14 terms

DNA Replication

DNA REPLICATION: Before the lagging-strand DNA exits the replication factory, its RNA primers must be removed and the Okazaki fragments must be joined together to create a continuous DNA strand. The first step is the removal of the RNA primer. RNAse H, which recognizes RNA-DNA hybrid helices, degrades the RNA by hydrolyzing its phosphodiester bonds. Next, the sequence gap created by RNAse H is then filled in by DNA polymerase which extends the 3' end of the neighboring Okazaki fragment. Finally,…
DNA Replication
the process of making identical copies of DNA before cell division
replication fork
a Y-shaped point that results when the two strands of a DNA double helix separate so that the DNA molecule can be replicated
Semiconservative replication
Method of DNA replication in which parental strands separate, act as templates, and produce molecules of DNA with one parental DNA strand and one new DNA strand
An enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication. (Unzips DNA)
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme that builds the complementary strand in DNA replication.
leading strand
The newly forming daughter strand of DNA that is replicated in a continuous fashion; the daughter strand that is replicated in the same direction that parental DNA is unwinding. (The fast side)
lagging strand
The strand that is synthesized in fragments using individual sections called Okazaki fragments
Okazaki fragments
Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
DNA ligase
The enzyme which connects (GLUES) the individual okazaki fragments on the lagging strand by forming covalent bonds
Which way does DNA polymerase move
From 3' to 5'
double helix
The shape of DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
The enzyme that creates a short sequence of RNA to start DNA replication
hydrogen bond
A weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of another polar molecule. It holds the DNA molecules together.
single strand binding proteins stabilize the molecule

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