Knes 371 Exam 3

STUDY
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Motor learning is a
Process
What are the two things that have the potential to chage
-Capability of movement
-the actual movement performed
>the results are reliable/permanent
>result of practice, not physiological changes
Motor learning is a function of
-The movement to be learned
-the learner
-the conditions under which the learning takes place

It involves motor AND perception-cognition-action processes
Learning
-what you want long term (carry with you forever)
-its happening internal
-you infer learning, based on the changes of performance
-not observable
-relatively stable
Performance
-what you're doing now
-what you actually observe
-something you measure
-varies more as far as stability. It varies from day to day
Ex: not enough sleep effects performance
Adams closed loop theory
-Relies heavily on feedback
-closed loop: producing the movement, feedback is simultaneous, making corrections as you go
-slow, precise movements

Memory trace
Perceptual trace
(You get better at movement by making those two movements stronger)

Weaknesses
Memory trace
Selects and initiates the plan of action
-used to start any movement
Perceptual trace
Compares the movement in progress with a correct memory of the movement
(Important for ongoing correction of movement)
-helps prepare feedback with what you're expecting to feel. Memory of the sensation you expect to feel
Weaknesses of Adam's theory
Predictions were tested using only slow, linear positioning movements. Only closed loop movements were used

-cant account for deafferentation studies
>by the time the theory was published, deafferentation studies were already out

-storage problem (two many action plans
>he suggests that we have infinite memory storage

-novelty problem (does not explain the ability to perform new skills
>memory trace says that it starts the action, but we have the capabilities of producing brand new movement
Schema theory
GMP: general motor program: abstract representation of movement (broad memory with the basic idea of movement)
>basic structure of a movement (GMP)
>used to guide the planning and execution of a broad variety of movements
>schema: the rules for the GMP. The detail to the GMP which solves the novelty problem

Invariant
Variant
GMP
Basic structure of a movement
Schema
The details and rules to the GMP. This solves novelty problem because using the GMP, we have add detail and alter it a bit to produce new movement
Invariant
Order of events, relative timing, relative force (GMP)
Variant
Parameter (absolute time, absolute force, limbs) (schemata)
>recall schema: involved in the production of movement
>response recognition schema: evaluate correctness
Recall schema
Involved in the production of movement
Response recognition schema
Evaluate correctness
Ecological theories of perception and action
No memory needed to produce movement
>as you gain experience with a movement, your body gets the idea that different sensory information is relevant
>emphasize the changing relationships between the perception and the action environment (perception and action become connected with more experience of the movement)

Weaknesses
Weaknesses of ecological
According to Schmidt, ecological theorists have misinterpreted the role of the GMP-it is more flexible than described
>cognitive processing and memory representations appear to be important to the learning of rule based actions
Fitts three stage model
Focus on attention

Cognitive phase
Associative phase
Autonomous phase
Cognitive phase
Understand the task
-you're really in your head, thinking about the movement. Less moving, more thinking
Ex: memorizing the steps of the movement
-requires a lot of attention
Associative phase
Learner begins to understand how the various opponents of a task are interrelated
-start to get off your head a little bit. "Oh i get it"
-requires a lot of attention still
-most people, movements stop here
Autonomous stage
Performance has become authorized and attention can be directed elsewhere
-if you're in the top three of the olympics you will end up here
-most people here require 0 attention to produce movement

Ex: if the performance of two things changes even a little bit you're in the associative phase
A Neo Bernsteinian perspective
Degree of freedom: number of joints involved

Novice
Advanced
Expert
Novice
Learner attempts to simplify the movement problem by "freezing out" a portion of the available degrees of freedom
-the four year old freezing the rest of the body and does a minimal movement to produce the task ex: throwing
-trying to minimize the roles of all the joints in the movement. And only using the very few joints that are important
Advanced
Learner begins to reinstate and/or release of degrees of freedom. Dynamics of the action becomes more apparent to the learner
-you star at to include more joints (DOF) in the movment
Expert
Learner continues to release and recognize DOF. Also learns to exploit additional passive forces that are external to him/her
-movements are a lot more smooth
Gentiles two stage model
Focus on rehab

