35 terms

Environmental Science for AP - Friedland Chapter 16 Hug

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Incineration
Process of burning waste materials to reduce their volume and mass and sometimes to generate electricity and heat.

Waste dumped into refuse bunker, crane moves material from bunker to hopper, Superfundwaste burned in incineration chamber, ash is collected and removed from plant, baghouse filter helps filter clean air before its released through chimney, heat energy can be used to create steam and generate electricity.
Municipal Solid Waste
MSW. Refuse from households, small businesses, and hospitals.
Waste Stream
Flow of solid waste that is recycled, incinerated, placed in a solid waste landfill, or disposed of in another way.
Three Rs
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Source Reduction
Seeks to reduce waste by reducing in the early stages of design and manufacture the use of materials destined to become MSW.
Reuse
Allowing a material to cycle through a system longer by reusing it.
Recycling
Process by which materials destined to be MSW are collected, turned back into raw materials to make new objects.
Closed Loop Recycling
Recycling of a product into the same product.
Compost
Organic matter that has decomposed under controlled conditions to produce an organic rich material that enhances soil structure, cation exchange capacity, and fertility.

Waste dumped into tipping area, compostable and noncompostable materials are separated, noncompostable material is removed to landfill, compostable material is aerated and turned 1+ tines for a period of a month to a year, composted material is allowed to cure, finished compost is transported for use.
Sanitary Landfills
Ground facilities to hold MSW with as little contamination as possible.

Solid waste transported to landfill, waste compacted by a specialized machine, leachate collection system removes water and contaminants and carries them to waste water treatment plant, landfill is capped and covered with soil and then planted with vegetation, methane produced in closed cells is extracted and either burned off or collected for use as fuel.
Tipping Fee
A fee charged for disposing of material in a landfill or incinerator.
Landfill Siting
Designating a location for a landfill taking into account social, environmental, land use and operational criteria.
Superfund
Imposes tax on chemical and petroleum industries. Revenue from the tax is used to fund the cleanup of abandoned and non-operating hazardous waste sites where there is no responsible party.
NIMBY
Not In My Backyard attitude. People don't want things like landfills to be put where they live.
Ash
Residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration.
Bottom ash
Residue collected underneath the furnace.
Fly Ash
Residue collected beyond the furnace before exiting the stack. May have toxic waste and needs to be stored as hazardous waste.
Brownfields
Contaminated industrial and commercial land that didn't make it into Superfund. Need environmental cleanup before they can be redeveloped or expanded.
Waste to Energy
When heat generated by incineration is used rather than released to atmosphere.
Life Cycle
Important systems tool that looks at materials used and released throughout entire lifetime of the product.
Deepwell Injection
liquid waste is pumped into the ground via wells
Integrated Waste Management
Employs multiple waste reduction strategies. Changes in packing design, manufacturing practices, purchasing habits, increased reuse, backyard composting, recovery for recycling, composing.
Mining and Agriculture
largest sources of solid waste
waste
mineral outputs from a system that are not useful or consumed
Open Dump
a disposal area wherein the solid waste is indiscriminately thrown or disposed of without due planning and consideration for environmental and health standard.
Planned Obsolescence
The designing of products to wear out or to become outdated quickly, so that people will feel a need to replace their possessions frequently
Leachate
polluted liquid produced by water passing through buried wastes in a landfill
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Enacted in 1976 to give EPA "Cradle to Grave" authority on hazardous waste.
Perceived Obsolescence
continually changing consumer concepts of acceptable styles to encourage more and earlier buying
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) 1980; To facilitate the cleanup of any abandoned or uncontrolled sites containing hazardous substances and to impose strict liability for cleanup costs on potentially responsible parties
Reduce
First choice among the 3 R's. If the input of materials to the system are reduced, the outputs (trash) will be reduced and will not have to be collected, treated and stored.
National Priorities List
list of contaminated sites ranked on exposure; high ranking ones eligible for Superfund
Great Pacific garbage patch
trash accumulation in both the western and eastern Pacific Ocean caused by currents, called gyres; these currents trap plastic and other waste into accumulations of rubbish that damage marine ecosystems
e-waste
discarded electronic equipment such as computers, cell phones, television sets, etc.
Throw away society
A society in which it is acceptable to discard usable materials and products

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