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Terms in this set (51)
One problem with using the range as the measure of variability is that....
it depends on just two of the scores in the distribution
Measure of ________ indicate how scores are spread out in a distribution, while measures of _______ represent sample scores as a whole
Variability and Central Tendency
Suppose we test just a sample of people. If the test fairly represents the population we are interested in, then we are said to have
External Validity in the study
You conduct an experiment with a 2x2 design. When you analyze the results you observe a "classic" interaction. What does this tell you about the main effects of the study?
There are no main effects/main effects are not significant
When the standard score = -1, what is the percentile of the raw score?
16
Dr. Rand M. Zation conducted a study to examine the effects of a drug versus a placebo. He decided to test the effect using a within subjects design. In order to do this properly, he had to add a between-subjects factor that allowed him to control for
order effects
An extraneous variable (EV) that co-varies with the independent variable is a confounding variable only if we also can state.....
A plausible reason how the EV might have affected the DV
How many independent variables (factors) are in a 2x2x3x3 design?
4
You design an experiment that manipulates the following factors (and levels): method of presenting material (visual, auditory); difficulty of material (easy, difficult); and amount of material (low, moderate, high). For a completely independent between-group design with 10 participants per group, how many participants will you need?
120
In a normal distribution, the mean is 25, the standard deviation is 6. if the standard score z=2, what is the raw score?
37
If a frequency distribution, what do we put on the y-axis (the vertical axis)?
The frequency of the dependent variable
An interaction exists when....
The effects of one variable depend upon the level of another variable
We have a 3-way interaction when the effect of one independent variable depends upon the _______ of two other independent variables.
levels
In a skewed frequency distribution, which measure of central tendency is generally considered to be the most useful one?
The Median
"I wonder if adults are more generous if their parents made them give 10% of their allowance to charity when they were children? When we put this question in standard form, we get?
What is the effect of being made to give 10% of one's allowance to charity when one is a child on the amount given to charity when one is an adult?
Consider the sentence. "Bob is more anxious than he is intelligent." this sentence only makes sense it....
Bob's standard score (z-score) on the anxiety scale is higher than his standard score on the intelligence scale.
When the standard deviation is 7, z-score=2, and x=28, what is the mean?
14
You calculate the descriptive statistic from an exam you have given. Here is what you come up with: The Frequency distribution is normally shaped, the mean score = 45, the Variance = 16. you know that the mean = 45, is at the 50th percentile. What score is at the 98th percentile?
53
In a three-factor experiment, how many main effects and interaction do we have to evaluate?
7
In a normal frequency distribution, about what percentage of the scores lie between z= -1 and z = 2?
82
A person is at the 84th percentile on a standardized test. Given that the sample mean is 60 and SD=9, what is this person's raw score?
69
When we describe our data, we list three basic properties of the frequency distribution. One of them is the shape of the distribution. The other two are:
measures of central tendency, and variability
In working with a normal distribution it is very handy to know the following 3 numbers:
34, 14, 2
List two reasons why we might choose to use a multi-factor design:
Greater approx. of the real world conditions.
Examine whether independent variables interact with one another.
Several variables may affect the same DV
A researcher measured how much violent television children watched at home and also observed their aggressiveness on the playground. The researcher used the _________ method
Naturalistic Observation
Compute the standard score (z-score) for x, when x = 21, then mean of the distribution = 27, and the variance = 9
z = -2
When we specify a set of procedures we can use to define a measure a variable, we have provided a(n) __________ of it.
Operational Definition
Suppose that low levels of anxiety lead to low exam performance, medium level of anxiety lead to high exam performance, and high levels of anxiety lead again to low exam performance. According to Cozby and Bates, this is an example of _________ between the variable.
A curvilinear relationship
The instructor has stated that two of the key ideas we've discussed amount to two ways of talking about the same issue (two sides of the same coin). These are.....
Confounding and Control
"People who frequency get angry will eventually feel more depressed than those who don't." This statement primarily lacks which of the following scientific standards of "ideals"?
Definiteness and Precision
Cozby and Bates discuss three types of evidence typically needed to identify the causes of behavior. Which of the following is one of those types?
All of the above are necessary to properly identify a cause of behavior
Consider the following reasons why behavior might change: fatigue effect, practice effect, and learning effect. Collectively these are common dangers we face if we use a(n):
within-subjects design
We turn a "big question into a "small question" when....
we operationally define the IVs and the DVs
If a claim is "intersubjectively testable" then....
It can be tested by anyone if he or she follows the direction for making the observation of having the experience.
A researcher asked college students to recall how many hours they had spent working on algebra II when in high school. The researcher then found that the students who said they'd studied more than 5hr/week did better on their college entrance exams. This study used the _______ technique.
Ex Post Facto
A researcher investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and reaction time in a driving stimulation task. Participants drank either one ounce of three ounces of alcohol and were then measured on the time needed to step on the break at a simulated red light. in this study, braking speed is the..........
Dependent Variable
Prof. Howard M. Burgers found that restaurant owners who go on a two-week cruise vacation make more money in the next 6 months than do restuarants owners who just take a single week off and work around the house. Prof. Burgers concluded that taking a cruise vacation ends up being good for business. you would point out that the problem of ________ ha not been addressed in this study/
Self Selection
According to the instructor, the fundamental threat to good experimentation is
a variable that systemically co-varies with the IV
Do older people have worse memories than younger people? If we do an experiment to test this question, what is the IV?
Age of participant
According to Cozby and Bates, a tentative statement that might (or might not) be true about the cause of some behavior is normally called
a hypothesis
If another variable systematically co-varies with the independent variable then we likely have a
confound
If we collect the past history and current responses of a specific individual and use that data as a source of hypothesis, then we have conducted a _________ study
case
What is the best representation of a question put in "standard form"?
What is the effect of the IV on the DV
I conduct a study and observe the students in early morning math classes tend to do better than students in afternoon math classes. I conclude that math is best taught in the early morning and shift all math classes to that time. In fact, my conclusion may be wrong because the students....
Self selected themselves into the class
Please specify two of the important specific items that will be your "mental checklist" as you design a research project that avoids confounds.
Random Assignment and using a double blind technique
An order effect is likely to occur if we use a simple______ subject design
within
A systematic body of ideas that organizes and helps explain many facts, that can be further tested, and that may change as we learn more is normally called a(n)
Theory
When we make an effort to explain behavior we often use terms like "anxiety" or "frustration" or "introversion" etc. the instructor and the book use the term construct to refer to such terms. A construct is said to be scientifically useful when it can be used to
predict/explain behavior
In a matched-pair experimental design, we match individuals with each other and then ___________ them to the groups
Randomly assign
Prof. Molly Able used to believe that there was one set of principles that explained all types of memory phenomena. Now she thinks that there are at least three different types of memory that follow somewhat different principles. In terms of the desired properties our "system of beliefs" should follow, she is
open to change
The term "factor in a experimental design is another name for the
independent variable
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