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COMM Final Exam
Terms in this set (110)
_______________ bacterial deposits in supragingival plaque are associated with early lesions
1/4 of bacterial plaque in chronic gingivitis is what ?
what microorganisms are associated with destructive periodontitis ?
spirochetes and gram negative rods
what are the risk factors of periodontitis ?
a) genetics b) age c) smoking d) psychogenic e) nutrition f) OSC
True or False. Increased incidence of periodontal disease may represent a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cerebral infarction
Nicotine and other chemicals embedded on root surfaces act as ______________ and cause ___________ of blood vessels in the area
what are the 2 models of periodontitis ?
Plaque and local factor model
Compromised host model
which of the two models of periodontitis claims that specific pathogens dominate host response in controlling disease
plaque and local factor model
which of the two models of periodontitis is less common, responds less favorably to tx., severity and rate of progression often rapid and not well correlated with local factors, found in early-onset, refractory and diabetes periodontitis and is associated with genetics ?
compromised host model
Choose the following to be either serious or moderate periodontitis:
when pocketing, LPA or bone loss is evident clinically or radiographically but not severe enough to cause tooth loss
Choose the following to be either serious or moderate periodontitis:
degree of periodontitis that results in tooth loss
which theory of periodontitis claims that periodontitis progresses in a series of relatively short, acute "bursts" of rapid tissue destruction followed by some tissue repair and long periods of remission ?
"Burst" theory of periodontitis
what are the distribution of periodontal diseases ?
prevalence of periodontitis
incident of periodontitis
Which model of periodontitis is geographic distribution of periodontal disease associated with ?
compromised host model of periodontitis
what is the most valid measure of periodontitis ?
True or False. There is no relation between the prevalence and severity of chronic inflammatory disease and increasing age.
True or False. Prevalence and severity of periodontitis is higher in rural areas than in urban areas
Oral hygiene practices are more common in which gender ?
females - b/c they exhibit better OH practices than men
what are the demographic risk factors in periodontitis ?
gender and race
True or False. There is no inherent differences between both genders in susceptibility to periodontitis
True or False. Race and ethnicity are true demographic risk factors for periodontitis
what are risk factors for periodontitis
1. ORAL HYGIENE AND PLAQUE
2. LOCAL FACTORS
True or False. There is a strong correlation between plaque and calculus deposits with periodontitis
Those individuals who are not susceptible to severe disease, plaque and calculus deposits alone will not induce severe periodontal disease
True or False. Local factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of periodontitis
-Nature of infection and host response plays a more active role
Recent studies suggest that nutritional / dietary factors eg: severe deficiency of ascorbic acid or vitamin C are related to _________
The relationship between nutritional adequacy to bone loss or LPA is ________
Which category of diabetics are insulin dependent--considered juvenile diabetes ?
which category of diabetics are non-insulin dependent and onset of diabetes is adult years
how long is the latency period of HIV after infection
up to 12 years
how does heart valve disease occur ?
rheumatic fever or use of diet drugs
True or False. Hypertenison is a DISEASE not a SYMPTON
what seating position is best for clients with congestive heart failure ?
what does client education include in clients with congestive heart failure ?
a) daily meticulous home care b) frequent dental recalls c) need to take antibiotics premed as prescribed
True or False. Specific properties of bacteria play a more significant role in periodontal disease than the quantity of bacterial counts
True or False. Elderly population appear to have higher prevalence of gingivitis than the rest of adult population
True or False. Whites tend to have a higher prevalence of gingivitis than African-Americans
this type of gingivitis occurs suddenly and is associated with pain
lasts a long time and is usually painless unless the tissues become secondarily infected
returns following treatment or disappears spontaneously and then reappears
confined to a specific area of the oral cavity
involves the entire oral cavity
__________________involves the interdental papilla and may extend onto adjacent marginal gingiva
-most gingivitis develops first in the __________________ and then spreads to adjacent tissues
ANUG is also known as what ?
what infection of oral tissues are caused by HSV that occurs in vesicles initially and later rupture to form small painful ulcers ?
Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis
what happens when the overlying tissue of a partially erupted crown accumulated bacterial plaque and food impaction ?
what are the signs and symptoms of pericoronitis ?
exudate, tenderness of lymph nodes, swelling, redness and pain
Localized, painful and rapidly progressing lesion that develops suddenly
Causes: a) toothbrush bristle b) sliver from toothpick c) popcorn husk d) seeds e) small fish bone/shellfish fragment
True or False. Puberty gingivitis affects mostly interdental papilla
chronic enlalrgement of gingiva - can be from phenytoin
what is the most critical factor in evaluating gingivitis ?
True or False. Severity of periodontitis increases with age
which teeth do localized prepubertal periodontitis affect ?
affects one or more primary molars that have lost alveolar bone
-will experience early tooth loss
which teeth does localized juvenile periodontitis affect ?
affects usually first permanent molars and incisors
what is the age of onset of rapidly progressive periodontitis
age of onset 20 - 30 years old
Destructive periodontal disease in clients who demonstrate attachment loss at one or more sites, despite therapeutic treatment and client's efforts to stop progression of disease
A periodontitis-like process that can affect dental implants
how is attachment loss calculated ?
sum of clinical probe depth and gingival recession
how is recession measured
measured from CEJ to gingival margin
Acts as a screening system to indicate when a full-mouth comprehensive examination is required
Developed by WHO and FDI to assess treatment needs of specific groups
AKA: PERIODONTAL SCREENING & RECORDING (PSR)
COMMUNITY PERIODONTAL INDEX OF TREATMENT NEEDS (CPITN)
how many scores from each sextant is used ?
-8s excluded unless they act as 7s
what is the purpose of the ball in a CPITN-E probe ?
to assist in detection of overhanging margins and sub gingival calculus and to facilitate assessment of base of pocket which reduces risk of overmeasurement
in a PSR how are sextants with 1 tooth or no teeth recorded ?
recorded as missing and marked "X" on record form
Healthy periodontal tissue - No bleeding, no calculus - No defective restorations
6+ mm pockets - Coloured area of probe completely disappears
CODE 4 -
- Bleeding upon probing - No calculus - No defective restorations
- 4-5 mm pockets - Coloured area of probe remains partly visible
- Supra & subgingival calculus - Defective restorations
SIMPLIFIED ORAL HYGIENE INDEX (OHI-S) is Useful for ____ populations
what does SIMPLIFIED ORAL HYGIENE INDEX (OHI-S) score ?
Scores plaque and calculus together (both supra and subgingival)
what is the difference between PI and OHSI-S ?
PI scores plaque according to its thickness at gingival margin rather than its coronal extent
Indicates location of plaque
Assists in visualization of client's home care progress
Assists clinicians in emphasizing specific areas of need and tailoring home care with alternative plaque control aides
SPECIFIC PLAQUE INDICES
what is a hypomineralized dental enamel caused by excessive ingestion of fluoride during tooth development and chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of dental enamel
True or False. Teeth with dental fluorosis are more susceptible to dental caries
which teeth are at the greatest risk for fluorosis for girls from 15-24 months of age
Max. central incisors
which teeth are at the greatest risk for fluorosis for boys from 21 to 30 months ?
Max. central incisors
what are some causes of dental fluorosis ?
1. Fluoride concentration of the water supply
2. Children swallowing excessive amounts of fluoride - containing dentifrices
3. Inappropriate prescription and use of dietary fluoride supplements
4. Prolonged use of infant formula made from powder and mixed with fluoridated water
mild to moderate fluorosis is associated with what ?
use of fluoride supplements, especially in higher socioeconomic groups
what should infant formula fluoride levels be ?
what dental fluorosis index assess each tooth present in an individual's mouth and rated according to classifications
Dean's fluorosis index
what are the classifications of Dean's fluorosis index ?
