Study Guide 15 16 17
Terms in this set (61)
The "New South" Economy
post-civil war new industries enter the south, new crops being grown increase in grain, tobacco, and fruit. Railroads expand in the south increases transportation and shipping/trading of goods cross country.
prior to war: cotton and tobacco were the focus in the south, continues after the war
group of Texas Farmers organized and negotiate as a group for lower prices, connected farmers in the south and west. Tried to convince the government to force railroads to lower freight prices. Also wanted government to regulate interest rates that banks could charge farmers for loans.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
guaranteed black patrons the right to ride trans and use public facilities such as hotels. The supreme court ruled that decisions about public accommodations was a local issue to be dealt with by the state or local laws. Southern towns took advantage of this to limit the rights of African Americans.
By 1860's Indians were forced onto separate territories specifically set aside by the US government for Indian use. Not able to roam free the plains Indians faced suppression, poverty and ultimately death.
Sand Creek Massacre-
Fall 1864 Arapaho Indians under US Army protection gathered at Sand Creed, troops opened fire killing men, women, and children despite the Indians efforts to signal friendship by raising the American Flag. This spawned another round of warfare as Plains Indians joined forces to repel white settlement of the plains.
Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull & The Battle of Little Big Horn
Sioux Indians Led by CH & SB assembled to drive out the gold prospectors from the Sioux grounds in the Dakotas and Montana. US Army sent troops to fight the Indians, led by Colonel George Custer. Custer and all of his men were killed at the battle. SB escaped to Canada, CH eventually surrendered and this spawned more attacks on Indians
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce
Led a group of Indians on a trek trying to escape to Canada, eventually surrendered "I will fight no more forever" and were forced to move to a reservation in OK.
Battle of Wounded Knee
South Dakota, hostilities broke out when the US Army cavalry met and outgunned a group of Indians that were trying to resist. More than 100 men, women and children were killed. Final Battle.
Policy of the US Government to "Americanize" the indian children. Many were sent to boarding schools, especially the Carlisle Indian School. Were not allowed speak their language, dress like an Indian, or practice traditions or customs. The generation of indian children were supposed to be like the white people
Dawes General Allotment Act
1887 replaced the reservation system with an allotment, each indian family was granted a 160-acre farmstead. To protect the Indians they were not allowed to sell or transfer the land for 25 years.
"Wild West" self-appointed law enforcers punished law breakers in western rural towns (boom towns, mining towns)
link between east and west. Major lifeline for American industries. Government gave land grants to private business to build the railroad.
property was not fenced in for farming, ranchers claimed ownership and knew the boundaries of the ranches, hire cattle drivers and cowboys to round up cattle to transport to the nearest railroads to ship the cattle to major cities for meat processing.
Glidden invented barbed wire, ended the "open-range" system by fencing in much of the west and plains.
1862, to encouraged movement out west the government offered farm plots of 160 acres to anyone willing to live on the land for five years. Many settlers "EXODUSTERS" did not survive to due to harsh living conditions: weather, starvations, droughts, etc.
All Black regiment of the US Army, 10-th Calvary, fought in the Indian/Great Plains wars
Jim Crow Laws
laws aimed at taking away the voting rights of African Americans, also segregated black and whites, mainly in the south
Poll taxes/literacy tests/grandfather clause
having to pay a tax to vote, required voters to take a test on their understanding of government, or stated if your grandfather had not been allowed to vote you could not vote-many African americans could not afford to pay, were illiterate, or grandfathers had been former slaves
Plessy v. Ferguason
Supreme Court case 1896, that upheld the constitutionality of Jim Crow Laws the famous "separate but equal" clause did not violate the 14th amenmdnet
Booker T. Washington
Black leader at the turn of the century, believed that blacks would eventually achieve political rights/equality AFTER they made economic gains. Told blacks to focus on education and building economic success FIRST
Black leader at the turn of the century, believed blacks should demand full and immediate equality and not limit themselves to vocational training
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People-aimed to help blacks be physically and mentally free from forced low-paid labor and politically free from disfranchisement and socially free from insult. Included white and black leaders from progressives aimed at social progress
group that denounced the idea of gradual progress (and ideas Booker T.)
Ida B. Wells-
Former slave, bought a newspaper and wrote articles that condemned the mistreatment of blacks. Led a crusade against the lynching of blacks in the south.
Susan B. Anthony
Women's voting right activists, even cast a ballot in the presidential election of 1872, refused to pay the fine when found guilty, did not live to see the passage of the 19th amendment
Las Gorras Blancas
group of Mexican americans to maintain their civil rights, many resented the loss of their land, this group targeted the property of large ranch owners by cutting holes in fencing, supported by the Knights of Labor also had a newspaper to voice their grievances.
"Golden" Years for the United States between the Civil War & World War I, saw increase in industrialization, increase of immigration, etc.
