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the intracelluar fluid (ICF)

most of the body water is in

the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by

tissue (interstitial) fluid

in which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema

drinking; urine

most body water comes from ____ whereas most body water is lost via ____


fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called

promotes water conservation

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

urine volume

water output is significantly controlled through variations in

ADH release is inhibited

when blood volume and pressure are too high

a negative water balance

prolonged exposure to cold weather can lead to

ADH; increasing water reabsorption

dehydration results in increased blood and ECF osmolarity. this makes osmoreceptors stimulate ____ secretion by the hypothalamus ___ in the DCT and CD

decrease body water but do not significantly affect osmolarity


a drop in blood osmolarity

long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with


this is the principal cation of the ECF

the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

aldosterone receptors are found on cells of

increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion



hypernatremia is a plasma ____ concentration above normal

a reduction in plasma volume

hypernatremia tends to cause all of the following except


____ is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments

high blood sodium concentration

____ does not stimulate aldosterone secretion


women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstral cycle because estrogen mimics the action of


this is the most abundant cation of the ICF

40 L

the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male is about


this is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume

resting membrane potential is more negative

these scenarios are related with hyperkalemia except

cells are hyperpolarized

in a state of hypokalemia

aldosterone hyposecretion

hypokalemia can result from all of the following except from


this is the most abundant anion of the ECF


chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of ____ homeostasis

a significant component of nucleic acids

the calcium of the body fluids does/is not


calcium concentration is regulated by

form crystals with calcium in the presence of calsequestrin

the inorganic phosphates (Pi) of the body fluids do/are not

increases free calcium ions in the ECF

excretion of phosphate

CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> HCO3- + H+

____ represents the complete chemical equation for the bicarbonate buffer system


tissue fluid normally has a pH of

bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein

the major chemical buffers system of the body are the ___ systems


what protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasma


what protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in erythrocytes

binds little H+ and has weak effect on pH

a weak base

reabsorb sodium

when the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ___ at the same time


the pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by

expels CO2 produced by the buffer system

the bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body is not for the action of the respiratory system, which

exchanges K+ for Na+

an antiport system on the basal side of the renal tubule cells


proteins can buffer a drop of pH by their ____ side groups and can buffer an increase in pH by their ____ side groups

they are consumed by neutralizing H+

in a person with normal acid-base balance, there are no bicarbonate ions in urine because

hyperpolarized; depresses

in acidosis, the membrane potential of nerve cells is ___, which ____ the central nervous system

secreting more ammonia

in acidosis, the kidneys compensate by

respiratory acidosis

breathing with the head inside a plastic bad can lead to

metabolic alkalosis

excessive intake of antacids can lead to

metabolic alkalosis

chronic vomiting can lead to

respiratory acidosis

emphysema can lead to

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