Unit 9: Ch. 14 #1-47
Terms in this set (47)
The scientific study of how people think about, interact with, influence, and are influenced by the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of other people.
Ex: The study of the causes and consequences of sociability.
A theory that supposes that one attempts to understand the behavior of others by attributing feelings, beliefs, and intentions to them. Ex: A way of explaining others' behavior by either one's disposition or one's situation.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. Ex: To overlook the situation and focus more personal issues.
Patterns of feelings and beliefs about other people, ideas, or objects. Ex: based on a person's past experiences, shape their future behavior.
central route persuasion
The basis for attitude chance that focuses on the factual content of the message and the use of evidence and logical arguments. Ex: Individuals are persuaded based on the strength of the argument presented, not solely on their conscious beliefs.
peripheral route persuasion
Attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. Celebrities as a company's spokesperson or in commercials.
foot in the door phenomenon
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Ex: Could you help me with this problem? Could you share your homework? Could you help me on this test?
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. Ex: A Part a person plays in a social interaction.
cognitive dissonance theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. Ex: When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
The tendency of individuals to change their attitudes, opinions, and behaviors to align with the group norms. Ex: Conformity between a group of friends.
normative social influence
Influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Ex: Getting good grades to make parents proud and avoid punishment.
informational social influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. Ex: Facts and useful and crucial information provided by other people.
Change in behavior that occurs when people believe they are in the presence of other people.
Ex: Acting different around friends compared to behavior around the principle.
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Ex: Writing a paragraph of an essay in a group project vs. writing the entirety of the essay individually.
The process by which individuals lose their self-awareness and distinctive personality in the context of a group. Ex: Conformity becomes too strong and slowly lose the sense of identity.
The attitude of the group as a whole toward a particular issue becomes stronger than the attitudes of its individual members. Ex: Cult's beliefs and actions
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Ex: compromises that are impractical for self (group wins, you lose).
A total way of life held in common by a group of people, including learned features such as language, ideology, behavior, technology, and government. Ex: King Kamehameha day is apart of our Hawaiian culture.
Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior. Ex: Wearing clothes in public
the zone of privacy and separation from others our culture or our physical circumstances require or permit. Ex: typically the immediate space around ones body.
A rigid attitude that is based on group membership and predisposes an individual to feel, think or act in a negative way toward another person or group. Ex: Racial prejudice
A generalized belief about a group of people. Ex: Old asian women can't drive (normally not wrong).
Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group. Ex: Calling people names because of their religion.
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity. Ex: People of the same religion
"them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup. Ex: people of a different religion
The tendency to favor our own group. Ex: Not accepting an accusation of your team cheating.
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. Ex: The teacher didn't teach me well enough for this exam
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races Ex: Remembering other Hapa-haoles than black girls
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Ex: Karma
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. Ex: Attacking without being provoked
The principle that frustration creates anger which can generate aggression. Ex: Frustration -> anger -> aggression
mere exposure effect
This phenomenon causes one to prefer a stimulus as a consequence of repeated exposures to that stimulus. Ex: particularly is there is no adverse result of the exposure.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. Ex: Romantic, fast-paced relationships
Contains intimacy and commitment; basically a long term friendship. Ex: The bond you have with a close friend
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. Ex: "You get out what you put in"
The process of revealing things about yourself that people are unlikely to know. Ex: Sharing a secret
The belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others. Ex: Volunteering
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. Ex: Not helping someone from a car accident when others have already jumped in.
social exchange theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process. Ex: the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. Ex: you expect the person you are helping to do something for you in the future.
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. Ex: helping a friend with boyfriend issues.
A struggle between opposing forces. Ex: A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Ex: people look out for their own interests that instead of doing something mutually beneficial they will focus on their own interests.
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive. Ex: Terrorist vs. victims of their attacks.
self fulfilling prophecy
An expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true. Ex: Believing that you will pass a test, then paying closer attention in class, and passing.
Goals that transcend the interests of any one group. Ex: can be achieved more readily by two or more groups working together
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction. Ex: a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
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