows, or some other pointing or navigational device to choose an icon or data element"
Clinical care plans
Care guidelines created by healthcare providers for individual patients for a specified period of time
Plug-and-play
"An adapter card hardware that sets connections through software rather than hardware, making hardware easier to install"
Search engine
"A software program used to search for data in databases (for example, a structured query language)"
Knowledge worker
An employee who improves his or her performance by sharing his or her experience and expertise with other employees
National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)
A private not-for-profit accreditation organization whose mission is to evaluate and report on the quality of managed care organizations in the United States
Medicare fee schedule (MFS)
A feature of the resource-based relative value system that includes a complete list of the payments Medicare makes to physicians and other providers
Privacy
"The quality or state of being hidden from, or undisturbed by, the observation or activities of other persons, or freedom from unauthorized intrusion; in healthcare-related contexts, the right of a patient to control disclosure of personal information"
Certification/recertification
Medicare requirement for the physician's official recognition of skilled nursing care needs for the resident
Facsimile
A machine that allows the remote transmission of text and graphics through telephone lines or a communication sent via this method
Analysis
Review of health record for proper documentation and adherence to regulatory and accreditation standards
Perioperative Nursing Dataset (PNDS)
A data set developed by the Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses to identify the perioperative experience of the patient from preadmission to discharge
Nosocomial infection rate
The number of hospital-acquired infections for a given time period divided by the total number of inpatient discharges for the same time period
Information model
A model that combines the elements necessary to fully represent the meaning of clinical information and that supports semantic interoperability among the heterogeneous computer-based systems that form an integrated information system
Self-pay
"A payer category in which the patient or patient's family, rather than a third-party payer, (such as an insurance company) pays the bill for care"
Linkage analysis
A technique used to explore and examine relationships among a large number of variables of different types
Milestone budget
A type of budget without a fixed 12-month calendar in which cost is determined and budget allocation is established for the next period as events are completed
Artificial intelligence (AI)
High-level information technologies used in developing machines that imitate human qualities such as learning and reasoning
NCI
National Cancer Institute
Stress testing
"Testing performed toward the end of EHR implementation to ensure that the actual number, or load, of transactions that would be performed during peak hours can be performed"
Clinical quality assessment
The process for determining whether the services provided to patients meet predetermined standards of care
"Labor-related share (portion
ratio)","Sum of facilities' relative proportion of wages and salaries, employee benefits, professional fees, postal services, other labor-intensive services, and the labor-related share of capital costs from the appropriate market basket. Labor-related share is typically 70 to 75 percent of healthcare facilities' costs. Adjusted annually and published in the Federal Register"
Deliverable
A tangible output produced by the completion of project tasks
Project components
"Related parameters of scope, resources, and scheduling with regard to a project"
Interim period
Any period that represents less than an entire fiscal year
Medicare
A federally funded health program established in 1965 to assist with the medical care costs of Americans sixty-five years of age and older as well as other individuals entitled to Social Security benefits owing to their disabilities
Reverse mentoring
The opposite of the usual coaching process where the younger goes to the older instructor
Per-diem rate
The cost per day derived by dividing total costs by the number of inpatient care days
Social Security Act of 1935
"The federal legislation that originally established the Social Security program as well as unemployment compensation, and support for mothers and children; amended in 1965 to create the Medicare and Medicaid programs"
Plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle
"A performance improvement model developed by Walter Shewhart, but popularized in Japan by W. Edwards Deming"
Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)
"A program initiated by the National Library of Medicine to build an intelligent, automated system that can understand biomedical concepts, words, and expressions and their interrelationships; includes concepts and terms from many different source vocabularies"
Health Privacy Project
A nonprofit organization whose mission is to raise public awareness of the importance of ensuring health privacy in order to improve healthcare access and quality
Medical service bureaus
Organized groups of physicians who were paid by employers to provide healthcare services to their employees during the early 1900s
Optical imaging technology
The process by which information is scanned onto optical disks
General ledger (G/L) key
The two- or three-digit number in the chargemaster that assigns each item to a particular section of the general ledger in a healthcare facility's accounting section
Health care provider dimension (HCPD)
"One of three dimensions of the National Health Information Infrastructure concept that includes information obtained during the patient care process and integrates it with clinical guidelines, protocols, and selected information the provider is authorized to access from the personal health record, as well as information relevant to the patient's care from the community health dimension "
Concurrent conditions
The physical disorders present at the same time as the primary diagnosis that alter the course of the treatment required or lengthen the expected recovery time of the primary condition
Whole number
Any of the set of nonnegative integers
Discrete variable
A dichotomous or nominal variable whose values are placed into categories
Compliance plan
"A process that helps an organization, such as a hospital, accomplish its goal of providing high-quality medical care and efficiently operating a business under various laws and regulations"
Continuing care retirement community
"An organization established to provide housing and services, including healthcare, to people of retirement age"
Resident Assessment Validation and Entry (RAVEN)
A type of data-entry software developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for long-term care facilities and used to collect Minimum Data Set assessments and to transmit data to state databases
Discharge analysis
An analysis of the health record at or following discharge
Cost inlier
A case in which the cost of treatment falls within the established cost boundaries of the assigned ambulatory patient group payment
Net death rate
The total number of inpatient deaths minus the number of deaths that occurred less than forty-eight hours after admission for a given time period divided by the total number of inpatient discharges minus the num