Rhetorical Strategies and Devices Part 2
Terms in this set (46)
Fallacy (fallacious reasoning)
an incorrect belief or supposition based on faulty data, defective evidence, or false information; methods of pseudo-reasoning that may occur accidentally or may be intentionally contrived to lend plausibility to an unsound argument
the use of words outside their literal or usual meanings; used to add freshness and suggest associations and comparisons that create effective images
a figure of speech in which conscious exaggeration is used without the intent of literal persuasion; used to heighten effect or produce comic effect
the use of language to convey sensory experience, most often through the creation of pictorial images through figurative language
the reasoning process that involves moving from SPECIFIC examples to a GENERAL rule; a method of reasoning in which a number of specific facts or examples are used to make a generalization
In Media Res
Latin for "beginning in the middle of things" - as a rhetorical device, it refers to a literary and artistic narrative technique wherein the relation of a story begins either at the midpoint or at the conclusion, not the beginning, thus establishing setting, character, and conflict via flashback and expository conversations relating the pertinent past
a mode of speech in which words express a meaning opposite to the intended meaning
usually refers to a specialized language providing a method of quick communication between people in the same field; often used to disguise the inner working of a particular trade or profession from public scrutiny
Placing two items side by side to create a certain effect, reveal an attitude, or accomplish a purpose.
the opportune occasion for speech/writing; the way a given context for communication both calls for and constrains one's speech/writing. The writer takes into account the contingencies of a given place and time and considers the opportunities within this specific context for words to be effective and appropriate to that moment
in arguing her point, a writer should always lend her opponents some credit for their ideas. The writer persuades her audience that she is fair and has done her homework thereby strengthening her own argument
a form of understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating the negative of its opposite. Ex: "she was not unmindful" is used to mean that "she gave careful attention (sarcastic always have not/no/negative word)
the idea that there are principles governing correct or reliable inferences; ex. facts, reasons, and expert opinion/testimony
a sentence that follows the customary word order of English sentences; a sentence grammatically complete at some point before the end; ___ with too many dependent clauses become stringy. However, the term ___ does not imply fault in structure
the unintentional use of a word that resembles the word intended but that has a very different meaning; ex. "The girl used a fire distinguisher to put out the blaze."
an implied comparison
a figure of speech that uses the NAME of one thing to represent something else with which it is associated; ex. using the term "the crown" to refer to the monarchy of England
the overall atmosphere of a work; the tone may change from paragraph to paragraph or page to page but the ___ remains OVERALL the same
a picture or other work of art composed by assembling many different materials or pieces collected from various sources (photographs, magazines, newspapers, etc.)
recurrent images, words, objects, phrases, actions that unify the work
the story of events and/or experiences that tell what happened
the use of words that by their sound suggest their meaning (snap, crackle, pop)
A juxtaposition of two unlike things to create ambiguity through contradiction
a phrase or statement that while seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be true; a rhetorical device used to attract attention, to secure emphasis
(balance of parts) coordinate ideas should have coordinate presentation
a parody that doesn't use humor to get its message across; instead, they often have tones of seriousness; a work cobbled together in imitation of several original works, often with a satirical intent (almost critical in tone)
a sentence not grammatically complete before its end; The construction is set up to constantly throw the mind forward to the idea that will complete the meaning. It is effective when it is designed to arouse interest and build intensity until the final revelation is made
attributing human characteristics to nonhuman things
repetition of conjunctions in close succession for rhetorical effect "Here and there and everywhere."
method of clarifying the nature of something by explaining how it works in separate, easy to understand steps
a play on words, usually for comic effect or satire
reiterating a word or phrase, or rewording the same idea, to secure emphasis
a general term that identifies discourse according to its chief purpose. Include exposition (to explain, analyze, or discuss an idea); argumentation (to prove a point or to persuade); description (to recreate or present with details); and narration (to relate an anecdote or story)
a question asked solely to produce an effect and not elicit a reply
a technique that ridicules people and/or societal institutions, using irony, wit, and exaggeration
a figure of speech involving a comparison using LIKE or AS.
a complete sentence that is neither compound nor complex
a technique in which a writer redefines something that is offensive, harmful, dangerous in more acceptable terms (not euphemism!) President Bush labeled "The War on Iraq" as "Operation Iraqi Freedom"
the author's manner of expression (diction, tone, images, rhythm, fig. language, imagery)
a formula for presenting an argument logically. A major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
something concrete that stands for or represents something abstract
a figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole (fifty masts for fifty ships), the whole signifies the part (days for life as in "he lived his days under African skies").
pattern or structure of the word order in a sentence or phrase; the grammatical structure
the voice of the writer produced by the combined effect of diction, sentence structure, and purpose, used to reflect the author's attitude toward the subject. ___ can change from paragraph to paragraph, from page to page, etc. There can be an OVERALL _____ and/or a changing tone
the implied personality the author chooses to adopt
a figure of speech describing the joining of two or more parts of a sentence with a single common verb or noun; a general term describing when one part of speech (most often the main verb, but sometimes a noun) governs two or more other parts of a sentence; ex. "Mrs. Newsome opened the door and her heart to the homeless child."