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3.06 Retrieval and Forgetting Psychology Wiva Learning and Memory
Terms in this set (16)
A special type of association that allows you to encode and retrieve information
For example try to name the seven dwarfs.
Students do better with these (lists) on multiple choice tests because there is recognition/cues possible. They do worse on recall/fill in the blank questions were there are no cues.
If you read a question on a test and do not know the answer, read through the whole test. Often, the test will have cues in them that will help you get to the right answer.
At times, we are not able to retrieve what is stored in our long-term memory. We encounter problems with getting to the information.
State Dependent Memory (ret. prob.)
This is experienced because you need to be in the same emotional, mental, and drug state when you input information as when you want to retrieve it.
An example would be: you stayed up all night to study for an exam. To help you stay up, you kept drinking coffee and red bull. When you go to take the exam, you need to be super caffeinated so you can take the information out of long-term memory.
Context (ret. prob.)
It is easy to remember things in the same place as they were learned. That is why it is easier to take a test in the same room where the information was learned.
Reconstruction (ret. prob.)
This occurs when we fill in the gaps of memory.
An example of this would be 3 people observing a robbery and giving testimony to the police. If you compare the 3 accounts the people gave, you would find many differences in them. The eye witnesses did not think they were giving false information- their memories just filled in the gaps where they could not remember.
Eyewitness Accounts (ret. prob.)
A psychologist named Elizabeth Loftus has done much research in this area. She has found out what and how witnesses are asked can bias their response.
For example, if you were asked how fast the cars were going when they smashed into eachother vs how fast were the cars going when they hit eachother. Most people would give a greater speed to 'smashed'. When we hear the word 'smashed', we think the speed is much faster. Children are especially prone to eye witness errors because they want to please the person asking the question. Her research has found much of eye witness testimony is not very accurate.
a psychologist who has done heavy amounts of research on eyewitness accounts.
At times we experience forgetting or the inability to get information out of long-term memory.
No Cues (forgetting)
One of the reasons for this is there might not be any cues for you to get the information out. For example, if I asked you to name all the states with all the capitols, you might be able to remember all of the state names, but you might not have any cues, and therefore might not be able to remember all of the capitols.
Interference happens when old and new information competes with each other. There are two kinds of interference. The first kind is called proactive interference. The second type of interference is called retroactive.
When old information will not let you remember new information.
For example, you come home from your first day of school and your mom asks you "What is the name of your math teacher?", all you can remember is last year's math teacher's name and you cannot remember this year's teacher's name.
Retroactive interference means new information blocks the ability to get to old information.
For example, if you are trying to remember the name of your math teacher from last year and all you can remember is the name of your math teacher from this year, that is an example of retroactive interference.
[If there is a list of colors- for example one of the colors says 'blue' but it is written with green and you try to say the color of the word as fast as you can, your right brain tries to say the color but your left brain insists on reading the word~ Left-Right Conflict].
Tip-of-the-tongue Syndrome (forgetting)
The name is exactly what happens.
For example, if you are studying for a test that you are kind of nervous about while you take it, and you read the very first question and you don't know the answer, you go onto the second question and you get yourself very stressed out. You may say "I can see it in my notebook, I know what it is", but you can't get to the answer.
Tip-of-the-tongue happens because of stress. You build a mental block and the information is blocked for a time. When you turn the test in, all of a sudden, the answer comes to you. The reason for this is because now you are relaxed and the stress is gone.
Childhood Amnesia (forgetting)
It is exactly the fact we do not form memories until about the age of 3. Many of the memories people say that they have before then are things reconstructed from pictures and things people have said to them. Our neuron connections are not good enough yet and we do not have the vocabulary to put into memory so we do not form memories.
-Comes from Sigmund Freud,
Freud believes we take unpleasant memories and shove them into our unconscious so we are not able to be consciously aware of them.
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