APUSH Period 1+2 Review: 1491-1607. 1607-1754.
Terms in this set (57)
The production and distribution of corn, know at this time as maize. The crop itself was grown from present day Mexico to the now American Southwest. Through this cultivation economic development and diversification was fostered.
The people of this system live chiefly by hunting, fishing, and harvesting wild food. Most Native Americans used this system before becoming agricultural economies.
A type of economy that that relied on farming. The spread of maize cultivation allowed more Native Americans to become farmers.
Exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, and people between the Americas, Africa, and Europe. Each region was significantly impacted as a result of trade and contact.
Enjoyed a head start on exploration because of its location in Europe. Became one of the early economic powers because of their commercial network along the African coast to set up trading posts for gold and slaves.
The first European country to seize the opportunities (God, Gold Glory) created by the New World. Instituted encomienda system. The conquistadores destroy native populations.
It gave settlers the right to tax and enslave local Native Americans created by the Spanish. In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity. Disguised form of slavery.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service. New World exploration changed this system to more capitalism.
An economic system that developed in Europe following New World Exploration. Investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Big farms that were supported by the encomienda system. Indian labor was used in this. Labor was eventually replaced with slave labor. Mainly in found southern North America and in South America/the Caribbean.
Race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Native Americans in Latin America.
the Black Legend
The belief that the Spanish only stole, killed, and tortured in the Americas, without a positive outcome.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World,". He made 4 voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492.
Bartolome de las Casas
A Spanish monk who wrote a scathing account of Spanish treatment of the Native Americans. He devoted most of his life to protecting American Indians from Spanish exploitation.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda
An apologist of Spanish exploitation of Native Americans. His reasons were that Indians were barbarous and inhuman and therefore did not deserve to own property. Instead they are destined to serve their natural masters; the Spaniards.
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
English leader who founded the colony of Georgia as a place where debtors from England could begin new lives
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies, such as Jamestown in 1607.
Lower-middle class farmers in the South; largest social class. Rarely owned slaves.
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years. Popular in Chesapeake Region.
Winter of 1609-1610 in Jamestown during which colonists died in droves from starvation.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619
Act of Toleration
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland: Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland: Protected the Catholics religion from Protestants.
Area comprised of Virginia and Maryland.
One-crop economy (tobacco) little development of towns.
First permanent English settlement; located in Virginia. Founded by London Company. 1607.
English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania in 1681.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay in 1630's. Believed that only "visible saints" should be admitted to church membership.
Established liberal policies such as religious freedom and civil liberties. Tried to treat Native Americans more fairly. Found Pennsylvania in 1681.
Woman who challenged Purtian religous authorities in Massachusetts Bay. Puritan authorities banished her because she challenged religious doctrine and gender roles.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
1637. Conflict between the Puritans of Mass. Bay and the Pequot tribe. Caused by colonists moving closer and closer to the Pequot tribe area and conflicts arise over unfair trading and destruction of crops; Ended up killing Pequot tribe.
Series of laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between Britain and its colonies. They began in 1651 and were diminished by Revolutionary War. They reflected the policy of mercantilism. They prohibited the colonies from trading directly with rest of Europe. Loosely enforced by Britain (salutary neglect) until F+I War 1754.
King Philip's War
1675-1676: Marked the last major effort by the Indians of New England to drive out the English settlers. Massachusetts Bay won the war. But the war inflicted a lasting defeat on New england Indians. Also called Metacom's War.
1630s- 70,000 refugees (mostly Puritans) left England for New World. Puritans founded Massachusetts Bay colony.
Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists. Increased gap b/w rich and poor in Southern colonies.
A Puritan church document that allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members to increase membership.
African slaves' voyage across the Atlantic to the Americas, a long and treacherous journey during which slaves endured appalling and often deadly conditions
1676. Virginia. Backcountry farmers wanted to a raise a militia and attack nearby tribes. Governor Berkeley refused, farmers (many indentured servants) rebelled. Result: Rebellion failed, showed conflict b/w East and Backcountry, and lead to increase in manageable labor force (African slaves).
Salem Witch Trials
1692-Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trial in Massachusetts colony. 18-20 people were hanged as witches. Accusers, mostly young girls, turned the town against prominent members. (poor vs. rich).
1730s-40s. Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god" who spoke of the fiery depths of hell.
English clergyman credited with starting the 1st Great Awakening (1730s-1740s) in America along with Jonathan Edwards, also a leader of the "New Lights." Known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons through emotion.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1730's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Home to many Presbyterian churches, people very independent. Supporters of Revolution against English.
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
1st Great Awakening
(1730s-1740s) a series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies that brought emotion to religion. Led to the division of churches. Leaders: G Whitefield and J Edwards.
Molasses Act (1733)
Act that imposed a tax on sugar, molasses, and rum imported from non-British colonies into North American colonies, least successful of the Navigation Acts, since it was avoided by smuggling. Occurred during salutary neglect period.
1600's-1763. An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies. ("Hands off Policy"). The English ceased practicing "hands off" following British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763.
English Economic policy of 1600's-1763; sought to increase wealth and power through acquisition of gold and silver and establishing a favorable balance of trade. Colonies served interest of mother country through importation of its raw materials.
The 3 Gs
God, Glory, Gold. Causes for European Exploration, especially the Spanish.