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Japanese Literature Midterm Exam
Terms in this set (46)
710-794 Earliest historical period where we have written history; Nat'l Identity - Creation myth; Heavily influenced by China & Korea; Fall of the Soga Clan - est. of the legitimacy of the Emperor; Buddhism - foreign religion; "Uta" - song, poetry
Record of Ancient Matters ("Ko"- old "Ji"-work "Ki"-record)
written in 712 (Nara Period); Oldest extant Japanese book; Official documents; Imperially comissioned; Names/Dates/Facts/Mythology; Signed by officials; written in Chinese with elements of Japanese; Has a Preface - prose, and poetry (what the deities said); Less focused on facts, more on mythology (Opens with the Japanese Creation Story); Lineage, History, Legitimacy of Emperors 1-33; compiled by O-no-Yasumaro.
Chronicles of Japan - written in 720 (Nara Period); Imperially comissioned by Emperor Gensho; Compiled by Prince Toneri; Names/Dates/Facts/Mythology; Signed by officials; Written in Chinese; No Preface; More focused on Facts; Lineage, History, Legitimacy; 3 books - creation/Emperor stories - to compete w/China
Shinto Sun goddess; Legend where Izanagi and Izanami gave birth to Japan and Amaterasu, a Sun goddess. Her descendant came to earth and founded the Japanese nation. Emperor is still believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu; creation story in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki; Ise Shrine is for the worship of Amaterasu.
Shinto shrine for the worship of Amaterasu - the Sun goddess; Emporer still takes an annual pilgrimage there
poetry; also means song
Three Imperial Regalia
Refers to the mirror, the sword, and the curved jewel, all of which have mythological origin; Amaterasu gave them to her first grandson and he gave them to the first emperor to rule; they are enshrined at the Ise Shrine.
one of the sacred places of the Shinto gods located in Japan
Japanese Creation Story
Izanagi - ("He who invites") - First Male; Izanami - ("She who invites") - First Female; woman spoke first; tried it again and the male spoke first and the islands of Japan were created; Patriarchical society in Japan; Izanami died and went to the Underworld
Shinto shrine for susa-no-o no mikoto and okuninushi no mikoto
Ancient Ballads, Topographies written in 713 describing the various provinces outside of Nara - their lands, animals, and crops, and their people, traditions, lifestyles, and myths; written during the Nara period
Native Japanese syllabic script originally derived from Chinese character writings; showed inflection; women used Kana in the Heian Period (794-1185); today men use more of the Chinese characters and women use more of the Kana (Japanese).
Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves (date: 759 - Nara Period) Author: Otomo no Yakamochi; 4500 poems (4200 are Tanka/Waka poems); 20 books; largest and oldest extant poetry collection; misc. poems/love poems/elegies; the subject of LOVE is a new addition; (Shinto - outdoor nature, Buddhism & Confucianism - human nature
Japanese Poetry (in the Nara Period)
No rhyming in Japanese poetry; 4 categories: Tanka/Waka, Choka, Sedoka, and (Haiku - falls in the Edo period)
A Japanese poem of five lines, the first and third composed of five syllables and the rest of seven (5-7-5-7-7 or 5-7-5, 7-7); 31 syllables. Called Tanka in the Nara period and Waka in the Heian period, due to the breaking away of Chinese influence in the Heian period.
Choka (Long Poem)
Also called "nagauta" - long song; alternating lines of 5 and 7 syllables, with an additional 7-7 syllable couplet at the end. No limit to number of lines; longest choka is 149 lines long and is found in the Man'yoshu; Choka is found only in the Nara Period.
Head Repeating Poem; Japanese poem of six lines, syllabic count of 5-7-7, 5-7-7; Oldest verse form in Japanese poetry; found in Kojiki, Nihon Shoki, and Man'Yoshu; Only found in the Nara Period.
Earliest name for the islands of Japan
A famous Japanese poet, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, who is prominent in the Man'yoshu (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves); Hired by the Emperor; Official poems (written at court - eulogies, elegies) and Private poems (his personal emotions - love poems, elegies); NOTE: Poem about Princess Asuka's death and her husband's sorrow (p 26), and Hitomaro's personal poem about the death of his wife - poetic devices from a cultural perspective - "wave my sleeve" (p 27)
Japanese Literary Devices in Poetry
1. Makura Kotoba (Pillow Word)
2. Utamakura (Place Names Pillow Word)
3. Kakekotoba ( Pivot Words)
Pillow words - certain standard descriptive phrases that refer to other things and always have either 5 or 7 syllables so they can take up a line of poetry; Poetic device used in Japanese poetry in the Man' yoshu; code words; EX: In Hitomaro's poem, the "waving of the sleeve" is understood culturally as a sign of affection.
Place Names Pillow Words; 5 or 7 syllable phrases; set phrases referring to places, emotions, things, seasons; EX: Mt. Yoshino brings to mind Cherry Blossoms.
