Infantry ALC Tactics (ULO,TLP,Combat Power,OFF,DEF,Patrolling)
Terms in this set (116)
What is doctrine?
The army thought process. how to think, rather than what to think.
what are TTPs
Tactics,Techniques, and Procedures
what are tactics
the employment of units in combat
a tactician must understand and master the:
art and science of tactics
what are the three interrelated aspects of the art of tactics?
1) the creative way to accomplish assigned missions
2) Decision making under adverse conditions.
3)understanding the affects of combat on the soldier
what is the science of tactics
the understanding of those aspects of tactics to include combat capabilities, techniques, and procedures that can be measured and codified.
what is a unified action
the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of activities of governmental/non-governmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort
ARMY ROLE is?
Unified Land Operations
ULO Goal is?
apply land power as part of unified action to defeat the enemy on land and establish conditions that achieve the commanders end state.
what is a unified land operation?
how the army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of advantage, and create conditions favorable for conflict resolution
what is the foundation of ULO?
Decisive actions by means of army core competencies guided by Mission command
decisive actions include -
Offense, Defense, Stability, and support of civil authority operations. missions in any environment require army forces to be prepared to conduct any combination of these operations.
what are offensive tasks?
an offensive task is conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain, resources, and population centers
what are defensive tasks?
defensive tasks are conducted to defeat enemy attacks, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks
what are stability tasks?
tasks and missions conducted outside the US to reestablish a safe and secure environment. provides both governmental and humanitarian relief.
Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA)
Defense support of civil authorities is a task that takes place only in the homeland, although some of its tasks are similar to stability tasks.
Defense support of civil authorities is always conducted in support of another primary or lead federal agency.
6 Tenets of ULO
what is the operational art
the pursuit of strategic objectives in whole or in part through the arrangement of tactical actions in time, space, and purpose.
what is the operational process?
-army designed methodology
-military decision making process
- troop leading procedures
what are the 6 warfighting functions?
1) mission command
2) movement and maneuver
what is combat power?
the total means of destructive, constructive, and information capabilities the military unit/formation can apply at a given time.
how do army forces generate combat power
by converting potential into effective action.
what are the 8 elements of combat power.
leadership, information, movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, mission command, and protection
how do commanders apply combat power?
though the warfighting functions using leadership and information.
how do commanders apply leadership?
through mission command
what does mission command do
While the commander remains the central figure in mission command, it enables subordinates to develop the situation.
tasks associated with movement and maneuver
deploy, move, maneuver, employ direct fires, occupy an area, mobility/countermobility ops, reconnaissance and surveillance, employ battlefield obscuration.
what does intelligence provide to the warfighting functions
it provides understanding of possible treats, adversaries, and weather.
what is intelligence?
synchronized information collected my means of recon, surveillance, security, and intel operations.
whats is fires
indirect weapons used to create specific lethal and non lethal effects on a target
fires associated tasks?
deliver fires, conduct targeting, integrate all forms of army, joint, and multinational fire.
define sustainment and list associated tasks
The endurance of Army forces is primarily a function of their sustainment. It is essential to retaining and exploiting the initiative.
Includes the following tasks:
Provide personnel services.
Provide health service support.
what is protection?
determines the degree to which potential threats can disrupt operations and counters or mitigates those threats
what is a patrol?
a detachment sent out by a larger unit to conduct a specific mission that operates semi-independently and returns to the main body upon completion of the mission.
what is the main function of a patrol?
to engage with or report the enemies disposition, location and actions.
to act as ground sensors or early warnings for larger units (the planned action determines the type of patrol)
what is the purpose of a patrol?
Gathering information on the enemy, on the terrain, or on the populace.
Regaining contact with the enemy or with adjacent friendly forces
Engaging the enemy in combat to destroy him or inflict losses.
Reassuring or gaining the trust of a local population.
Preventing public disorder.
Deterring and disrupting insurgent or criminal activity.
Providing unit security.
Protecting key infrastructure or bases.
Types of Patrols
main function of a combat patrol
depart the main body with clear intent to make direct contact with the enemy. it provides security, harasses, destroys, or captures enemy troops, equipment, and installations.
three types of combat patrols
raid, ambush, and security
three types of recon patrols
area, zone, and route
internal makeup of a patrol
headquarters element, aid and litter team, EPOW team, surveillance team, route recorder, compass man, pace man, assault team, support team, breach team, search team.
what must be established in the initial planning and coordination phase.
troop leading procedures, changes and updates to enemy situation, best use of terrain, hours of light, weather condition, changes in friendly situation, attachments, local landing zones, departure and re-entry points
coordination's necessary for patrolling
fire support data, rehearsals (area and time), special equipment, ammo, transportation requirements, signal plan, attachments
key tasks to complete the plan
identify essential and shaping tasks, key travel and execution times, primary and alternate routes, signals, challenger passwords,
location of leaders, action on enemy contact, contingency plans
departure from friendly lines requires
coordination and planning
5 types of rally points
initial, in route, objective, re-entery, near and far side
what are the tasks to be conducted for a leaders recon of the objective?
establish an ORP
pinpoint the objective
select security, support, and assault positions
complete the plan
issue orders and instructions
what is GOTWA
G - where is the leader Going
O - what Others are going with the leader
T - duration of Time leader will be gone.
