25 terms

DNA Transcription & Translation

This is the final stage of protein synthesis.
STUDY
PLAY
Polypeptide chain
A long chain of amino acids that form a protein molecule.
codon
This is a three letter sequence on mRNA. Each of these codes for one amino acid.
tRNA
Brings the amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosome. It attaches its anti-codon to its corresponding codon on mRNA. It codes for a specific amino acid.
Translation
The final stage of protein synthesis. Process of translating a sequence of mRNA to a sequence of amino acids.
Ribosomes
The organelle where translation takes place. It is also called a protein-making factory.
anticodon
the 3-letter sequence that is on tRNA that bonds with the complementary codon on the mRNA.
protein synthesis
The process that includes transcription and translation that makes proteins.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of protein.
20
The total number of amino acids
Proteins are determined by these
The sequence and number of amino acids.
Step 1 of translation
The mRNA brings the message to the ribosome.
Step 2 of translation
The tRNA binds to the ribosome, and the anti-codon on the tRNA bonds with the complementary codon of the mRNA.
Step 3 of translation
tRNA donates its amino acid to the polypeptide chain.
Step 4 of translation
Translation stops when a "stop codon" is reached. The "stop codon" tells the ribosome to release the chain.
Step 5 of translation
Amino acid chain is released by the ribosome to make the new protein.
mRNA
Created during transcription, carries the code from DNA to the ribosomes
Uracil
A base found in RNA, but not DNA
Codon chart
Used to determine the amino acid associated with a codon in mRNA
Transciption
Process by which DNA is converted to a strand of mRNA
RNA polymerase
Enzyme used to build a complimentary strand of RNA from DNA
Silent Mutation
When a substitution in a codon results in no change in the amino acid produced
Frameshift Mutation
An insertion or deletion of a base results in a shift of the reading frame of the mRNA
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
A change in a base results in a change in form. Ex. sickle cell trait
Ribose
Type of sugar found in RNA
Gene
Segment of DNA that codes for a protein (or a trait)

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.