UNIT 4 PART 1 STUDY QUESTIONS

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Terms in this set (...)

antimicrobial
class of compounds capable of destroying microorganisms
antibiotic
chemical substance from a microorganism that inhibits or kills other microorganisms
disinfection
refers to the use of a physical process or a chical agent to destroy vegatative pathogen
disinfectant
chemical agent or physical process which destroys vegetative pathogens but not bacterial endospores
antiseptic
used on living organisms, a growth inhibiting agent used to prevent infections
bacteriostatic
process that is inhibiting preventing the growth of bacteria dormant but still alive
bactericidal
used to destroy kill bacteria except those in endospore stage
sterile
free of viable microorganisms, including endospores & viruses
sterilize
to destroy or remove all viable microorganisms, including endospores & viruses
pasteurize
heat applied to liquid to kill agents of infection & spoiling while still retaining the flavor & food value
put in order from least resistant to most resistant
e.g.
1. pseudomonas, mycobacterium, endospores
2. vegetative bacillus, endospore bacillus
3. young bacillus, serratia, old bacillus
4. strep, e. coli, mycobacterium
name 3 bacteria with the reputation of being more resistant in the vegetative state
myobacterium, pseudomonas, serratia
what is the difference between the temperature of boiling water and the water under pressure 15 psi in an autoclave or pressure cooker
water under pressure makes the temperature hotter
tincture means in solution with
alcohol
used for large swimming pools, water treatment plants
hypochlorites
iodine and a detergent molecule
betadine
cleaning but not disinfecting
soap
37% solution of formaldehyde is used instead of the gas. it is called
formalin
a gas used to sterilize is called
ethylene oxide ETO
one of the best disinfectants found in most homes
hypochlorites solution that we call bleach
alcohol most frequently used
70% isopropyl = ethyl alcohol= rubbing alcohol
prevents honorrheal ophthalamia neonatorum _____________ the 1st drops used in the eyes of all newborns. now we use erythro.
1% silver nitrate
a tincture means a substance is in solution with this substance
alcohol
the only liquid disinfectant that can be considered a sterilizer _______________ . used in respiratory therapy.
gluteraldehyde
carbolic acid is also known as
phenol
when one has a choice it is usually better to use a ___________ spectrum drug.
narrow
penicillin acts on the __________of the bacteria
cell wall
most antimicrobials in the pharmacy are for
bacteria
a broad spectrum drug not for pregnant women and in __________ children could cause tooth discoloration.
tetracyclines
the treatment for MRSA
vancomycin
threatment for coccidioides or histoplasma
amphotericin B
treatment for candida e.g. yeast
nystatin
pneumonia caused by mycoplasma ____________ atypical pneumonia
drug of choice erythromycin
could cause suppression of the bone marrow
chloramphenical
treatment for herpes
acyclovir
most narrow spectrum for beta lactamase negative bacteria
penicillin
trichomonas
metroriidazole/flagel
treat beta lactamase positive staph aureus
methicillin
strep pyogenes treatment for most people
penicillin
one of first drugs for flu
armantidine
bacteroides N.F.
oppotunistic
urinary tract infection UTI
noncommunicable disease
salmonella
virulent bacteria
headache
symptom of disease
the highest antibody titer is during which phase of illness
convalescence
which of the following is a facultative anaerobe
E. coli
where is normal flora found on the human body
staph epidermitits
what are the two most common portals of entry
RESP & GI
list 3 ways bacteria can cause harm to a host
1. stealing the cells nutrients
2. producing harmful substances
3. turning body tissues into a battleground
what is the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins
endotoxins: is part of cell structure & it is lipo polysachharides. exotoxins: are proteins & they are secretect produced inside mostly GP
list the three lines of defense
1. skin
2. inflammatory response
3. immune system
blood has clotted
serum
blood has not clotted
plasma
still has clotting factors
plasma
clotting factors used up
serum
needs to be drawn with an anticoagulant
plasma
a local response to tissue injury is
inflammation
interferon is produced when the body is infected with a
virus
CBC these initials stand for
complete blood count
CDC these initials stand for
centers for disease control
the blood cell there is the most of is
RBCs
the WBC there is the most of is
segmented neutrophils
the two WBCs that are phagocytic are
1. monocytes
2. neutrophils
in a bacteria infection the number of WBCs is
increased
in a viral infection the number of WBCs is
decreased
in a bacterial infection the differential shows an increase in
neutrophils
in a viral infection the differential shows an increase in
lymphocytes
the FIRST vlue to look at when checking for anemia is the
hemoglobin count
the MCV measures
sizeof RBCs. high = folate B12 deficiency & low = iron deficiency Thessalonian
increase nucleated RBCs in an adult means
impending death
the test to look at to evaluate production of RBCs is
reticulocyte count
five an example of a fomite
paper towel
bacterium
refers to the presence of bacteria in the blood. the patient's infection can range from mild to sever
septicemia
refers to a very sick patient who may have a bacteria and / or their toxins in the blood