W - What actions to take in the event leader does not return
A - Action on contact for leader and orp
functions of a raid
a surprise attack against a position installation for specific purpose other than seizing and holding terrain
what is the difference between a hasty and deliberate ambush?
2 types of ambush
point and area
what is an ambush
a surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or temporarily halted target. can be used to close with and destroy the enemy or attack by fire only
what is a security patrol?
a detachment sent to a units perimeter while it is stationary or temporarily halted to search the local area, detect and destroy the opposition force near the main body. (within the limits of its capability)
when is a security patrol used?
when the unit is operating in close terrain with limited observation and fields of fire.
what is a reconnaissance patrol?
its purpose is to confirm or disprove the accuracy of information previously gained.
intent of recon patrol?
move stealthily, avoid enemy contact and accomplish its tactical tasks without engaging in close combat.
focuses on obtaining detailed information about the terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area
gathers detailed information on the trafficability of planed routes and all adjacent terrain, enemy activity in close proximity to route, and obstacle employment opportunities
obtains information on enemy and terrain in a specific region of the AO. identifies available routes and key terrain in area.
methods of zone recon
box,fan,converging routes, and successive sector method.
what is covered during briefings and orders
environment, mines and IED threat, operations updates, mission and individual tasks, locations and routes, posture, action on contact, ROE/ROI, commo plan, electronic countermeasures, uniform, equipment, medical availabilities, attachments (interpreters, police, female soldiers, dog handlers, and other operational specialists)
other types of reconnaissance patrols
contact patrol, presence patrol, tracking patrol.
urban patrolling considerations
mounted, dismounted, strength and weaknesses
troop leading procedures
the process a leader goes through to prepare the unit to accomplish a mission
what 2 steps of the troop leading procedures must be completed in order
1) receive the mission
2) issue the warning order
what are the 8 troop leading procedures?
1) receive the mission
2) issue the warning order
3) make a tentative plan
4)start necessary movement
6) complete the plan
7) issue the complete plan (oporder)
8) supervise and refine
receive the mission
what is the mission, what is known about the enemy, what is the impact on terrain and weather, troops available, time available, civilian considerations.
1/3 - 2/3 rule
leaders will use no more than 1/3 available time for planning and issuing opord. subordinates get 2/3s of available time to plan and prepare for operation
characteristic of a warning order
no specific format, leader provides necessary updates, identifies who's going, identifies time and place of oporder and sp time of mission.
what must a leader do at a minimum for recon
must make a map reconnaissance
what must must be included in the plan.
the commanders intent
what must you do when issuing the complete order
use terrain representation and conduct back briefs to unsure unit understanding of mission
what happens during the supervise phase of the troop leading procedures?
squad leaders and plt sergeants conduct spot checks and assist the pl to conduct the final inspection.
military decision making process steps
receive the mission
what is a warning order
alerts the unit of an upcoming mission
what is an operation order
a directive issued by the leader to subordinates implementing the coordinated execution of an operation.
what is a fragmentary order
a change or modification to the opord
purpose of defense
defeat enemy attack and gain the initiative for offensive operation. defense is also conducted to:
retain key terrain
support other operations
preoccupy enemy in one area
in order for friendly offense to attack elsewhere
types of defensive operations
area, mobile, and retrograde defense ops
characteristics of defense
preparation, security, disruption, massing effects, flexibility.
Recon and Security Operations and Enemy Preparatory Fires
- Security Force
Occupation and Preparation
Approach of Main Attack
Consolidation and Reorganization
movement and maneuver
depth and dispersion
direct fire suppression
cover and concealment
indirect fires and smoke
fires planning consists of?
fire support assets
Defend in sector
consists of phase line sectors and mutually supporting BPs on armor restrictive terrain. positions are arrayed in depth. strength of defense is in flexibility. orients on enemy not terrain. very effective as it allows enemy to expose his flanks and assets.
defense from a battle position
more linear and centralized. achieves surprise and allows maneuver. effective in concentrating combat power.
supports BPs the cover likely enemy avenues of approach.
defend a strong point
holds key terrain. provides a pivot point. blocks avenues of approach. canalizes the enemy.
defend a perimeter
plt prepares a perimeter defense when there is no friendly unit adjacent to it. disperse the unit in a circular configuration for all around security (actual shape is terrain dependent.) a variation is the y shaped perimeter defense.
allows interlocking and overlapping observation and fields of fire. used when fires to the front are needed. uses terrain and obstacles to canalize enemy. counter recon is critical in this position.
