74 terms

Chapter 11: Stress and Health Psychology

adding stuff as we get it
any environmental demand that creates a sense of tension
requires that we adapt and adjust
any effort to cope with stress
state of psychological tension or strain
Richard Lazarus
specialized in stress, life's petty annoyances, and frustrations
things that bother you everyday
feeling that you need to speed up, intensify, or change the direction of your behavior
feeling that occurs when we are prevented reaching a goal
5 Sources of Frustration
1. Delays
2. Lack of resources
3. Losses
4. Failures
5. Discrimination
Charles G. Morris
developed 5 sources of frustration
__ out of 10 drivers have experienced road rage toward them
____-____ injuries and fatalities due to road rage
causes: incompatible demands, opportunities, and needs or goals
Kurt Lewin
did a study on conflict in 1935 and developed the 3 basic types of conflict
Approach/Approach Conflict
have to make a choice of 2 equally appealing things but must do only 1
Avoidance/Avoidance Conflict
have to choose 1 but you don't want to do either of them
Approach/Avoidance Conflict
2 possibilities, each have good AND bad qualities, attracted and repelled at the same time
happy about life and see life as a challenge and not a threat
dwell on failure, expect to fail, probably will fail
Internal Locus of Control
you believe you are responsible for your own actions
External Locus of Control
it's everyone else's fault, or due to luck/destiny
causes less stress
tolerate stress exceptionally well, THRIVE on stress
bounce back and can let things go easily
Direct Coping
see stress, hit it head on, see stress as being problem oriented, need to make some changes, immediate issues
3 Strategies of Direct Coping
Confrontation, Compromise, and Withdrawal
attack problem head on and find solution, anger can be effective if expressed with restraint
deciding on a more realistic solution or goal when the ideal solution or goal is not practical
Compromise is the...
most common and effective way of coping directly with stress
avoiding a situation
can be effective when compromise is not possible
____ Americans live with extreme stress
cap with 256 electrobes while going through a [usually monotonous] virtualbuilding
father of modern medicine; 60 different ways of living
__-__% of the effect of any biological cure is caused by the placebo effect
too painful to deal with; push them into the unconcious
turn to a previous stage of development and be immature
Reaction Formation
taking opposite belief because true belief causes anxiety
placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto somone else
ex. losing an argument and saying "you're stupid"
making up excuses for your behavior
ex. "I was fired because i didn't kiss up to the boss"
taking anger out on another person or thing
ex. slamming the door
act out unacceptable impulses in socially acceptable ways
ex. working out when angry
refusing to accept the reality of a situation
trying to forget something that causes you anxiety
trying to avoid unacceptable emotions by focusing on intellectual aspects
European Americans
seek explicit social support
Asian Americans
enjoy big and close contact with others but don't disclose reason for stress
report that they are far more stressed
linked to by the tend and befirend response
causes you to be more loving
reduces oxytocin
Walter Cannon
discovered fight or flight
Hans Selye
coined General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Alarm Reaction---> Resistance----> Exhaustion
Alarm Reaction
began when body realized danger
physical symptoms and other signs of strain appear as we struggle against increasing psychological disorganization
use of inappropriate coping techniques
completely exhausted after a period of chronic stress
ineffective coping mechanisms
synical belief that nothing is worth it
leads to Stockholm Syndrome
Stockholm Syndrome
people who have been kidnapped have identified with the captors and want to please them
Type A
everything HAS to be perfect, deal with life with patience and hostility, constantly striving for stress, everything has to be in order, never late
----high blood pressure, higher heart rate, more likely to get coronary heart disease
Type B
nothing bothers them, little annoyances of life are whatever, no test anxiety-- who cares?
Type C
introvertive, sensitive, thoughtful, perfectionist
Type D
"disstressed personality" depression, shyness, pessimistic, sarcastic, cornary heart disease, too much cortizol (can cause heart attack
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
studies reaction between stress and the immune system, endocrine system, and our nervous system
4 proven ways to reduce stress
calm down, reach out, religion and alturism, learn to cope effectively
Calm Down
exercise, excessive writing, relaxation training
Reach Out
to friends and family
Religion and Alturism
elderly people who pray more are less sick and are happier
help other peple
Learn to Cope Effectively
sometimes we make things worse than they are
Proactive Coping
be proactive, anticipate stressful events and take stepsto avoid them or minimize impact
Positive Reappraisal
taking a second to look back at a stressful event and look for the positive things
4 ways to a healthy lifestyle
Diet, exercise, quit smoking, avoid high risk behaviors
Extreme stressors in order
1 unemployment
2 divorce/separation
3 Bereavement
4 Catastrophes
5 Combat and other threatening attacks
Over ____% of marriages end in divorce
Over ____% of children under 18 are a product of a divorce
death of a loved one
3 stages of dealing with catastrophes
shock stage, suggestible, recovery stage
3 things that help people with PTSD
need to be at sight of trauma, emotional support from family and friends, and expectation that the person will return back to normal life
made hierarchy of needs (know them for the test)
believed well adjusted people seek to actualize themselves, are unconventional, and creative thinkers