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Exam 3 Soc. Part 2
Terms in this set (50)
The sociology of race and ethnicity begins with an understanding that all societies are
characterized by members having __________________
wealth, prestige, and power.
Sociologists have observed that ____________ _____________ have more or less of what a society values (groups associated with race, class, gender).
_________________ represents those who are
_________________ represents those who are
1. Unequal treatment and less power over one's life
2. Distinguishing physical or cultural traits that the dominant group holds in low
3. Involuntary membership or ascribed status.
4. Group solidarity and awareness of subordinate status and oppression.
5. Marital endogamy (patterns of in-group
Five characteristics define minority/subordinate groups:
1. The functionalist perspective
2. The conflict perspective
3. The labeling approach (symbolic int.)
Three main sociological perspectives
can be used to understand race:
The ___________________ perspective emphasizes
how parts of society are structured to
maintain its stability.
1. Racist ideologies provide justification for
2. Racial ideologies discourage subordinate
people from attempting to question their
3. Racial ideologies justify existing practices
but also serve as a rallying point for social
4. Racist beliefs provide support for the
existing social order.
5. Racial ideologies perpetuate economic
and educational problems of subordinate groups
Functions that racial beliefs have for
dominant groups include:
1. Racial beliefs fail to utilize human potential and limit the search for talent and leadership to benefit the dominant group.
2. Racial beliefs aggravate social problems, and
create a financial burden of alleviating problems on the dominant group.
3. Racial beliefs increase the investment of time and money to defend barriers that
prevent full participation of all.
4. Racial beliefs undermine diplomatic ties between nations and affect efforts to
increase global trade.
5. Racial beliefs inhibit social change.
6. Racial beliefs promote disrespect for law enforcement and the peaceful settlements of disputes.
Dysfunctions that racial beliefs have
for dominant groups include:
The _____________ perspective assumes that society is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing
According to the _____________ perspective,
competition takes place between groups with
unequal amounts of economic or political power
The _______________ _______________ is an attempt to explain why certain people are viewed as
deviant and why others who engage in the same behavior are not.
Labeling theory shows how dominant group definitions are ____________________ __________________________ that have real consequences for subordinate
1. Biological meaning of race
▪ Biologically there are no pure, distinct races.
2. Social construction of race
▪ Race is important because of the social meaning people have attached to it.
Race is commonly understood in two
______________ is a doctrine that one race is superior
asserts that races
are distinct and separate for biological
and genetic reasons.
T or F?
There is more genetic variation within racial
groups than between them.
_________ is a symbolic category, based on
phenotype or ancestry and
constructed according to specific
social and historical contexts.
Race is usually misrecognized as a
A person's __________________ is his or her physical appearance and constitution,
including skeletal structure, height,
hair texture, eye color, and skin tone.
A person's_____________ is his or her family
lineage; represents tribal, regional, or
__________________ is a shared lifestyle informed by
cultural, historical, religious, and/or national
represents membership in a
specific, politically delineated territory
controlled by a government.
classification systems that, in naming
different races, actually serve to create them; important only in
that they are social constructions that
represent different life experiences
1. Native Americans and Alaskan Natives
2. Asians and Pacific Islanders
3. African Americans (or Blacks)
4. Hispanics (or Latinos)
5. Caucasians (or Whites)
Five major racial taxonomies define
the United States:
T or F?
Most Americans think Whites are a much
smaller percentage of the population than they actually are.
1. Individualistic fallacy
2. Legalistic fallacy
3. Tokenistic fallacy
4. Ahistorical fallacy
5. Fixed fallacy
There are five fallacies regarding race:
represents the idea
that racism is assumed to belong to the realm
of ideas and prejudices; Racism is not always intentional; it exists in our habits and social institutions; Labeling someone a racist treats racism as
something aberrant and strange, whereas
American racism is quite normal.
assumes that abolishing
racist laws effectively abolishes racism
assumes that the
presence of people of color in influential
positions is evidence that racism no
assumes history is
inconsequential to race.; all that is socially constructed is historically constructed.
assumes racism is _________ and constant across time and space; racism is always morphing; it is unquantifiable.
1. Legally enforced racism no longer exists.
2. America continues to implement forms of
institutional integration, and diversity is seen as an asset.
3. Examples of successful people of color
have set a high standard for potential success (e.g. Barack Obama).
4. Today's youth are much more open minded than were past generations.
Reasons to be optimistic about the
current state of race in America:
1. Hate crimes
2. Employment inequalities
4. Incarceration disparities
5. Hurricane Katrina
Reasons why race continues to be an
issue in America:
Close to ___________ hate crimes were
reported by the FBI in 2015; Over half these crimes were motivated by
racial hatred; This represents only those hate crimes
that are reported.
In the most recent Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the end of 2016, 4% of Whites, 3% of Asians, 6% of Hispanics, and 8% of Blacks were unemployed; Since 1940, the unemployment rate of Blacks
has been nearly __________ that of Whites; Over half of Native Americans on some reservations are unemployed.
_______________ is a negative attitude toward an
entire category of people.
_______________________ involves behavior that excludes members of a group from certain
rights, opportunities, or privileges.
a form of discrimination that refers to ethnic slurs, derisive nicknames, or speaking about
a group condescendingly.
about all members of a population that do
not take individual differences into
account;often exaggerated, negative
images of a group; often become self-fulfilling
prophecies that affect how we feel and relate
an example of
stereotyping in action; generally refers to police initiated
action based on race, ethnicity,
or national origin rather than a person's
behavior; involves the explicit
reliance on racial stereotypes.
1. Glass ceiling
2. Glass walls
3. Glass escalator
The following are institutionalized
forms of discrimination, common in
organizations and in the workplace:
metaphor for the invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified
worker because of gender or minority
membership; Women and minority promotion in
organizations often stops at a certain point,
while the dominant group (White males) often
continues to be promoted.
metaphorical barriers that keep
minorities or women from moving laterally
within an organization; It is more likely for the dominant group in an organization to move from position to position
as compared to women and minorities.
a metaphorical term
representing male advantages for promotion
over similarly qualified women or minority
workers; In organizations, White males are often put on a fast-track for promotion and are thus promoted more quickly and more often than
women or minorities.
________________'s study of attitudes toward Chinese
living in America showed that attitudes do not
necessarily predict behavior
Robert K. Merton
______________ developed a
typology to classify people according to
their tendency toward prejudice and discrimination.
1. The all-weather liberal
2. The reluctant liberal
3. The timid bigot
4. The all-weather bigot
empirical measure of prejudice, often
referred to as the _______________ social distance scale; The scale asks people how willing they would be to interact with various racial and ethnic
groups in specified social situations; Differences in intensity on the social distance scale suggest a structure
is the branch of philosophy that
examines beauty, art, and taste; often refers to fine art, with a view to establishing the meaning and validity of critical
judgments concerning works of art, and the
principles underlying or justifying such judgments.
The American aesthetic in many ways has been a __________ aesthetic historically; is a monopoly over
dominant images of beauty, genius, and
art.; is a default category,
representing a universal standard of
beauty and taste.