Anterior branch of the left coronary artery; lies in anterior interventricular sulcus.
Anterior interventricular branch
Posterior branch of the right coronary artery; lies in posterior interventricular sulcus
Posterior interventricular branch
Branch of the left coronary artery that curves around the left side and lies in the coronary sulcus.
When the blood flows from the superior vena cava to the heart, to the pulmonary circulation, and out of the heart to the systemic circulation, list all the structures that blood flows through.
superior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta
What is the function of the pericardial fliud?
It prevents friction between the visceral and parietal pericardial layers.
If a person has pulmonary valve prolapse, which circulation is affected the most: pulmonary, systemic, or cardiac circulation?
A blood clot (thrombus) in which artery of the coronary circulation would be more likely to cause sudden death?
Anterior interventricular branch because it supplies the majority of blood to the walls of both ventricles.
The pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries are colored blue in all of the figures. Why are they colored blue like most veins?
They carry oxygen poor blood from the right atrium to lung capillaries.
If the foramen ovale does not fully close after birth, what will happen?
Oxygen poor blood will bypass the lungs and enter the aorta.
If a person has endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis, what areas (in order) are infected?
Endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
Athletes have thicker heart walls than non-athletes. Which layer of the heart enlarges? Explain:
The myocardium enlarges to provide the increase in cardiac output needed during excercise.
Atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves have different structures. Explain if high pressure from above or below each type of valve opens the valves.
Atrioventricular valves are opened by pressure from above. Semilunar valves are opened by pressure from below.
Which ventricular wall is thicker? What is the significance of this?
The left ventricular wall is thicker. The left ventricle pumps blood with more force to overcome the higher blood pressure in the aorta and to open the aortic valve.
The heart has many anastomoses. What benefit are these to the heart?
Anastomoses in coronary circulation allows alternate blood pathways to and from all parts of the heart muscle if one is blocked
What is the significance of the difference in the vessel wall thickness between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk?
The aorta is thicker because it contains blood at a higher pressure than the pulmonary trunk.
Using your knowledge, explain why mitral valve prolapse occurs more often than tricuspid prolapse.
The mitral valve only has two cusps and resists a greater pressure when the left ventricle contracts.
How would heart function be affected if the AV valves did not completely close during ventricular contraction?
Cardiac output would decrease because some blood would reflux into the atria instead of into the aorta or pulmonary trunk.
Trace a drop of blood from the ascending aorta to the right coronary artery and trace the blood back into the heart again.
Tracing Blood Flow
ascending aorta; left coronary artery; anterior interventricular artery; left ventricular capillaries;
great cardiac vein; coronary sinus; right atrium
Varicose veins are common, but are there also varicose arteries?
no; arteries have thicker walls and no valves
In the arm and forearm, is it deep veins or superficial veins that accompany arteries within the same names as the veins?
Where is the azygos vein located, and what area does it drain?
to the right of the vertebral column in the thorax; drains the thorax and abdominal wall
Usually arteries carry nutrient-rich blood, but there are veins that do also. What are their names?
hepatic portal veins
Balloon catheters are inserted into the femoral artery to unblock coronary vessels. Name all the arterial structures, in order, that the balloon catheter passes through from the right femoral artery to the right coronary artery.
right femoral artery, right external iliac artery, right common iliac artery, abdominal aorta, thoracic aorta, aortic arch, ascending aorta, right coronary artery
Trace a drop of blood from the aorta to the small intestine and back to the right atrium. Include, in order, the major arteries and veins.
abdominal aorta, superior mesenteric artery, branches of superior mesenteric artery, capillaries of small intestine, branches of superior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, hepatic veins, inferior vena cava, right atrium
Trace a drop of blood from the aorta to the skin of the face and back to the right atrium. Include, in order, the major arteries and veins.
ascending aorta, aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk or left common carotid
(a) brachiocephalic trunk, right common carotid, right external carotid, arteries serving skin of right side of face, capillaries, veins draining skin of right side of face, right external jugular vein, right subclavian vein, right brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, right atrium
(b) left common carotid, left external carotid, arteries serving skin of left side of face, capillaries, veins draining skin of left side of face, left external jugular vein, left subclavian vein, left brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, right atrium
A blockage in the right internal carotid does not necessarily cause a loss of blood supply to the brain. (a) Identify the area of the brain supplied by the right internal carotid, and name the vessels that would supply blood to this area if thee is a blockage in the right internal carotid artery. (b) Is a thrombus in the exteral carotid life threatening?
(a) The right internal carotid artery supplies blood to the right anterior and right middle surfaces of the cerebrum. If the right internal carotid artery is blocked, the basilar and left internal carotid arteries would supply blood to the blood vessels which supply these areas through the anastomoses forming the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis). (b) No, because the external carotid artery supplies blood to the face and scalp and not the brain.
Secondary lymphatic nodules located in the small intestine.
Peyer's patches (aggregated lymphatic follicle)
What are the sites for immune response?
lymph nodes, spleen, MALT, aggregated lymphatic follicles (Peyer's patches), appendix, tonsils
How would the lymph that is leaving the cisterna chyli differ from lymph draining into the right lymphatic duct?
The lacteals (lymphatic capillaries) in the small intestine absorb dietary lipids (chylomicrons) and lipid soluble vitamins into the lymph. Lacteals drain into the cisterna chyli, that in turn drains into the thoracic duct. The right lymphatic duct does not receive any lymph from the small intestine so it would not contain any dietary fat.
How do lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries?
Lymphatic capillaries are slightly larger in diameter than blood capillaries and have one-way openings that drain interstitial fluid into them. In addition, they are attached to surrounding tissues by anchoring filaments and they are closed at one end.
If you dissected a fetal pig or a young cat, what difference would you expect in the thymus compared to the adult?
The thymus of the fetal pig or young cat is very large compared to an adult. The thymus regresses with age and is replaced by adipose tissue.
Why are the walls of the lymphatic vessels thin, like veins?
The pressure in lymphatic vessels is low.
Bacteria and viruses in infected tissues easily enter lymph vessels. Explain why?
Bacteria and viruses can be picked up by lymphatic capillaries that have large openings to drain interstitial fluid. From here, microbes enter the lymphatic vessels.
If a woman had a radial mastectomy (removal of a cancerous breast, surrounding tissues with axillary lymph nodes, and anterior thoracic muscles), would you expect the arm on that side to be edematous (have edema)? Explain.
Yes. Lymph nodes have lymphatic vessels leading into them that would drain the axillary area around the lymph nodes of excess interstitial fluid. When these structures are removed, excess interstitial fluid may build up.
Would you describe the flow of lymph through lymph through lymph nodes as being fast or slow, compared with blood capillaries?
Slower than blood capillaries due to the lymph node structure. Each lymph node has more afferent vessels entering it than efferent vessels leaving it. This slows lymph flow through the node.
What would be missing in lymph exiting a lymph node, compared with lymph entering the node?
Bacteria, viruses, worn out cells, and other debris engulfed by macrophages.
A patient has enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes that are very tender to the touch. Examination of the feet reveals a small cut between the 3rd and 4th toes, which are warm and red. What would your initial impression be, and why are the lymph nodes enlarged?
Bacteria entered the body through the small cut between the toes and traveled up the lymphatic vessels of the leg into the inguinal lymph nodes. Lymph travels through the lymph nodes slowly, allowing phagocytosis to occur by macrophages. The increased number of bacteria in the lymph nodes causes swelling.
How does a person contract elephantiasis?
A person contracts elephantiasis when an infected female mosquito transfers parasitic worm larvae to the human's body fluid as it bites and draws blood.