Politicians awarded government jobs to loyal party workers, with little regard for their qualifications for the job. It was the "glue" that helped make political parties so powerful
Civil Service/Pendleton Civil Service Act
system that includes federal jobs in the executive branch. Workers had to pass a civil service exam to get a government job to prevent corruption in the government-no more "rewarding" people with jobs.
Gold Standard vs. Silver Bimetallism
Use the gold standard for the nations currency OR use both gold and silver for the currency. Coinage Act of 1873 minted just gold instead of both, people that had invested in silver lost money.
The National Grange & Over H. Kelley
Organized in 1867, attracted 1 million members goals including providing education on new farming techniques and called for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates.
also known as "Peoples Party" 1892, political goals-Omaha Platform-coinage of sliver or "free silver" combat high costs, demanding government ownership of the railroads, also wanted women's suffrage. Won significant election in 1892.
William Jennings Bryan
Populist party presidential candidate, great orator did not win the election of 1896 against McKinley
Republican candidate election of 1896, got 30 times more amount of campaign funds, let the republicans run everything for him, won the election in 96 and again in 1900.
The Wizard of Oz
A parable for US during the 1890's Populist movement
reform society in areas like government, work conditions, living conditions, etc. fix these problems and it would could bring about social justice.
Muckrakers: Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair
Journalists/writers that highlight societal problems like poor working or living conditions, also unsanitary conditions in factories
Settlement houses & Jane Addams
community center that provided social services to the urban poor, Jane became a leading figure in the movement and opened Hull House, beginning of "social workers"
gave congress the power to collect federal income taxes
Underwood Tariff Act
Lowered tariffs on imported goods and established a graduated income tax
when people actually elect candidates for public office
instituted the direct election of senators by the people of each state
Temperance Movement/Prohibition/Volstead Act
Wanted to outlaw alcohol in the US, believed that alcohol led to poverty, violence and crime. Many women's Christian groups opposed alcohol and claimed the US was a "nation of drunkards" and was immoral. Believed that prohibition would end societies' problems. Also wanted to "civilize" the new immigrants from Ireland, Italy, etc. that liked to drink. Unintended consequences were a rise in organized crime in the US with creation of Mafia strongholds, rumrunners, moonshiners, and bootleggers. Creation of speakeasy clubs where people illegally drank while listening to new music like jazz.
Banned the making, selling, and transporting of alcoholic beverages in the US
Women's movement to gain the right to vote, National American woman suffrage association
gave women the right to vote in all elections passed 1920
Americanization of Immigrants
taught them English, wanted immigrants to dress and act like "white" middle class Americans and adopt new customs and traditions and leave the "old country" behind
group in response to growing anti-semitism-goal to defend Jews and others against physical and verbal attacks, false statements and to secure justice and fair treatment of all citizens.
focused on poor black workers, NAACP had focused on middle class blacks. This helped factory workers and maids find jobs and bought clothes and books and send children to school.
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt & Square Deal
President in 1901, graduated from Harvard, New York Assembly representative, President of NYC board of policy commissioners, named Asst. Secreatry of the Navy, Formed the Rough Riders a volunteer cavalry unit that became famous during the Spanish-American War, Elected Gov. of NY Known as a "Trust-Buster", Goals to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor, everyone has a fair shot at success
Meat Inspection Act
allowed the federal government to inspect meat sold across state lines and required inspection of processing plants
Pure Food and Drug Act
allowed federal inspection of food and medicine and banned the shipment and sale of impure food and the mislabeling of food and medicine.
National Reclamation Act
Provided for federal irrigation projects by using money from the sale of public lands
Environmentalists: John Muir & Gifford Pinchot
Movement to protect forests/environment led to the creation of Yosemite National Park in 1890. Pinchot recommended that forests be preserved for public use.
Roosevelt's Progressive Party & New Nationalism
Program to restore the governments trustbusting powers, Jane Addams nominated TR as the progressive party candidate in 1912
Living conditions improved
immigrants can access to child care and English classes, governments improve sanitation and tenement housing safety, minority groups organize to create self-help agencies and fight discrimination, laws regulate food and medicine safety
Working conditions improved
city and state laws improve workplace safety, workers compensation laws provide for payments to injured workers, laws limit the workday hours, state and federal government urged to adopt minimum wage standards, strike fund aids workers who reject unsafe conditions, minority job seekers gain access to more jobs
Children's lives improved
state and federal laws ban child labor, compulsory education laws require children to attend school-many learn English, literacy rates improves, poor children gain access to nursery school and kindergartens
commission form of government, city managers, trained administrators, city-owned public utilities, direct primaries, referendum, recall and initiative
New Organizations to protect or expand rights
NAACP, National consumers league, national American woman suffrage association, urban league, anti-defamation league, Partido Liberal Mexicano