Pivot word; kana that can be read in two different ways is essentially a "pun". EX: A kashi is both a place name and can mean "dawn"
Otomo no Yakamochi (717?-785)
Poet associated with Man'yoshu nature poems; paved way for Heian poetry and aesthetics; emotional refinement of the poet reflected in his choice of words to express the content of poems; emphasis on nature; used words that were more visual and lively
794 - 1185, imperial court moved to Heian-kyo = "capital of peace and tranquility" (modern Kyoto), nobles followed and created a highly refined culture; No contact with China for ~300 years
"woman's hand"; women used Kana during the Heian period to write diaries
Two main poets of the modern era of the Heian Period
Ariwara no Narihira - male (ladies man; court official - slept with a lot of women; linked to "The Tales of Ise")
Ono no Komachi - female (9th century Kokinshu poet; one of the six "immortal poets"; Legend: heartless treatment of lovers - Fukakusa no Shosho in the 100 night story, "ugly woman" - Buddhists believe this was her punishment; NOTE: poem on p 55 - images carry the emotion of the poem - aging = flowers fading = mortality; rain = depressing, no man is going to chase after her anymore
word association or verbal play on words; EX: "water" - "drowning in a river of my tears"
Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern (written in 905); First imperially sponsored poetry collection compiled by Tsurayuki, Tomonori, Mitsune, and Tadamine; Two Prefaces both written in Japanese - Japanese Preface "kanajo" (by ki no Tsurayuki) - Shinto Japanese values, nature, emotions, experience, and the Chinese Preface "manajo" (by ki no Yoshimochi) - Confucianism Chinese values Buddhist elements, social constructs, social regulations; NATURE - especially seasons are new elements
Ono no Komachi
female (9th century Kokinshu poet); one of the six "immortal poets"; Legend: heartless treatment of lovers - Fukakusa no Shosho in the 100 night story, "ugly woman" - Buddhists believe this was her punishment; NOTE: poem on p 55 - images carry the emotion of the poem - aging = flowers fading = mortality; rain = depressing, no man is going to chase after her anymore, moonof old = time past; works not signed, but known by her calligraphy.
An extended prose narrative tale that is often influenced by/comparable to epics; Fictional narratives, fictional prose knowledge
-"the tale of Genji" by Lady Murasaki Shikibi
- "the Pillow Book"- by Sei Shonagon
Poem Tales; stories with poems in them, episodic; Climax of the episode is the poem; EX: "Tales of Ise" ("Ise" - a shrine virgin; also an old city where the Grand Shrine is located)
"Tales of Ise"/ Ise Monogatari
ca 950; Heian Period Collection of prose and poetry; 125 prose episodes - like a preface; 209 poems (mostly poems) - the poems become the actual story; transitional form - halfway between poetry collections and fictional narratives; Episodes begin with something like the following: "mukashi oto ari keri" = "once there was a man" - very new style for the Japanese; linked with Ariwara no Narihira (823-880 AD)
"The Tale of Genji" is a classic work of Japanese literature attributed
to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the first years of the eleventh century, at the cultural peak of the Heian period. It is often called the world's first novel, the first
modern novel, the first psychological novel; written in pure Japanese language; majority is prose with a few poems; overall theme is that the women in Genji's life always seem to disappear.
(973 - 1008) Novelist, diarist, and courtesan. She was the author of the Tale of Genji (Genji monogatari), the first known novel; the diary, Murasaki Shikibu nikki (1008); and a collection of tanka poems. The daughter of the court official Fujiwara Tametoki, she sat in on the classical Chinese literature lessons that her brother received, in spite of the Heian traditions against higher education for women; therefore, skilled in both Japanese and Chinese.
Japanese aesthetic of profound grace and subtlety
"the capital"; also a style change as in moving from the highly social setting of the capital city to the isolation of the countryside.
Traditional Japanese aesthetic ideals; word means elegance or refinement.
"Nikki" = "day writing " = women's diaries; written in Japanese syllabic characters; Heian court women wrote about their grief and misery, love prospects, and thier private spheres of Heian court life.
Diary written in 935 by Ki no Tsurayuki (male) from the viewpoint of a woman persona; his daughter passed away and he wrote a diary pretending to be a woman so he could express his feelings; the Tosa nikki was a "successful" performance of a woman by a man.
"Mayfly Diary"; written 968-971 by Michitsuna no haha/Michitsuna's Mother; son was Fujiwara no Mchitsuna; husband was Fujiwara no Kaneie - the subject of much of her diary is her dissatisfaction with her life due to her husband's lack of love and affection toward her; A Heian woman at court lived a very lonely/isolated life if her husband had other wives that he loved more; also unable to get the education that Heian men were entitled to.
The Pillow Book
Dairy written ~1000 by Sei Shonagon; Makura no soshi = "Makura" - Pillow "soshi" - informal journal or notebook; a collection of character sketches, lists, anecdotes, and poems that provides a vivd glimpse into the lives of the Japanese nobility during the Heian period; random thoughts; no chronological order.
Lady in waiting at the Heian court; painted a vivid picture of life in the Heian court in her dairy "The Pillow Book" written in ~1000
A Japanese religion that centered around the belief that kami, or spirits, could be found in all of nature around them. It means "the sacred way" or the "way of the Gods." It became linked to state doctrine, the divinity of the emperor, and the sacredness of the Japanese nation. It is still practiced today.
Japanese regent; influential in bringing Buddhism and Chinese ideas (Confucianism) to Japan; wrote "The Constitution of Prince Shotoku" also called the "Seventeen-Article Constitiution"
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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