Fixation
Diversification
Fixation
If the movement is used the same way every time you do it
Ex: bowling, brushing teeth, tying shoes

-repeat movements the same way you would in the house over and over again
Diversification
If the movement is done in a variety of ways
Ex: tennis, there are a variety of movements to do in tennis
Readiness for learning
Neurological changes with learning
-happier brains have more synaptic connections (no empirical evidence)
-cortical representations
-brain chemistry
Learning styles
Various ways in which people acquire new motor skills and knowledge
-visual
-aural
-physical
As an instructor, coach, physical therapist, you should know
People have preferences in ways of receiving information. Always provide a variety of different instructions
Traditional approach
Scientific method

-identify a problem
-define dependent variable
Develop design, procedures, and learning opportunities
-make inferences
Method-oriented appraoch
this method is not recommended
-when a group of researchers buy a very expensive piece of equipment so they use it for everything.
The method dictates what questions they ask
Cooperative approach between basic and applied research
Basic and applied research as independent but cooperative:

-level 1 basic research: develop theory based on knowledge to understand learning in general
-level 2 applied research: develop knowledge to understand learning in practical settings
>bring some people that play the sport into the lab
-level 3 applied research: find immediate solutions
>difficult to do
>you complete the research and professionals immediately make the changes
Criterion of mastery
Arbitrary level of performance that someone determines for you
>ex: bball coach says "in order to be on varsity, you need to have an 80% free throw percentage
Over learning
The amounts of practice you get after criterion of mastery is achieved
Level of automaticity
The more automatic the higher chance of retention.
Performance curves
-Plotting behavior over time
-ceiling and floor effects occur when the task is too easy or too difficult
The shape of the curve depends on
-Nature of task (difficult/easy)
-The learner (novice/expert)
-Conditions under which the task is learned (blocked or random)
-how the performance was measured (how he hit the ball, how far the ball went)
-the sensitivity of the instrument using may affect the curves
Learning plateau
Transition between performance strategies (the transition of high jump over time)
Physiological factors (learning plateau)
Inability to control emotional arousal
Lack of motivation
Personal problems
Fear of failure
The Power Law of Practice
There's less room for improvement as you get better
Limitations of performance curves
-We don't know if the changes are reliable (changes next week/month)
-are the movement result of skill change or because we're getting stronger? (Maturation)
In research, the limitations of performance curves are
Differences between performers masked

Differences between trials within the same person masked
Retention test
-Memory test
-administered after 24 hours
-performed in the absence of feedback

3 types of scores
Absolute retention score
Relative retention score
Saving score
Absolute retention score
Amount of error you get on a test
Relative retention score
How much was lost
Saving score
How long it takes to achieve performance in acquisition (practice skill)
Measuring learning-related changes in perception and cognition using expert-novice comparisons
Experts:
Look at different things, know more about their sport, better at making decisions, remember things better

Weakness: provides little insight about "how" a novice becomes an expert
Research using knowledge-based paradigm
Experts have more knowledge about their sport
Goal setting
-Specific goals > general goals

-short and short+long term goals > long term goals only

-moderate goals > difficult/easy goals

-self established goals > coach or group determined goals
Self esteem
How learners view themselves
-high self esteem accept success

-low self esteem reject success, however, incline to be motivated by success as a result from "luck"
Explanation of movement skill
Focus of attention
-internal focus of attention
-external focus of attention

-relate content to learner's background
Demonstration of movement skill
-demonstrate/modeling and observational learning