- POINT ORDINAL SCALE:
which dental fluorosis index is used for both permanent and primary teeth, more sensitive than Deans index, is a "public health index" rather than just a research tool
Tooth surface index of fluorosis (TSIF)
TSIF ascribes a score to __________ in the mouth
teeth are ___________ before scoring, there fore mildest forms of fluorosis are likely to be missed
each tooth surface
how does TSIF differ from Dean's index ?
TSIF: Gives score from 0-7 for each tooth surface. Deans index applies ONLY to the TWO MOST AFFECTED TEETH IN MOUTH.
True or False. In the THYLSTRUP-FEJERSKOV INDEX teeth are not dried before scoring and 4 surfaces of the tooth are assessed.
ARE dries before scoring and only 1 surface per tooth is assessed
which fluorosis index is used for analytic studies, divides B and O surfaces of each permanent tooth in 4 zones based on the age at which calcification begins.
Fluorosis risk index (FRI)
-claims Risk of fluorosis is related to fluoride exposure at particular stages of dentition development
what is the purpose of developmental defects of dental enamel index (DDE)
to avoid necessity for diagnosing fluorosis before recording enamel opacities
Aids to diagnose the nature of enamel disturbances in clients by practitioners include:
1. Area affected
2. Shape of lesion
5. Teeth affected
6. Gross hypoplasia
what is the appropriate dosage of fluoride for children 3 years old ? 3-6 years old ? 6+ years old ?
0.25 mg per day for children up to 3 years old
0.5 mg per day for children 3-6 years old
1.0 mg for children over the age of 6
which teeth are greatest at risk for fluorosis
max. central incisors
True or False. Mottled enamel is a dose-response condition -- the higher the intake during the crucial period of tooth development the more advanced the fluorosis will be
True or False. Teeth that mineralize later in life reveal less severe fuorotic disturbances than those that mineralize earlier
reveal more severe fluorite disturbances
True or False. Soy-based infant formulas are risk factors for dental fluorosis
what is the standard concentration of fluoride
1ppm = 1mg fluoride/litre
how many times higher is the fluoride levels in schools if the community is not fluoridated ?
4.5 x higher
What can fluoride not be consumed with ?
Milk - reduces the effectiveness
Fluoride supplements reduce caries by how much ?
True or False. Soy based formulas contain higher F concentrations than milk-based formulas
True or False. When surface enamel becomes friable and prone to fracture, caries experience is lesser
True or False. Broken enamel makes a tooth more vulnerable to caries
what is the recommended intake of fluoride ?
What is the probable toxic dose of fluoride ?
what is the certain lethal dose of fluoride ?
List the following products from highest to lowest concentration of fluoride :
meat,poultry, fish fillet
fruit, milk, eggs,
fruit, milk, eggs,
meat,poultry, fish fillet
which clients do we recommend self applied fluoride to ?
elderly client with xerostomia who are prone to root caries
moderate to high risk for caries
what should be done if a client ingests high amounts of fluoride ?
maintain blood calcium - calcium chloride or calcium gluconate administered both intravenously and orally
True or False. Fluoride is considered to be an "essential" nutrient
how many mg can be ingested without hazard of excessive storage in the body ?
4-5 mg F
3 MECHANISMS BY WHICH FLUORIDE INHIBITS DENTAL CARIES ARE ?
1) promote remineralization and inhibit demineralization of early carious lesions 2) inhibit glycolysis 3) reduce enamel solubility in acid
True or False. There is a stronger posteruptive fluoride action on caries inhibition
when salivary and plaque pH drops below _________, demineralization of the enamel is likely to occur
ACCESS TO THE ORAL HEALTH SYSTEM CONSISTS OF which 5 FACETS
Constant exposure to fluoridated water as well as other exposures will result in complete dental benefits AKA: "______________"
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