AP CSP Exam Review Vocab
Terms in this set (124)
A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
Pulling out specific differences to make one solution work for multiple problems.
A piece of code that you can easily call over and over again.
a collection of commands made available to a programmer
a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc.
a collection of commands / functions, typically with a shared purpose
An extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need
A particular kind of looping construct provided in many languages. Typically, a for loop defines a counting variable that is checked and incremented on each iteration in order to loop a specific number of times.
The action of doing something over and over again.
technical term for 8 bits of data
(bitmap image file or bitmap) is a raster graphics image file format used to store digital images.
(acronym for Graphics Interchange Format) a bitmap image format which uses the LZW lossless data compression technique to reduce the file size without degrading the visual quality. Supports 8 bits per pixel for each image and animations.
.jpg or .jpeg
(acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group), a commonly used lossy compression format for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography. The format supports adjustable degrees of compression.
an audio coding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression which works by reducing (or approximating)
certain components of the audio that are considered to be beyond audible human hearing.
(Waveform Audio File Format) an audio coding format standard for storing an audio bitstream of uncompressed audio data.
a computer format that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text.
an archive file format that supports lossless data compression; may contain one or more files or directories.
(Portable Network Graphics) a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.
a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.
A type of data used for graphics or pictures.
Data that describes other data. For example, a digital image my include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution.
Short for "picture element" it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image.
Hexadecimal Number System
A number system consisting of 16 distinct symbols — 0-9 and A-F — which can occur in each place value.
A compression scheme in which every bit of the original data can be recovered from the compressed file.
A compression scheme in which "useless" or less-than-totally-necessary information is thrown out in order to reduce the size of the data. The eliminated data is unrecoverable.
the color model that uses varying intensities of (R)ed, (G)reen, and (B)lue light added together in order to reproduce a broad array of colors.
a 256-range (or 8-bit range) of values from light to dark on each of the three color channels (R,G,B)
the endings of file names that indicate to the computer the format for how the underlying bits are organized.
Computationally Hard Problem
A problem that can not be solved in a reasonable amount of time. Heuristics are often used to create an approximate or good enough solution.
Red represented RGB in 32Bit Hex
Green represented RGB in 32Bit Hex
Blue represented RGB in 32Bit Hex
Black represented RGB in 32Bit Hex
White represented RGB in 32Bit Hex
A novel or improved idea, device, product, etc. or the development thereof
A contraction of "Binary Digit". A bit is the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or a 1
the observation that computing power roughly doubles every two years.
a broad term for datasets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate.
a technique for encryption that shifts the alphabet by some number of characters
the generic term for a technique (or algorithm) that performs encryption
When you attempt to decode a secret message without knowing all the specifics of the cipher.
a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it.
Random Substitution Cipher
an encryption technique that maps each letter of the alphabet to a chosen other letters of the alphabet.
a method of encrypting text by applying a series of alphabetical shifts based on the letters of a keyword.
used in public key encryption, it is scheme in which the key to encrypt data is different from the key to decrypt.
a mathematical operation that returns the remainder after integer division.
Public Key Encryption
Used prevalently on the web, it allows for secure messages to be sent between parties without having to agree on, or share, a secret key. It uses an asymmetric encryption scheme in which the encryption key is made public, but the decryption key is kept private.
the gulf between those who have ready access to computers and the Internet, and those who do not.
A proposed explanation for some phenomenon used as the basis for further investigation.
Comparison of the popularity of topical queries in an online search engine as they relate to time.
Images, diagrams, tables, etc created from information extracted from a given data set, with the express intention of highlighting a data story.
The name of the tool used by most spreadsheet programs to create a summary table.
A document providing background information about a dataset.
Abbreviation of "comma-separated values," this is a widely-used format for storing data.
The original data as it was collected.
A table of aggregate information about a dataset (e.g., the average, sum, count of some values).
tool/technique using dynamic parameters for reducing a data set to viewing only similar items in a row or column.
A computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurement. Common aggregations include: Average, Count, Sum, Max, Median, etc.
The number 15
The number 14
The number 13
A preliminary sketch of an idea or model for something new. It's the original drawing from which something real might be built or created.
a question where there are only two possible answers
a message that can have only one of two values
the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices.
The universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
What does ASCII stand for? (cap first letter)
(slang) to write instructions for a computer
request for comments
documents how standards and protocols are defined -- Published for all to see
a computer which receives messages traveling across a network and redirects them towards their intended destination based on the addressing information included with the message.
repetition of information or the inclusion of additional information to reduce errors in transmission.
The service that translates URL's to IP addresses
domain name service
DNS stands for...
uniform resource locator
URL stands for...
the protocol used for transmitting web pages over the internet
hypertext transfer protocol
HTTP stands for...
provides reliable, ordered and error checked delivery of a stream of packets in the internet
transmission control protocol
TCP stands for...
an easy to remember address for calling a web page
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the internet
the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers
Creating simple concise representations of more complex phenomena so that people can more easily work with, communicate about, and learn about anything.
The octal number system is base 8, using only digits 0 through 7.
Traditional number system using digits 0-9.
Incremental or small improvement to an item
Improvement that is new, creative and has not been done before "outside the box thinking."
repeating a process - in computer science this term often implies each repetition comes closer to an end point or final answer.
Internet pioneer who believed the Internet should be free and available to everyone
__________ level protocols use _______ levels without needing to understand precisely how they work. (space between each term)
_________ level protocols guarantee __________ level protocols will function without stating specifically how this will be accomplished.
one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.
High Level Programming Language
Low Level Programming Language
A programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions. Generally this refers to either machine code or assembly language.
Fault tolerant network
The ability to route around broken servers on the internet.
Representation of computer processor instructions using any two-symbol system, but often the numbers 0 and 1.
(sometimes read: "equal equal") equality operator; used to compare two values, and returns a Boolean (true/false). Avoid confusion with the assignment operator "=",
A variable whose scope is "global" to the program, it can be used and updated by any part of the code. Its global scope is typically derived from the variable being declared (created) outside of any function, object, or method.
The common programming structure that implements "conditional statements".
A variable with local scope is one that can only be seen, used and updated by code within the same scope. Typically this means the variable was declared (created) inside a function; includes function parameter variables.
dictates what portions of the code can "see" or use a variable, typically derived from where the variable was first created. (See Global v. Local)
a function specified as part of an event listener; it is written by the programmer but called by the system as the result of an event trigger.
An action that causes something to happen.
onscreen objects, like buttons, images, text boxes, pull down menus, screens and so on.
The visual elements of an program through which a user controls or communications the application. Often abbreviated UI.
(ex: Number, Boolean, or String) a value's property that dictates how the computer will interpret it. For example 7+5 is interpreted differently from "7"+"5"
Any valid unit of code that resolves to a value.
A placeholder for a piece of information that can change.
Finding and fixing problems in your algorithm or program.
statements that run under only certain conditions
A generic term for a type of programming statement (usually an if-statement) that uses a Boolean condition to determine, or select, whether or not to run a certain block of statements.
a single value of either TRUE or FALSE
in programming, an expression that evaluates to True or False.
"and" logical operator
"or" logical operator
"not" logical operator
to link together or join. Typically used when joining together text Strings in programming (e.g. "Hello, "+name)