*not effective for children 4-7
Expert model characteristics
Provides correct info
Novice model characteristics
Improves learner's confidence
Social learning theory
Bandura-designed for social skills and influence of other people governs learning
Direct perception approach
Individual extract "relative motion" from demonstrations
Discovery learnin
And alternative approach
Learner discovers optimal solution to a given movement problem
Two advantages of discovery leanring
-Forces the learner to problem solve more than other techniques
-shifts the role of practitioner from teacher to facilitator
Command approach
Coach decides what athletes do, when they start/finish
Task approach
Give the learners a job and they figure out how to solve that job
Discovery learning approach
Set up environment for kids, let the kids experience it. Once the kids does the movement correctly, the coach will say "stop, everyone look at this kid.
This is a coaches hands off method
Amount of practice
Number of trials you have to do
*if everything else stays the same, the more practice, the better*
L.O.L.
L.OL
L.O.L. Level of original learning
Difficult criterion of mastery, difficult practice conditions (less feedback and increased contextual interference)
-the difficult practice conditions forces them to do more trials
L.OL level of over-learning
Amount of practice after criterion
-adding more trials
-redundancy
Specificity of practice
Practice conditions should match real world conditions to avoid a shift in required underlying abilities
-if you're aiming to perform well in the game, practice needs to be just like the game
General motor ability
If you had the "gene" you would be good at everything. This statement is probably false
Specificity of sensory feedback
Focus on how you feel instead of what you see
Specificity of context
Home game advantage
-because you're familiar with the gym you're going to compete in, it gives you perceived advantages
Specificity of cognitive processing
Type of thinking athlete needs to do in the game and match it in practice
Variability of practice
Schema theory: variability is the degree of varying the way in which skills are performed during practice

GMP: broad memory for a category of movement

Schema: general rule to make "throwing" work
Constant practice
(Variability of practice)
Doing the exact same movement over and over again
Variable practice (variability of practice)
Gives us a variety and helps us create a relation between variables
How do you get good schemas?
To get a good schema, you need a variety of practice. The more variations you get, the better the schema is
Variability of practice benefits who the most?
Children because adults already have formed schemas
Regulatory conditions
Forces. You change the parameters. Ex: the force you apply, timing of the movement, how big the movement is going to be
No regulatory conditions
Can also be important for the development of the schema. Ex: closing eyes when pitching, the crowd screaming in the background
Contextual interference
How you organize the trials
-the increased difficulty as a result of introducing three or more tasks in the same practice session

-blocked practice has low CI

-random practice has high CI
High CI
Enhance learners ability to remember skill-related information (CI effect)
How much CI is appropriate?
-Task characteristics
-if task is too complicated, maybe block practice is a good alternative

-learner characteristics
-younger, lower leveled, low intellectual capacity, all mean block practice could be better
Which learning style is better
Random practice is better but under certain conditions, block practice could be better
Elaboration view
-Random practice leads to cognitive processing activity that make the memory more distinctive
-all variations of task are stored in working memory which provides learners with opportunity to compare and contrast

-during random practice, you are thinking about the movements that make the memories more distinctive. You hold onto the movements in working memories, so the cognitive processes of comparing and contrasting makes it more elaborate.
-during block practice, you don't need to bring the different movements into working memory since you're only working on one. Therefore, the memory is not as elaborate or detailed
Action-plan reconstruction view
Learners involved in random practice are required to continually regenerate the plan of action each time the variation is presented. "Plan of action strengthen as a result of 'breaking it down and building it up' process"

-during random movements, you don't know what movements you're going to do next, therefore you have to start from scratch every tine.
-during block practice, produce the movement once, keep it in memory and just hit play
Spacing of practice
Distributed practice
Massed practice
Distributed practice
The amount of "rest" time is equal to or, greater than the amount of "practice" time

-these schedules produce immediate improvements in performance vs. massed practice

-shorter sessions, but more frequent
Massed practice
The amount of "practice" is considerately higher than the "rest" time
-big chunk of time, but don't do it as often
Other ways to enhance effectiveness of practice
Guidance techniques
-physical guidance
-manual guidance
-veritable guidance
Guidance: super effective, learner may grow dependent on the guidance
Whole strategies
Low complexity and higher in organization ex: juggling
Part practice
High complexity and low in organization ex: dance routine
Organization
Does one component influence the other component in a significant way?
Part practice methods
Segmentation
Simplification
Fractionization
Segmentation
Break the movements into components and then add the components in sequence

AAA...AAA
ABAB...ABAB
ABC...ABC

Order matters
Simplification
Removing an element from the movement, practice without that element and then adding it later
Ex: removing the basketball, removing the speed
Fractionization
Practicing each arm separately before performing with arms together
Ex: practice A, practice B, practice C
Mental practice
If you can't do physical practice, mental practice is pretty good
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