IB Psychology Vocabulary Terms

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normality
generally defined as what majority of people experience
abnormality
generally what deviates from the majority
autonomy
ability to govern oneself and function independently
maladaptive
behavior that interferes with the ability to function in daily life
diagnosis
ability to identify disease based on symptoms using diagnostic systems, a set of standardized templates on which to base analysis
validity
in this context, it is the idea that a system (such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders "DSM") can be used to identify a pattern of symptoms that can then be treated
reliability
in this context, it is the idea that different clinicians use same system of diagnosis and get same results
symptomology
identification of a person's symptoms
affective
as a symptom, refers to the way a person reacts emotionally and their ability to feel emotions
behavioral
as a symptom, refers to the way a person behaves, activities they participate in or withdraw from, psychomotor movements (speech, body movements)
cognitive
as a symptom, refers to the ability to rationalize, remember, and concentrate at usual level; thoughts people have about themselves, others, and their intentions
somatic
as a symptom, refers to physical changes that a person experiences (paralysis, aches, etc.)
etiology
identification of the cause of a disorder (can be biological, cognitive, or sociocultural)
prevalence
how widespread a disorder is in a particular area at a particular time
biomedical
treatment based on assumption that biological factors are involved in disorder--use drugs are used to alter brain chemistry
cognitive-behavioral therapy
treatment involving changing thought and behavior patterns of an individual
psychotherapy
treatment involving generally talking about problems or feelings, hoping to get to the "root" of the problem
eclectic
treatment incorporating various principles/techniques from different theories/systems
norms
widely accepted and often unwritten "rules" for acceptable behavior within a society
attribution
the act of giving someone credit for something OR the quality or characteristic of a particular person
dispositional factors
personal or internal characteristics of an individual
situational factors
external circumstances surrounding an individual that may be beyond their control
social learning theory
people learn through the observation of others, either directly (intentionally) or indirectly (unintentionally)
actor-observer effect
when people attribute behaviors to dispositional or situational factors whether they perform it themselves or observe others doing it
modesty bias
tendency to attribute successful actions to external factors and failures to internal factors
self-serving bias
tendency to attribute successful actions to internal factors and failures to external factors
fundamental attribution error
when a person overestimates the role of dispositional factors and the effect of the situation is underestimated
stereotype
a preconceived idea about a person or group of people based on a characteristic beyond their control
foot-in-the-door technique
asking for a series of seemingly small favors, in order to work up to a much larger favor
reciprocity bias
tendency for someone to return an act or favor if one has already been on the receiving end of an act or favor
conformity
behaving in such a way that is in accordance with the majority group
individualistic
culture in which people are focused on the well-being of the individual and personal goals
collectivistic
culture in which people are focused on the well-being of the whole and group goals
cognitive/mental processes
mental tasks involved in human behavior such as memory, attention, perception, language, and decision-making
reconstructive memory
idea that memory can be altered over time by the brain "filling in the blanks"
schema
mental representation of knowledge
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
top-down processing
information processing guided by mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
rehearsal
repetition of information
serial position effect
idea that a person is most likely to remember the first and last items in a series better than those in the middle
implicit memory
memory that does not require conscious thought
explicit memory
memory that does require conscious thought
episodic memory
memory of a specific event, personally experienced in some way
semantic memory
memory of general knowledge
procedural memory
memory of an unconscious skill
emotional memory
memory of emotional events that trigger a response within a person
cognitive appraisal
personal interpretation of an event, how a person experiences an event
flashbulb memory
vivid and detailed memory stored at one time and retained for a lifetime
physiological
characteristics of an organism's healthy or normal functioning
reductionist approach
complex phenomena (in this case the human body) can be explained by analyzing the most basic physical mechanisms in operation
motor neurons
nerve cells that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to muscles and glands
sensory neurons
nerve cells that carry incoming information from sense receptors to the central nervous system
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that transmit messages from one neuron to the next
nervous system
body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the central (brain and spinal cord), and peripheral (everything else) nervous systems
somatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of internal organs
sympathetic nervous system
division of autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, giving it energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
hormones
chemical messengers secreted directly into the bloodstream, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to perform their functions
endocrine system
collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things
brain plasticity
brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new connections between brain cells (ability to change throughout life)
brain localization
idea that different parts of the brain perform different functions
nature-nurture debate
discussion of whether biological factors or social factors influence a person's personality and development more
monozygotic twins (MZT)
identical twins, come from one egg, and share 100% of DNA
dizygotic twins (DZT)
fraternal twins, come from two eggs fertilized at the same time, and share 50% of DNA like normal siblings
dependent variable (DV)
factor being measured by researcher
independent variable (IV)
factor being manipulated by researcher to examine potential effect on the dependent variable
operationalized variable
specific variable—written in a way that makes clear what is being measured
confounding variable
undesirable variable that may influence relationship between IV and DV
allocation
process of assigning participants to the control and experimental conditions in an experiment
empirical evidence
data acquired through observation or experimentation
repeated measures
when same group of participants are used in both the experimental and control conditions
independent measures
when one group of participants is used for the experimental condition, while another group is used for the control condition
control condition
participants are tested without manipulating the IV as a basis of comparison
experimental condition
participants are tested while manipulating the IV to measure its effect
qualitative data
expresses what people think and feel (not numerical)
quantitative data
data that expresses amount, length, etc., and can be measured in numbers or quantity