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adding stuff as we get it


any environmental demand that creates a sense of tension
requires that we adapt and adjust


any effort to cope with stress


state of psychological tension or strain

Richard Lazarus

specialized in stress, life's petty annoyances, and frustrations
things that bother you everyday


feeling that you need to speed up, intensify, or change the direction of your behavior


feeling that occurs when we are prevented reaching a goal

5 Sources of Frustration

1. Delays
2. Lack of resources
3. Losses
4. Failures
5. Discrimination

Charles G. Morris

developed 5 sources of frustration


__ out of 10 drivers have experienced road rage toward them


____-____ injuries and fatalities due to road rage


causes: incompatible demands, opportunities, and needs or goals

Kurt Lewin

did a study on conflict in 1935 and developed the 3 basic types of conflict

Approach/Approach Conflict

have to make a choice of 2 equally appealing things but must do only 1

Avoidance/Avoidance Conflict

have to choose 1 but you don't want to do either of them

Approach/Avoidance Conflict

2 possibilities, each have good AND bad qualities, attracted and repelled at the same time


happy about life and see life as a challenge and not a threat


dwell on failure, expect to fail, probably will fail

Internal Locus of Control

you believe you are responsible for your own actions

External Locus of Control

it's everyone else's fault, or due to luck/destiny
causes less stress


tolerate stress exceptionally well, THRIVE on stress


bounce back and can let things go easily

Direct Coping

see stress, hit it head on, see stress as being problem oriented, need to make some changes, immediate issues

3 Strategies of Direct Coping

Confrontation, Compromise, and Withdrawal


attack problem head on and find solution, anger can be effective if expressed with restraint


deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when the ideal solution or goal is not practical

Compromise is the...

most common and effective way of coping directly with stress


avoiding a situation
can be effective when compromise is not possible

____ Americans live with extreme stress



cap with 256 electrobes while going through a [usually monotonous] virtualbuilding


father of modern medicine; 60 different ways of living

__-__% of the effect of any biological cure is caused by the placebo effect



too painful to deal with; push them into the unconcious


turn to a previous stage of development and be immature

Reaction Formation

taking opposite belief because true belief causes anxiety


placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto somone else
ex. losing an argument and saying "you're stupid"


making up excuses for your behavior
ex. "I was fired because i didn't kiss up to the boss"


taking anger out on another person or thing
ex. slamming the door


act out unacceptable impulses in socially acceptable ways
ex. working out when angry


refusing to accept the reality of a situation


trying to forget something that causes you anxiety


trying to avoid unacceptable emotions by focusing on intellectual aspects

European Americans

seek explicit social support

Asian Americans

enjoy big and close contact with others but don't disclose reason for stress


report that they are far more stressed


linked to by the tend and befirend response
causes you to be more loving


reduces oxytocin

Walter Cannon

discovered fight or flight

Hans Selye

coined General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)


Alarm Reaction---> Resistance----> Exhaustion

Alarm Reaction

began when body realized danger


physical symptoms and other signs of strain appear as we struggle against increasing psychological disorganization
use of inappropriate coping techniques


completely exhausted after a period of chronic stress
ineffective coping mechanisms
synical belief that nothing is worth it
leads to Stockholm Syndrome

Stockholm Syndrome

people who have been kidnapped have identified with the captors and want to please them

Type A

everything HAS to be perfect, deal with life with patience and hostility, constantly striving for stress, everything has to be in order, never late
----high blood pressure, higher heart rate, more likely to get coronary heart disease

Type B

nothing bothers them, little annoyances of life are whatever, no test anxiety-- who cares?

Type C

introvertive, sensitive, thoughtful, perfectionist

Type D

"disstressed personality" depression, shyness, pessimistic, sarcastic, cornary heart disease, too much cortizol (can cause heart attack

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

studies reaction between stress and the immune system, endocrine system, and our nervous system

4 proven ways to reduce stress

calm down, reach out, religion and alturism, learn to cope effectively

Calm Down

exercise, excessive writing, relaxation training

Reach Out

to friends and family

Religion and Alturism

elderly people who pray more are less sick and are happier


help other peple

Learn to Cope Effectively

sometimes we make things worse than they are

Proactive Coping

be proactive, anticipate stressful events and take stepsto avoid them or minimize impact

Positive Reappraisal

taking a second to look back at a stressful event and look for the positive things

4 ways to a healthy lifestyle

Diet, exercise, quit smoking, avoid high risk behaviors

Extreme stressors in order

1 unemployment
2 divorce/separation
3 Bereavement
4 Catastrophes
5 Combat and other threatening attacks

Over ____% of marriages end in divorce


Over ____% of children under 18 are a product of a divorce



death of a loved one

3 stages of dealing with catastrophes

shock stage, suggestible, recovery stage

3 things that help people with PTSD

need to be at sight of trauma, emotional support from family and friends, and expectation that the person will return back to normal life


made hierarchy of needs (know them for the test)
believed well adjusted people seek to actualize themselves, are unconventional, and creative thinkers

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