PRIORITIES OF WORK
Position Key Weapons
Clear fields of fire and prepare range cards
Prepare fighting positions
Emplace obstacles and mines
Prepare alternate positions
Stockpile Ammo, Water & Food
The primary purpose of the reserve is to regain the
initiative through counterattack.
- The reserve is not a committed force.
Offensive Tasks are combat operations conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain, resources, and population center. They impose the commander's will on the enemy.
Purpose of the Offense
Dislocate, Isolate, Disrupt, and Destroy Enemy Forces
Seize Key Terrain
Deprive the Enemy of Resources
Deceive and Divert the enemy
Create a Secure Environment for Stability Operations
Characteristics of the Offense
Is not a characteristic of the Offense.
At some point in most attacks, the original plan must be adjusted to meet changes in the situation.
Commanders maintain flexibility at all times so he can attack identified enemy weaknesses when they are presented. The commander should avoid "fighting the plan" and instead focus on fighting the enemy or attacking identified enemy weakness.
Types of Offensive Operations
Movement to Contact
Movement to Contact
Offensive operations designed to develop the
situation and to establish or regain contact.
Search and Attack
approach march is best used when the...
enemy force is more conventional in nature. enemy force is predictable has a more structured order of battle. enemy force is centrally located. enemy conducts more centralized operations.
search and attack is best used when the ...
enemy conducts ops over a very large area in a dispersed manner. enemy forces are guerilla in nature. enemy operates in small teams and only makes contact when he feels he has the advantage.
An offensive tasks that destroys or defeats
an enemy force, seizes, and secures terrain
Special purpose attacks
Special Purpose Attacks
Certain forms of attacks that employ distinctive methods and tasks require special planning, and can be conducted by any maneuver element.
The envelopment is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force seeks to avoid the principal enemy defenses by seizing objectives to the enemy rear or flank to destroy the enemy in his current position.
Is a form of maneuver in which the attacking force seeks to avoid the enemy's principal defensive positions by seizing objectives to the enemy rear and causing the enemy to move out of his current positions or divert major forces to meet the threat.
A form of maneuver in which an attacking force
conducts undetected movement through or into an
area occupied by enemy forces to occupy a position
of advantage in the enemy rear while exposing only
small elements to enemy defensive fires.
A form of maneuver in which an attacking force seeks to rupture the enemy defenses on a narrow front to create both assailable flanks and access to the enemy's rear
what is the difference between an order and a command
an order implies discretion to the details to the execution, whereas a command does not
FIVE COMBAT ORDERS
OPERATION ORDERS (OPORDs)
SERVICE SUPPORT ORDERS
WARNING ORDERS (WARNOs)
FRAGMENTARY ORDERS (FRAGOs)
paragraphs of an oporder
Command and Control.
OPERATION ORDEREssential Elements
Command and Control
Fire Control Principles
Mass the effects of fire.
Destroy the greatest threat first.
Avoid target overkill.
Employ the best weapon for the target.
Minimize friendly exposure.
Plan and implement fratricide and civilian casualties avoidance measures.
Plan for extreme limited visibility conditions.
Develop contingencies for diminished capabilities
The primary methods of fire control:
Hand & Arm Signals
1. Always given before the situation paragraph. This lets subordinates know what assets they have for the mission.
2. Two formats...outlined and matrix. Sequence is the same for both methods.
A mission statement is a short sentence or paragraph describing the unit's essential task (or tasks).
The purpose clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason for doing so.
It contains the elements of who, what, when, where, and why, and the reasons thereof, but seldom specifies how.
A. Concept of Operations:
COMMANDERS INTENT: The stated VISION that defines the purpose of the operation and the relationship among the force, the enemy and the terrain.
The Commander's expected end state of the mission.
The result the Commander expects the unit to accomplish in a specific operation.
As a minimum, must include scheme of maneuver and concept of fires.
Address sustainment as needed to clarify the service support concept.
Refer to annexes, if required.
Materiel and Services
Health Service support
Personnel Service support.
Support Concept. State the concept of logistics support to provide non-CSS commanders and their staffs a visualization of how the operation will be logistically supported.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
Location of higher CMD, and CP.
Location of platoon leader or CP.
Location of PSG or alternate CP.
Succession of command.
ANCD/SOI INDEX in effect
Listening / silence
Method of communication internal
A. Visual / Radio
B. Primary / Alternate
C. Day / Night
Code words: challenge and pass, call-signs, number