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50 terms

chapter 24 BALANCE 65 set

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the intracelluar fluid (ICF)
most of the body water is in
the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment
osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
tissue (interstitial) fluid
in which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema
drinking; urine
most body water comes from ____ whereas most body water is lost via ____
osmoreceptors
fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called
promotes water conservation
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
urine volume
water output is significantly controlled through variations in
ADH release is inhibited
when blood volume and pressure are too high
a negative water balance
prolonged exposure to cold weather can lead to
ADH; increasing water reabsorption
dehydration results in increased blood and ECF osmolarity. this makes osmoreceptors stimulate ____ secretion by the hypothalamus ___ in the DCT and CD
decrease body water but do not significantly affect osmolarity
hemorrhages
a drop in blood osmolarity
long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with
Na+
this is the principal cation of the ECF
the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
aldosterone receptors are found on cells of
increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion
aldosterone
Na+
hypernatremia is a plasma ____ concentration above normal
a reduction in plasma volume
hypernatremia tends to cause all of the following except
Na+
____ is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments
high blood sodium concentration
____ does not stimulate aldosterone secretion
aldosterone
women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstral cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
K+
this is the most abundant cation of the ICF
40 L
the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male is about
K+
this is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume
resting membrane potential is more negative
these scenarios are related with hyperkalemia except
cells are hyperpolarized
in a state of hypokalemia
aldosterone hyposecretion
hypokalemia can result from all of the following except from
Cl-
this is the most abundant anion of the ECF
Na+
chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of ____ homeostasis
a significant component of nucleic acids
the calcium of the body fluids does/is not
hormones
calcium concentration is regulated by
form crystals with calcium in the presence of calsequestrin
the inorganic phosphates (Pi) of the body fluids do/are not
increases free calcium ions in the ECF
excretion of phosphate
CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> HCO3- + H+
____ represents the complete chemical equation for the bicarbonate buffer system
7.35-7.45
tissue fluid normally has a pH of
bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
the major chemical buffers system of the body are the ___ systems
albumin
what protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasma
hemoglobin
what protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in erythrocytes
binds little H+ and has weak effect on pH
a weak base
reabsorb sodium
when the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ___ at the same time
proteins
the pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by
expels CO2 produced by the buffer system
the bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body is not for the action of the respiratory system, which
exchanges K+ for Na+
an antiport system on the basal side of the renal tubule cells
-NH2; -COOH
proteins can buffer a drop of pH by their ____ side groups and can buffer an increase in pH by their ____ side groups
they are consumed by neutralizing H+
in a person with normal acid-base balance, there are no bicarbonate ions in urine because
hyperpolarized; depresses
in acidosis, the membrane potential of nerve cells is ___, which ____ the central nervous system
secreting more ammonia
in acidosis, the kidneys compensate by
respiratory acidosis
breathing with the head inside a plastic bad can lead to
metabolic alkalosis
excessive intake of antacids can lead to
metabolic alkalosis
chronic vomiting can lead to
respiratory acidosis
emphysema can lead to