Geoscience Mid-term Online quizzes questions
Terms in this set (28)
The Coriolis effect causes water to pile up in the interior of large scale ocean gyres, causing a slight surface slope and pressure gradient towards the outside of the gyre.
Large-scale gyres in the ocean bring warm water from the tropics to the poles and cold water from the poles to the tropics.
Large-scale gyres involve counterclockwise motion in both the northern and southern hemispheres
Which of the following is/are true about the temperature-depth relationship for seawater ?
A) Tropical, Polar, and Temperate regions are similar.
B) Polar regions have the largest temperature difference between surface water and deep water
C) Tropical regions have the highest surface water temp.
D) Deep water has about the same temperature for each latitudinal zone.
E) C & D
Circulation around a low pressure system in the N. Hemisphere is clockwise
Today, oceanic deepwater is formed in
A) the Red Sea
B) the Weddell Sea
C) the Norwegian-Greenland Sea
D) A & C
E) B & C
Global oceanic circulation involving deep water and surface water motion acts to regulate Earth's surface heat and climate.
On an annual basis, latitudes between about 40 degrees N and 80 degrees N receive more solar energy than they lose.
The Coriolis effect plays a role in which of the following:
A) Deflection of wind and ocean currents to the right in the N. hemisphere
B) Deflection of wind and ocean currents to the left in the S. hemisphere
C) Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemispheres
D) Formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
E) all of the above
The Gulf Stream
A) is an eastern boundary current
B) is part of a Hadley cell
C) transports heat from low to high latitudes
D) A and C
E) none of the above.
Latitudes below 40 degrees N and S receive more solar energy than they lose
Which of the following is/are true about residence time for an element in seawater?
A. It can be calculated from the total amount of the element present in coral reefs.
B. It is calculated from the total amount divided by the input rate.
C. It is longer for some elements than for others.
D. B and C.
E. None of the above.
Hadley cells and Polar cells are caused by thermal anomalies associated with glaciers.
What are the three major circulation cells in each hemisphere (with the correct latitudes)?
A. Tropic (0 to 30 degrees); Ferrel (30 to 60 degrees); Polar (60 to 90 degrees)
B. Tropic (0 to 30 degrees); Polar (60 to 90 degrees); Hadley (30 to 60 degrees)
C. Hadley (0 to 30 degrees); Polar (30 to 60 degrees); Ferrel (60 to 90 degrees)
D. Polar (0 to 30 degrees); Hadley (30 to 60 degrees); Ferrel (60 to 90 degrees)
E. None of the above
Uneven heating of Earth's surface causes
A. regions of low and high pressure at specific latitudes in both the N and S hemispheres
B. winds that include Easterlies and Westerlies.
C. surface ocean currents that bring warm water from the tropics to high latitudes.
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
The thermocline, halocline, and pycnocline
A. are unrelated
B. are names for depth ranges in the ocean below deep water
C. refer to depth ranges in the ocean where water temperature, salinity and density, respectively, vary strongly.
D. B and C
There is more dissolved carbon dioxide in deepwater of the ocean than in ocean‚Äôs surface waters because:
A. Photosynthesis occurs primarily in deepwater
B. Organisms that respire produce CO2 in deep water
C. Photosynthesis in surface water uses CO2
D. Deepwater is colder than shallow water and the solubility of CO2 increases as temperature decreases.
E. All but A
The Coriolis effect plays a role in which of the following:
A. Deflection of wind and ocean currents to the right in the N. hemisphere
B. Deflection of wind and ocean currents to the left in the S. hemisphere
C. Trade Winds that blow east to west in both the N. and S. hemispheres
D. Formation of large-scale ocean currents called gyres
E. all of the above
Marine animals break down water molecules to obtain O2
The 'Goldilocks Principle' as applied to the origin of water on Earth suggests that: 1) Earth has just the right position in the solar system -- not too close to the Sun and not too far away-- and 2) When it was forming, Earth had just the right mass, large enough to retain water vapor.
Water molecules have polar (unequally distributed) charge that leads to many of water‚Äôs unusual characteristics.
Goldilocks and Water on Earth. Recently a team of astronomers announced that:
A. A large body of liquid water is present on the dark side of the moon
B. Earth-sized planets are uncommon, even after examining thousands of stars they have only found two Earth-sized worlds.
C. They had detected two Earth-sized planets circling very close to a star called Kepler-20
D. All of the above
When scientists carry out investigations, they typically:
A. Construct one or more hypotheses
B. Make observations and collect data
C. Test the hypothesis by trying to disprove it
D. Evaluate and change hypotheses on the basis of results
E. All of the above
Latent heat is
A. the energy required to change ice to liquid water
B. the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
C. the energy released when water vapor condenses to form rain
D. the energy required to heat of liquid water from 0 to 100 degrees
E. A and C
Ocean water most likely formed.
A. In the past 10,000 years
B. From emission (degassing) of materials (volatiles) from Earth‚Äôs interior
C. From melting of glaciers and polar ice caps
D. A and C
E. A and B
The latent heat of fusion (melting) for water is 80 cal per gram. How much heat energy is required to melt 10 grams of ice?
A. 80 calories
B. 540 calories
C. 800 calories
D. 54 calories
E. 5400 calories
Which of the following list of elements or molecules represents the correct rank order from highest to lowest concentration in seawater?
A.SO4, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, K
B. Cl, Mg, SO4, Na, Ca, K
C. Cl, K, SO4, Mg, Ca, Na
D. Na, Cl, Mg, K, Ca, SO4
E. None of the Above
Rachel Carson suggested that rain and other factors weather the continents and that rivers deliver dissolved rock (including elements such as Na, Ca and Cl) to the world ocean, which would cause changes in ocean chemistry through time.