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37 terms

biol ch 15

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oxygen (O2)
Which of the following was probably not present in large amounts in the atmosphere at the time life is thought to have originated? (ebook Major Episodes in the History of Life)
Spontaneous generation
is a theory that states that life arises from nonliving matter
formation of organic monomers
is thought to have been the first step in the origin of life?
O2
The early atmosphere on Earth is thought to have had very little, if any,
H2O, CH4, H2, and NH3
In their experiment on the origin of organic compounds, which of the following gases did Urey and Miller use to simulate Earth's early atmosphere?
The Urey and Miller experiments (and subsequent, similar experiments) showed that
simple organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions like those thought to prevail early in Earth's history
Clay particles may have played an important role in the origin of life because
clay particles are a suitable surface for the formation of polymers from monomers
RNA
It has been suggested that the first self-replicating molecules were
The earliest cells were most likely
prokaryotic
The most abundant group of organisms on Earth is the
prokaryotes
archaea
Prokaryotes called _____ are similar in many ways to eukaryotic organisms.
A streptobacillus kind of prokaryote
consists of rod-shaped cells arranged in chains
chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes
In an experiment, a microbiologist put equal numbers of each of the following organisms into a flask of sterile broth consisting mostly of sugar and a few amino acids. She then placed the flask in the dark. Which of the organisms would be best able to survive?
photoautotrophs
Prokaryotes that use light for their energy source and CO2 for their carbon source are called
extreme halophiles
Prokaryotes found inhabiting the Great Salt Lake would be the
archaea
Methanogens, extreme halophiles, and extreme thermophiles are examples of
a halophile
Which of the following would most likely spoil salted fish?
produce endospores
The bacteria that cause tetanus can be killed only by prolonged heating at temperatures considerably above boiling. This suggests that tetanus bacteria
food poisoning
is a human disease caused by a bacterium
bioremediation
You have been asked to participate in the cleanup of an old mining site. You dislike the idea of handling poisonous acidic soils, so you volunteer to culture the bacterium Thiobacillus. The aspect of the cleanup that you are participating in is
binary fission
Prokaryotes copy themselves and divide in a process known as
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Which of the following organelles were likely generated through endosymbiosis?
Eukaryotic cells probably arose through
associations between different prokaryotes
algae
Protists are a diverse group of organisms that includes
In general, how do algae and protozoans differ?
Algae are photosynthetic, and almost all protozoans are heterotrophic.
apicomplexans
Which of these groups includes parasitic unicellular organisms with a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues?
watch how it moves
A student is looking at a protozoan under the microscope. "I know it's supposed to be a ciliate, a flagellate, or an amoeba, but how am I supposed to know which it is?" she complains to her lab partner. "Easy," her partner says. "Just
protists
Consider the following kinds of organisms: dinoflagellates and ciliates. Both of these organisms belong to which one of the following groups?
the following are protozoans
apicomplexans, flagellates, amoebas, and ciliates
amoeboid
The cells of cellular slime molds bear a resemblance to _____ cells
This mass of cytoplasm is undivided by membranes and contains many nuclei; therefore, it is not technically multicellular
In lab class a plasmodial slime mold is used as a demonstration organism. One of the students does not understand why the plasmodium is not considered multicellular. How would you explain it to her?
dinoflagellates
are capable of producing a "red tide
green algae
The algal groups most commonly found in freshwater ecosystems are
diatoms
these groups includes unicellular organisms with unique overlapping cell walls
multicellular green algae
the following groups of algae are most closely related to higher plants
color
Groups of seaweeds can generally be distinguished on the basis of
Volvox
he following colonial organisms demonstrate the evolutionary link between unicellular and multicellular life