APWH 29: Industrial Revolution

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industrialization
The process of developing machine production of goods, usually at a national level.
James Watt
Inventor of the first practical steam engine.
fossil fuels
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals. Contain a great deal of energy.
factory system
Bringing many workers and machines together into one building to maximize production.
urbanization
The movement of people into cities of ever-increasing size.
capital
Money needed to start or fund business ventures.
Second Industrial Revolution
When mass production moved to steel and machines began to be powered via electricity and petroleum.
Middle Class
A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and small-estate landowners.
Industrial Working Class
The socioeconomic class that consists of factory workers & laborers.
Luddites
Group of British workers who attempted to prevent industrialized growth by sabotaging machines.
Unions
An association of workers formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages.
Utopian Socialism
Idea that people should own things as a group, and that such a system should be achieved by voluntary sacrifice.
Karl Marx
The inventor of communism along with Friedrich Engels.
communism
Political theory favoring collectivism in a classless society. Such a state should be achieved via revolutionary overthrow of the government. Anti-religious.
evolutionary socialism
Eduard Bernstein's idea that socialism should be attained by slow processes and cooperation rather than conflict and revolution.
laissez-faire
The idea that governments should not interfere with the workings of business or international trade in any way.